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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the frequency of abnormal findings on digital rectal examination (DRE) performed during physical examinations at a tertiary referral veterinary hospital, to establish what abnormal findings are most common and whether they impact diagnostic and treatment plans, and to assess whether patient signalment or admitting service influences the frequency of abnormalities.

ANIMALS

Client-owned dogs (n = 440).

METHODS

Veterinarians performed DREs on dogs as part of a physical examination. Patient signalment and DRE findings were recorded in a standardized survey. Findings were deemed normal or abnormal and described. Whether the findings changed the diagnostic or treatment plan was also recorded.

RESULTS

Abnormalities were detected on DRE in 160 of 440 (36%) dogs. Changes to the diagnostic plan occurred in 41 of 160 (26%) cases when an abnormality was found. Changes to the treatment plan occurred in 20 of 160 (12.5%) cases when an abnormality was found. Age (P = .2), sex (P = .9), and breed (P = 1) did not significantly influence the frequency of abnormal findings. Abnormal findings were significantly more common in dogs presenting to the emergency service than elective services (P = .005).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Among dogs presenting to a tertiary veterinary hospital, abnormalities found on DRE are common and change the diagnostic plan in 1 out of 4 dogs and treatment plan in 1 out of 8 dogs. This study supports the continued practice of DREs in dogs, especially in emergency settings, regardless of signalment.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine the potential of galangin in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR), as chronic AR, induced by immunoglobulin-E (IgE), leads to histamine release and nasal inflammation, and although galangin exhibits antiasthmatic and anti-inflammatory potential, its effect on AR is yet to be investigated.

ANIMALS

126 BALB/c mice.

METHODS

AR induction involved sensitizing female mice with OVA (5%, 500 µL, IP) for 14 days. Post OVA challenge, the mice were divided into 7 groups (n = 18/group), including normal, AR control, montelukast (10 mg/kg), galangin (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg), and per se (galangin [20 mg/kg] treatment. Various outcomes were evaluated, including nasal symptoms, histopathology, biochemistry, and nasal lavage fluid inflammatory cytokines and signaling pathways in nasal mucosal to assess galangin potential in AR.

RESULTS

In AR mice, galangin (10 and 20 mg/kg) significantly (P < .05) reduced sneezing, rubbing, and nasal discharge post-OVA challenge. Galangin treatment attenuated (P < .05) elevated serum histamine, β-hexosaminidase, IgE, and Immunoglobulin G1 levels in AR control mice. Additionally, galangin significantly (P < .05) decreased OVA-induced alterations in IL-4, IL-6, IL-13, and interferon-γ levels in nasal lavage fluid compared to AR control mice. Western blot analysis demonstrated that galangin lowered OVA-induced AR by significantly (P < .05) downregulating the phosphorylated protein kinase B and mammalian target of rapamycin-protein expressions while markedly (P < .05) upregulating the glycogen synthase kinase-3β protein expressions in nasal mucosal. Galangin also significantly ameliorated (P < .05) the OVA-induced histological aberrations in the nasal mucosa, reflected by reduced eosinophil infiltration, hyperplasia, and edema.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Galangin exhibits antihistaminic and anti-inflammatory effects in AR mice by regulating IgE-mediated histamine and inflammatory release and modulating the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Ak strain transforming/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the association of mesenteric volvulus (MV) in New York Police Department police working dogs (PWDs) with and without a prior prophylactic laparoscopic gastropexy (PLG).

ANIMALS

370 PWDs (82 with and 288 without PLG).

METHODS

Medical records and surgery and radiology reports were reviewed from 2012 to 2022. Signalment, pertinent history (medical and surgical), gastropexy status, temperament, and training type were recorded. Statistical analysis was used to identify the relationship between prophylactic gastropexy and MV within the patient population.

RESULTS

3 cases of mesenteric volvulus were noted in this patient population. Two (2.4%) of the 82 PWDs that had undergone prophylactic laparoscopic gastropexy developed MV, whereas 1 (0.3%) of the 288 PWDs that had not undergone a gastropexy procedure developed MV. Police working dogs with PLG were estimated to be at 7.2 times greater odds of MV (point estimate OR, 7.18; 95% CI, 0.642 to 80.143); however, the low incidence of MV in this population limited statistical power, and thus this effect did not achieve statistical significance. Evaluation of MV incidence in additional populations of working dogs will allow greater precision in the point estimate.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Prophylactic gastropexy may be associated with an increased risk for MV. However, patients without prophylactic gastropexy are at risk for gastric dilatation and volvulus, which is more common than MV. Therefore, the authors continue to recommend prophylactic gastropexy to decrease the risk for gastric dilatation and volvulus.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to follow long-term changes in the concentration of thyroid hormones in dogs with subclinical thyroiditis.

SAMPLES

Samples were obtained from 125 dogs with subclinical thyroiditis. The study population included 70 female and 55 male dogs. The mean testing interval was 3.9 years from initial testing (SD, 2.3 years; range, 1 to 9 years).

METHODS

Dogs with subclinical thyroiditis were identified retrospectively using results from the Orthopedic Foundation for Animals Canine Thyroid Profile performed by the Endocrinology Section of the Michigan State University Veterinary Diagnostic Lab. Owners were invited to submit follow-up serum samples with their veterinarian along with a medical history form, including subsequent treatments.

RESULTS

At the time of retesting, 30% of the dogs had progressed to hypothyroidism and/or were treated with thyroxine. Fifty percent maintained positive or equivocal thyroglobulin autoantibody (TgAA) results while remaining euthyroid. Fourteen percent of the dogs became TgAA negative and remained euthyroid. In 6% of the cases tested, proper medical histories were not available, and a final classification could not be determined.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

These results indicate that most dogs with elevated thyroglobulin autoantibodies either exhibit persistent autoimmune thyroiditis with continued risk of hypothyroidism or progress to hypothyroidism when monitored for more than 1 year. Thyroid function in dogs with subclinical thyroiditis should be monitored every 12 months or if there is change in the clinical presentation.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the effectiveness of preoperative bupivacaine inferotemporal retrobulbar blocks to postoperative liposome-encapsulated bupivacaine (Nocita) line blocks for analgesia following enucleation.

ANIMALS

39 client-owned dogs (40 eyes) presenting to the Ophthalmology Service for enucleation.

METHODS

Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either a preoperative inferotemporal retrobulbar block with 0.5% bupivacaine or a peri-incisional line block with liposome-encapsulated bupivacaine (Nocita) at closure. Patients underwent unilateral enucleation and were hospitalized for 24 hours after surgery. Pain scores were performed by a masked observer with the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale and the University of Wisconsin Ocular Pain Scale at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours following surgery. Intraoperative use of blood pressure and anesthetic support mediations as well as need for rescue pain control were recorded and compared between groups.

RESULTS

There was no significant difference in rescue rates between treatment groups. When comparing the use of medical intraoperative heart rate, blood pressure, or anesthetic plane support, there were no significant differences in use between groups.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Use of preoperative bupivacaine retrobulbar blocks and postoperative Nocita line blocks were equally effective at postoperative pain control with similarly low complication rates.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Authors and

Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious health issue shared across all One Health domains. Wildlife species represent a key intersection of the animal and environmental domains. They are a relevant but understudied reservoir and route of spread for AMR throughout the environment. Most wildlife AMR research thus far has focused on avian species, terrestrial mammals, and a selection of aquatic and marine species. Pathogens often identified in terrestrial wildlife include enteric zoonotic organisms such as Eschericia coli and Salmonella spp, in addition to nonenterics such as Staphylococci. Resistances have been commonly identified to antimicrobials important in veterinary and human medicine, including β-lactams, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and macrolides. Our emerging understanding of the dynamics of AMR distribution across life on Earth provides further opportunities for us to assess the risk it poses to veterinary and human health. Future work will require prioritizing which wildlife most exacerbates and indicates AMR in domestic animals. However, decreasing prices and increasing ease for metagenomic sequencing allows for synergies with expanding wildlife viral disease surveillance. Improved understanding of how wildlife impacts veterinary and human healthcare may increase opportunities for related research funding and global equity in such research. The companion Currents in One Health article by Vezeau and Kahn, JAVMA, June 2024, addresses in further detail the routes of spread of AMR across different animal populations and actions that can be taken to mitigate AMR with special consideration for wildlife sources.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the relationship in equine practice between the time delay for charge entry (time between when work was performed and when the invoice charges were entered) and the total amount of the invoice.

SAMPLE

A total of 67,597 invoices from 3 hospitals were included for analysis.

METHODS

Analysis of 67,597 invoices from 49 doctors working out of 3 hospitals was performed. Variables collected included invoice total, date of work, date of invoice entry, month of work, invoice category (A = ambulatory daytime, E = after-hours, I = hospital), and veterinarian. Time delay to invoice entry was the difference between the day of work and the day of charge entry. A generalized additive model was used to describe the relationship between the time delay for invoice entry and the invoice type, month of work, and invoice category. The best model was selected using the Akaike information criterion.

RESULTS

In the selected model, total invoice amount was associated with time delay for charge entry and invoice category. Invoices entered on the same day of work were 299 ± $345, as compared to those entered the next day (255 ± $271) and those entered > 1 day after the work was performed (193 ± $196; P < .0001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

If the observed relationship between time delay (time between work performed and invoice entry) and total invoice amount is causal, equine practitioners may have significant opportunity to improve revenues by simply entering charges on the same day the work is performed.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association