Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 22,874 items for

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

We identified the associated factors and compared the survival times of feline hyperthyroidism (FHT) between thyroidectomy and methimazole alone.

METHODS

The medical records of 41 cats diagnosed with new-onset hyperthyroidism were retrospectively reviewed. The cats were categorized into the thyroidectomy (n = 15) and methimazole (26) treatment groups. Survival analyses using the Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, and Cox proportional hazards models were conducted to compare the time to the selected outcomes.

RESULTS

Univariate analysis revealed that survival time was significantly longer with thyroidectomy than with methimazole (P < .001). Multivariate analyses revealed thyroidectomy as an independent prognostic factor for good outcomes (hazard ratio, 0.209; 95% CI, 0.073 to 0.601; P = .004). The recurrence rate was significantly lower in cats that underwent thyroidectomy than in those that received methimazole alone (P = .011).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Compared with methimazole alone, thyroidectomy was associated with a longer survival time in FHT and can be considered an irreversible treatment modality in settings where radioisotopes are not available.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the complications and outcomes associated with thoracoscopic cranial mediastinal mass resection in dogs.

ANIMALS

49 client-owned dogs that underwent thoracoscopic cranial mediastinal mass removal.

METHODS

This was a retrospective cohort study (January 1, 2014, to July 31, 2023), and the medical records of 49 client-owned dogs that underwent thoracoscopic cranial mediastinal mass removal were reviewed. The signalment, history, clinicopathologic features, perioperative complications, and long-term outcome were recorded.

RESULTS

Preoperative myasthenia gravis (MG) and megaesophagus (ME) were identified in 17 of 49 (35%) dogs and 11 of 49 (22%) dogs, respectively. The median maximal tumor diameter on CT images was 4.7 cm (range, 2.7 to 8.5 cm). Nonemergent conversion to an open procedure was necessary in 4 of 49 (8%) dogs, and dogs with conversion to an open procedure had a significantly larger median maximal CT tumor diameter than dogs without conversion (P = .03). The most common tumor type was thymoma (37/49 [76%]). The overall median survival time for dogs with thymoma was 1,102 days (95% CI, 482 to upper bound not reached). The median survival time for dogs with thymoma and concurrent presurgical MG was 182 days (95% CI, 14 to upper bound not reached). Presurgical diagnosis of MG (P = .44) or ME (P = .69) was not associated with survival time.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Thoracoscopic removal of cranial mediastinal masses was associated with low conversion and complication rates. Long-term survival is possible, and thoracoscopic removal should be considered for select cases.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To develop an accessible ruminant immune challenge model for rapid in vivo assessments of feed additives.

ANIMALS

60 hair-breed ram lambs.

METHODS

Sheep were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: treatment 1, not immunosuppressed, control fed (n = 12); treatment 2, immunosuppressed, supplemented with a yeast and botanical extract (n = 18); treatment 3, immunosuppressed, supplemented with a blend of natural aluminosilicates and yeast components (n = 18); and treatment 4, immunosuppressed, control fed (n = 12). Twice-daily injections of dexamethasone (Dex; 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight, SC) were used to induce immunosuppression throughout the study (from September 25, 2020, to November 2, 2020). All sheep were immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) on days 0 and 14 and injected with heat-aggregated KLH, ID, to induce a skin induration on day 15. Measurements included body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), CBC, and skin induration diameter.

RESULTS

Dex treatment resulted in reduced BW and ADG that was not mitigated by either feed additive. Dex reduced lymphocyte percentage, RBC count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and skin induration diameter and increased concentrations of granulocytes and granulocyte percentage. Effects on hematocrit, hemoglobin, RBC, and skin induration diameter were mitigated with the addition of feed additives.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The described model is a tool to evaluate the ability of feed additives to mitigate the immunosuppressive effects of Dex.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe changes in circulating hyaluronic acid (HA) concentration, a biomarker of endothelial glycocalyx degradation, after administration of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) in critically ill dogs.

ANIMALS

12 client-owned dogs receiving an FFP transfusion due to underlying disease.

METHODS

Plasma samples were collected for HA concentration measurement pre-FFP transfusion (T0) and 10 minutes (T10) and 90 minutes (T90) following completion of FFP transfusion of a minimum volume of 7 mL/kg. Hyaluronic acid was also measured in the transfused FFP units following in-house validation of a commercial HA assay on citrate phosphate dextrose–anticoagulated plasma. Potential associations of the difference between pre-FFP and post-FFP HA plasma concentrations with the volume of FFP transfused, the cumulative volume of IV fluids administered during the study period, and the HA concentration in the transfused unit were explored.

RESULTS

Concentrations of HA were not significantly different between pre- and post-FFP transfusion measurements. The volume of FFP transfused, the cumulative volume of other IV fluids administered during the study time, and the concentration of HA in the FFP units had no significant effect on the change in HA concentration following FFP transfusion in this study.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This pilot study did not demonstrate an association between FFP administration and changes in plasma HA concentration. The results of this study may serve to help design future research. A commercial assay was validated to measure HA in citrate phosphate dextrose–anticoagulated plasma.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate thermoregulation, thermal antinociception, food/kaolin intake, fecal output, and behavior following long-acting buprenorphine preparations in rats.

ANIMALS

8 adult male rats (Rattus norvegicus) were administered long-acting SC buprenorphine (SB; 0.65 mg/kg), transdermal buprenorphine (TB; 10 mg/kg), and controls in a randomized, cross-over design.

METHODS

Body temperature, self-injury, sedation, food/kaolin intake, fecal output, and thermal withdrawal latencies were measured 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours posttreatment. Data analysis was performed with mixed linear models.

RESULTS

Self-injury was present between 1 and 12 hours and 4 and 12 hours following TB and SB, respectively; sedation was associated with TB at 12 to 24 hours. Withdrawal latencies were longer in both TB and SB groups than in the control group. Food intake decreased with time in all groups but was significantly lower 24 to 48 hours after TB and 24 to 72 hours after SB versus controls. Kaolin intake decreased from baseline 48 to 72 hours in the control group. Fecal output decreased from baseline 24 to 72 hours in all groups but was significantly lower than controls 24 hours following TB and 24 to 48 hours in SB. Body temperature increased from baseline at 1 hour, 1 to 12 hours, and 1 to 24 hours in the control, TB, and SB groups, respectively, and was significantly higher than the control group 1 to 72 hours following TB and 4 to 24 hours after SB. Transdermal buprenorphine and SB in normal rats produced antinociception, self-injurious behavior, hyperthermia, and decreased food/fecal output.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although these buprenorphine preparations may produce antinociception, untoward effects such as hyperthermia, self-injurious behavior, and reduced food intake/fecal output may be seen.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in American Journal of Veterinary Research