JAVMA - Article Structure Original Research

The digital edition of JAVMA is the journal of record. Accepted articles may be published in both the print and digital editions or the digital edition alone, as decided by the editorial staff.

Original Research: Reports research findings in any area of veterinary medicine. Priority for acceptance will be given to those manuscripts with the clear potential to change how clinicians diagnose, treat, prevent, or control disease in their patients. Research can be clinical, translational, or cadaveric in nature. It can include studies with negative findings provided the message has clinical significance and the statistical power of the study is demonstrated to be sufficient.

Word count for main text: ≤ 5,000

  • Includes abstract, introduction, materials & methods, results, discussion, and acknowledgments
  • Excludes references

References: ≤ 50

Tables, figures, and appendices: ≤ 6 in total

Formatting (applies to main text, references, and figure legends)

  • 8.5 x 11-inch page size
  • Double spaced (tables are single spaced)
  • 12-point font
  • 1-inch (2.5-cm) margins
  • Left justification
  • Sequential line numbering

Manuscript text file (in order of inclusion; uploaded as a single document)

  • Title page—Includes the following:
    • Manuscript title—Declarative titles are preferred (eg, Maternal antibodies interfere with induction and persistence of vaccine-induced immune responses in young calves).
    • First name, middle initial (if applicable), and last name of each author, along with each author’s professional degree and highest earned academic degree (eg, MS or PhD, MPVM) and, for authors who are diplomates of veterinary specialty organizations recognized by the AVMA’s American Board of Veterinary Specialties or similar specialty organizations recognized by other countries, diplomate status (eg, DACVS or DACVIM). List a bachelor’s or associate’s degree only if it is the author’s only degree. Do not list other specialty board designations, certifications, or honorary degrees.
    • List of professional affiliations of the authors at the time of the study.
    • Name of the corresponding author and their email address.
  • Structured abstract (≤ 250 words)—includes the following subsections:
    • Objective
    • Animals (or Samples)
    • Procedures
    • Results
    • Clinical Relevance
  • Body of manuscript—includes the following sections:
    • Introduction: Provides a rationale for the study and a clear statement of the purpose of the study, and a hypothesis or hypotheses. Focuses on identifying the specific problem and knowledge gap the study is meant to address; often 2 or 3 paragraphs are sufficient.
    • Materials and Methods: Describes the study design in sufficient detail to allow others to reproduce the study. Includes a subsection detailing the statistical methods used to summarize data, evaluate data distributions, and test hypotheses. Identifies products such as software programs, equipment, and drugs by their nonproprietary names or generic descriptions. If a specific product, equipment, or drug was essential to the outcome of the study, identifies the proprietary name and manufacturer or supplier name (without their location) in parentheses immediately after the first use of the nonproprietary name. Avoids providing proprietary names for products commonly used and for which any manufacturer's product would be suitable.
    • Results: Provides the study data in a clear, simply stated manner without discussion or conclusions.
    • Discussion: Focuses on the main findings in the manuscript and acknowledges the strengths and limitations of the study; often 4 to 5 paragraphs is sufficient. Avoids providing an extensive review of all that is known on the subject.
  • Acknowledgments: Identifies individuals who made important contributions to the study but who do not meet the criteria for authorship. Ensure that individuals named in the acknowledgments have given their permission to be listed. Report any funding sources and conflicts of interest.
  • References: Are formatted using the current American Medical Association Manual of Style. Limit them to those that are necessary. Primary references (eg, original studies) rather than secondary references (eg, textbooks and review articles) are preferred whenever possible. Please note that authors bear primary responsibility for the accuracy of all references.
  • Figure legends: Provides sufficient information to allow the figures to be understood without reference to the text. When abbreviations from the main text are used in figure legends, they should be redefined in the legends. When using abbreviations unique to the figures, each should be defined in the legend in alphabetical order (eg, ALP = Alkaline phosphatase. CK = Creatine kinase. TP = Total protein.). When applicable, the stains used for microscopic examination of specimens as well as the scale of the marker bar (eg, H&E stain; bar = 100 µm) are provided. For ECG traces paper speed and scale (eg, Paper speed = 50 mm/s; 1 cm = 1 mV) are included.
  • Tables: Are limited to those containing data important to understanding and interpreting results of the study. Are created with the table tool in Microsoft Word, with a succinct heading provided for each column, and are included as part of the manuscript text file, not uploaded separately. Significant differences between or among values in a row or column are indicated with superscript lowercase letters assigned in alphabetical order (a–z). Tables containing data that could be reported more succinctly in the text and tables of findings for individual animals should be avoided. Large tables that will not fit on a single printed page will generally be posted online as supplementary material and not included in the printed version.
  • Appendix (maximum of 1): Are used when information pertaining to Materials and Methods (and not results) can be more clearly summarized in tabular rather than narrative format.

Figures (limited to those that reduce or clarify the text; to be uploaded separately)

  • Are submitted as separate image files at a minimum resolution of 300 dots per inch at the size they will be printed in the journal (ie, usually the width of 1 printed column or 8 cm).
  • To ensure high-quality reproduction:
    • Use sufficiently large text and symbols to be legible when the figure is reduced to fit on the page for publication. Text and symbols should be at least 1.5 mm tall when the figure is reduced to 8 cm in width (ie, the width of 1 printed column).
    • Limit symbols in graphs to white and black circles, triangles, and squares.
    • Label graph axes in Helvetica or Arial font.
    • Place keys to data symbols in a small box inserted into the unused portion of graphs.
    • Include in photomicrographs and electron micrographs (and all insets) an internal scale marker, with the length of the scale marker defined in the figure legend.
    • For figures that include multiple panels, label each panel with a capital letter in the same corner of each panel. If a figure contains 2 or more rows of panels, apply the letter labels sequentially from left to right in the first row, then from left to right in the second row, and so on.

Supplementary materials

  • Are used for additional materials that are not essential to the understanding of the article but provide an important expansion of the article contents. Examples include appendices (eg, diet or feedstuff composition or nucleotide sequences), extended descriptions of experimental methods or statistical analyses, additional supporting data or results (eg, tables and figures), copies of survey instruments or questionnaires, and videos of procedures. Such materials will not appear in the article but will be posted on the journal's website. Publication of supplementary materials is at the discretion of the scientific editors.
  • Are prepared in compliance with the general guidelines for manuscript style.
  • Are subject to copyright.
  • Clarity and accuracy of content and consistency with the full article is the responsibility of the authors; supplementary materials will be posted as is, without copy editing.

Manuscript submission
Are submitted electronically at https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/avma.

When prompted during manuscript submission, supply keywords from the journal website that describe the topic of the manuscript to facilitate indexing and aid in the selection of reviewers.

Return to JAVMA instructions for authors