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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate an association between pancreatitis and chronic kidney disease (CKD) in cats.

ANIMALS

154 client-owned cats: 77 cats with pancreatitis and 77 control cats with no evidence of pancreatitis.

METHODS

Retrospective record review from October 1, 2017, to October 1, 2022, including cats with gastrointestinal clinical signs, pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (PLI) ≥ 8.8 μg/L or PLI 4.5 to 8.7 μg/L with sonographic evidence of pancreatitis. Control cats had a PLI ≤ 4.4 μg/L with no sonographic evidence of pancreatitis.

RESULTS

Cats with pancreatitis had significantly higher International Renal Interest Society CKD stages than controls (P < .001; OR, 13 [95% CI, 6.3 to 31]), and mean creatinine was on average 0.79 mg/dL (95% CI, 0.56 to 1.0) higher than controls (P < .001; age covariate ANCOVA, P = .003). Odds of CKD in cats with pancreatitis compared to controls increased significantly with age (P = .002). Cats aged 10 to < 15 years and 15 to 20 years with pancreatitis had significantly higher prevalence of CKD stage 2 to 4 compared to controls (P < .001; OR, 10.9 [95% CI, 3.4 to 44]; and P = .001; OR, 66 [95% CI, 4.6 to > 1,000], respectively). Cats with pancreatitis had significantly more sonographic renal infarcts (P = .004; OR, 6.9 [95% CI, 1.8 to 46]) and concurrent diabetes mellitus (P = .002; OR, 6 [95% CI, 1.9 to 27]). Cats with pancreatitis were fed more exclusively dry-food diets compared to controls (P = .014).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Pancreatitis is associated with CKD in cats. Investigating and treating these diseases concurrently early in the disease process may reduce morbidity and mortality due to progressive disease and expensive hospitalizations. Renal infarcts may be associated with pancreatitis in cats without overt cardiac disease.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To validate the performance of a novel, integrated test for canine cancer screening that combines cell-free DNA quantification with next-generation sequencing (NGS) analysis.

SAMPLE

Retrospective data from a total of 1,947 cancer-diagnosed and presumably cancer-free dogs were used to validate test performance for the detection of 7 predefined cancer types (lymphoma, hemangiosarcoma, osteosarcoma, leukemia, histiocytic sarcoma, primary lung tumors, and urothelial carcinoma), using independent training and testing sets.

METHODS

Cell-free DNA quantification data from all samples were analyzed using a proprietary machine learning algorithm to determine a Cancer Probability Index (High, Moderate, or Low). High and Low Probability of Cancer were final result classifications. Moderate cases were additionally analyzed by NGS to arrive at a final classification of High Probability of Cancer (Cancer Signal Detected) or Low Probability of Cancer (Cancer Signal Not Detected).

RESULTS

Of the 595 dogs in the testing set, 89% (n = 530) received a High or Low Probability result based on the machine learning algorithm; 11% (65) were Moderate Probability, and NGS results were used to assign a final classification. Overall, 87 of 122 dogs with the 7 predefined cancer types were classified as High Probability and 467 of 473 presumably cancer-free dogs were classified as Low Probability, corresponding to a sensitivity of 71.3% for the predefined cancer types at a specificity of 98.7%.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This integrated test offers a novel option to screen for cancer types that may be difficult to detect by physical examination at a dog’s wellness visit.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

A novel technique and outcomes for correction of ununited anconeal process (UAP) via CT-guided cannulated lag screw placement in 7 canine patients is described.

ANIMALS

Cases of canine patients (7 patients/8 elbows) diagnosed with UAP that subsequently underwent CT-guided cannulated lag screw placement were retrospectively evaluated.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION

Pre- and postoperative exam findings (lameness and pain on range of motion) are presented. Preoperative radiographs and postoperative radiographs at 2 time points (approximately 8 weeks postoperatively and at the time of the most recent imaging; mean, 221 days; range, 85 to 828 days) were scored for degree of arthrosis and postoperative radiographs were evaluated for radiographic union. Complications were reported and stratified by severity and time postoperatively.

RESULTS

Minor perioperative (0 to 3 months postoperatively) complications included seroma formation (n = 1) and major perioperative complications involved development of surgical site infections (2), with 2 patients requiring implant removal in the perioperative period (44 and 82 days postoperatively). All patients achieved radiographic union, defined as partial or complete bridging of the anconeal process to the ulna within the study period (mean radiographic follow-up time 221 days postoperatively; range, 85 to 828 days; 5/8 joints partial bridging, 3/8 joints complete bridging) and pre- versus postoperative elbow arthrosis scores remained static in all patients.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The case outcomes described support the use of CT-guided cannulated lag screw placement as a feasible option for treatment of UAP.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize the epidemiologic features of rabbits with odontogenic abscesses.

ANIMALS

72 client-owned rabbits.

METHODS

The medical record database of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched to identify rabbits with odontogenic abscesses characterized by a palpable facial mass and confirmed via CT scan. Data reviewed included age, breed, presenting complaint, abscess location, bacterial culture results, treatment, and outcome.

RESULTS

Lop-eared rabbits were the most common breeds affected (20/72 [28%]), and mini lop rabbits were significantly overrepresented. The mandibular quadrants were more frequently affected (65/92 [71%]), and osteomyelitis was a common comorbidity on CT (53/72 [74%]). The most common aerobic and anaerobic isolates were Streptococcus spp (17/40 [43%]) and Fusobacterium spp (10/22 [45%]), respectively. Systemic antibiotic therapy alone was performed in 35 of 62 (56%) treated cases, with documented resolution in 25%. Abscess packing with antibiotic-soaked gauze in conjunction with systemic antibiotic therapy was performed in 20 of 62 (32%) treated cases. Resolution of the odontogenic abscesses with this treatment protocol was documented in 17 of 20 (85%) cases. The number of packing procedures used to obtain resolution of infection was 4 (IQR, 3 to 5).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A combination of the abscess-packing technique, which avoids extensive surgery and extraction of the involved elodont teeth, with systemic antibiotic therapy can be an effective treatment option for rabbits with palpable odontogenic abscesses and can result in a high cure rate comparable to more invasive surgical treatments. Antibiotic treatment alone is not recommended, as it has a low chance of abscess resolution.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

General practice veterinarians (GPs) are often faced with the question of which services they should provide themselves and which are more appropriately the province of board-certified specialists. The growing availability of specialty care, the expectations of many pet owners for advanced care resembling that which they receive, the expanding availability of new and more technologically sophisticated interventions, and many less easily defined shifts in the economic and cultural context of veterinary medicine all add to the pressure to limit services in general practice and refer more patients to specialists. However, the criteria for making decisions about referral are often ill-defined and controversial. Furthermore, most GPs are trained by specialists in secondary or tertiary care institutions, providing them with a perspective that may not reflect the realities of the general practice environment.While each referral decision for a specific patient must be made in the unique context of that case, reflection and discussion concerning relevant general principles can help GPs build a rational foundation for making such decisions. The principles and methods of evidence-based medicine and the expanding concept of a spectrum of care can usefully inform decision-making about referral. It is also critical that all stakeholders contribute to discussion of these questions and to the training of veterinarians so that the next generation will be prepared to shape and embody the role of GP in a manner that best meets the needs of patients, pet owners, and veterinarians themselves.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) is an international and quintessential One Health problem. This paper synthesizes recent knowledge in One Health, binational RMSF concerns, and veterinary and human medical perspectives to this fatal, reemerging problem.

RMSF, a life-threatening tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, emerged during the first decade of the 21st century in impoverished communities in the southwestern US and northern Mexico. Lack of an index of suspicion, delay in diagnosis, and delayed initiation of antibiotic treatment contribute to fatality. Campaigns targeting dog neutering, restraint to residents’ properties, and on-dog and on-premises treatment with acaricides temporarily reduce prevalence but are often untenable economically. Contemporary Mexican RMSF is hyperendemic in small communities and cities, whereas epidemics occur in the western US primarily in small tribal communities. In in both locations, the epidemics are fueled by free-roaming dogs and massive brown dog tick populations. In the US, RMSF has a case fatality rate of 5% to 7%; among thousands of annual cases in Mexico, case fatality often exceeds 30%. , Numerous case patients in US border states have recent travel histories to northern Mexico.

Veterinarians and physicians should alert the public to RMSF risk, methods of prevention, and the importance of urgent treatment with doxycycline if symptomatic. One Health professionals contribute ideas to manage ticks and rickettsial disease and provide broad education for the public and medical professionals. Novel management approaches include vaccine development and deployment, acaricide resistance monitoring, and modeling to guide targeted dog population management and other interventions.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association