Article Structure Viewpoint

The digital edition of JAVMA is the journal of record. Accepted articles may be published in both the print and digital editions or the digital edition alone, as decided by the editorial staff.

Viewpoint article: Describes an important issue in clinical medicine, public health, or biomedical research, generally espousing or promoting a particular viewpoint. Should be scholarly, thorough, and well referenced. Figures and tables may be included as necessary. Viewpoint articles are typically sent for external peer review, with reviewers specifically asked to comment on the overall importance of the topic to the veterinary profession, whether statements of fact in the manuscript are adequately referenced, whether any pertinent references have been omitted, and whether any aspects of the issue have been overemphasized or underemphasized. Authors may express opinions in Viewpoint articles, and manuscripts do not necessarily have to be balanced or dispassionate. However, authors should clearly indicate when they are stating an opinion versus established fact and should provide a cogent, logical defense of their viewpoint.

Word count for main text: ≤ 5,000

  • Includes abstract and any acknowledgments
  • Excludes references

Tables and figures: ≤ 2 in total

References: ≤ 50 

Formatting (applies to main text, references, and figure legends)

  • 8.5 x 11-inch page size
  • Double spaced (tables are single spaced)
  • 12-point font
  • 1-inch (2.5-cm) margins
  • Left justification
  • Sequential line numbering

Manuscript text file (in order of inclusion; uploaded as a single document)

  • Title page—Includes the following:
    • Manuscript title—Question titles are preferred (eg, Should the veterinary profession invest in developing methods to assess quality of life in healthy dogs and cats?).
    • First name, middle initial (if applicable), and last name of each author, along with each author’s professional degree and highest earned academic degree (eg, MS or PhD, MPVM) and, for authors who are diplomates of veterinary specialty organizations recognized by the AVMA’s American Board of Veterinary Specialties or similar specialty organizations recognized by other countries, diplomate status (eg, DACVS or DACVIM). List a bachelor’s or associate’s degree only if it is the author’s only degree. Do not list other specialty board designations, certifications, or honorary degrees.
    • List of professional affiliations of the authors at the time of the paper was written.
    • Name of the corresponding author and their email address.
  • Abstract (≤ 250 words): Provides the purpose of the article, including the current knowledge gap and the key takeaways.
  • Body of manuscript: No specific structure
  • Acknowledgments: Identifies individuals who made important contributions to the paper but who do not meet the criteria for authorship. Ensure that individuals named in the acknowledgments have given their permission to be listed. Report any funding sources and conflicts of interest.
  • References: Are formatted using the current American Medical Association Manual of Style. Include pivotal papers on the subject. Primary references (eg, original studies) are preferred to secondary references (eg, textbooks and review articles). Please note that authors bear primary responsibility for the accuracy of all references.
  • Figure legends: Provide sufficient information to allow the figures to be understood without reference to the text. When abbreviations from the main text are used in figure legends, they should be redefined in the legends. When using abbreviations unique to the figures, each should be defined in the legend in alphabetical order (eg, ALP = Alkaline phosphatase. CK = Creatine kinase. TP = Total protein.).
  • Tables: Are limited to those that aid reader comprehension. Are created with the table tool in Microsoft Word, with a succinct heading provided for each column, and are included as part of the manuscript text file, not uploaded separately.

Figures (to be uploaded separately)

  • Used to summarize information or illustrate a concept.
  • Are submitted as separate image files at a minimum resolution of 300 dots per inch at the size they will be printed in the journal (ie, usually the width of 1 printed column or 8 cm).
  • Use sufficiently large text and symbols to be legible when the figure is reduced for publication. Text and symbols should be at least 1.5 mm tall when the figure is reduced to 8 cm in width.

Manuscript submission
Are submitted electronically at

When prompted during manuscript submission, supply keywords from the journal website that describe the topic of the manuscript to facilitate indexing and aid in the selection of reviewers.

Return to JAVMA instructions for authors