Article Structure White Paper

The digital edition of JAVMA is the journal of record. Accepted articles may be published in both the print and digital editions or the digital edition alone, as decided by the editorial staff.

White Paper (by invitation only): A short document to state an organization's policy, position, or philosophy about a subject or to pose a problem or question and then answer that question with information or a proposed solution. A white paper can serve to increase understanding of a particular issue, provide information to aid in decision making, or present a professional perspective. Often, a White Paper explains the results or conclusions resulting from some organized committee, research collaboration, or design and development effort.

Word count for main text: ≤ 3,500

  • Includes: introduction, problem statement, proposed solutions, future direction, recommendations, and acknowledgments
  • Excludes: abstract, references

Tables, figures, and appendices: not typically included, but a total of 2 allowed

Formatting (applies to main text, references, and figure legends)

  • 8.5 x 11-inch page size
  • Double spaced (tables are single spaced)
  • 12-point font
  • 1-inch (2.5-cm) margins
  • Left justification
  • Sequential line numbering

Manuscript text file (in order of inclusion; uploaded as a single document)

  • Title page—Includes the following:
    • Manuscript title—Declarative titles are preferred (eg, Maternal antibodies interfere with induction and persistence of vaccine-induced immune responses in young calves).
    • First name, middle initial (if applicable), and last name of each author, along with each author’s professional degree and highest earned academic degree (eg, MS or PhD, MPVM) and, for authors who are diplomates of veterinary specialty organizations recognized by the AVMA’s American Board of Veterinary Specialties or similar specialty organizations recognized by other countries, diplomate status (eg, DACVS or DACVIM). List a bachelor’s or associate’s degree only if it is the author’s only degree. Do not list other specialty board designations, certifications, or honorary degrees.
    • List of professional affiliations of the authors at the time the paper was written.
    • Name of the corresponding author and their email address.
  • Unstructured abstract (≤ 250 words)
  • Body of manuscript—Includes the following sections:
    • Introduction: Provides a rationale for the paper. Focus on identifying the specific problem and knowledge gap the paper is meant to address; often 2 or 3 paragraphs are sufficient.
    • Problem statement: Focuses on identifying the specific problem and knowledge gap the paper is meant to address.
    • Proposed solutions: Can be in bullet format. Could be short and or long-term solutions. Ideally also addresses implementation and metrics of proposed solution.
    • Future direction: Focuses on the long-term implications of the stated problem being resolved or not.
    • Recommendations: Summarizes actionable steps to address the state problem.
  • Acknowledgments: Identifies individuals who made important contributions to the paper but who do not meet the criteria for authorship. Ensure that individuals named in the acknowledgments have given their permission to be listed. Report any funding sources and conflicts of interest.
  • References: Are formatted using the current American Medical Association Manual of Style. Limit them to those that are necessary. Primary references (eg, original studies) rather than secondary references (eg, textbooks and review articles) are preferred whenever possible. Please note that authors bear primary responsibility for the accuracy of all references.
  • Figure legends: Provide sufficient information to allow the figures to be understood without reference to the text. When abbreviations from the main text are used in figure legends, they should be redefined in the legends. When using abbreviations unique to the figures, each should be defined in the legend in alphabetical order (eg, ALP = Alkaline phosphatase. CK = Creatine kinase. TP = Total protein.).
  • Tables: Are limited to those that aid reader comprehension. Are created with the table tool in Microsoft Word, with a succinct heading provided for each column, and are included as part of the manuscript text file, not uploaded separately.

Figures (limited to those that reduce or clarify the text; to be uploaded separately)

  • Are submitted as separate image files at a minimum resolution of 300 dots per inch at the size they will be printed in the journal (ie, usually the width of 1 printed column or 8 cm).
  • Use sufficiently large text and symbols to be legible when the figure is reduced for publication. Text and symbols should be at least 1.5 mm tall when the figure is reduced to 8 cm in width.

Manuscript submission
Are submitted electronically at

When prompted during manuscript submission, supply keywords from the journal website that describe the topic of the manuscript to facilitate indexing and aid in the selection of reviewers.

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