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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the efficacy of 4 cleaning protocols applied to endotracheal tubes (ETTs) collected from anesthetized dogs.

SAMPLE

100 ETTs (25 per protocol).

PROCEDURES

A 10-question survey designed to determine ETT reuse and cleaning practices was distributed via email to a sample of veterinary anesthesiologists. Informed by survey results, 4 ETT cleaning protocols were selected for use in a prospective clinical study. Dogs were intubated with sterile polyvinyl chloride ETTs. At extubation, each ETT was cultured for bacterial growth, randomly assigned to 1 of 4 protocols [water scrub (P1), detergent scrub (P2), detergent scrub and chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) soak (P3), or detergent scrub and bleach soak (P4)], and cultured again after drying. Bacterial genera were identified using mass spectrometry and 16s rRNA sequencing. Proportions of ETTs exhibiting no post-cleaning growth were compared between protocols using the Fisher exact test with Bonferroni correction.

RESULTS

Half of survey respondents that reused ETTs did not sterilize them before reuse, cleaning methods varied widely, and no reported methods were evidence-based. After use, the number of ETTs exhibiting no post-cleaning bacterial growth were 15/25 (60%), 14/25 (56%), 20/25 (80%), and 17/25 (68%) for protocols P1, P2, P3, and P4, respectively. Pairwise comparisons did not reveal any statistically significant differences between protocols.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In small animal patients, some veterinary anesthesiologists reuse ETTs without sterilization and cleaning protocols vary widely. No differences between the studied protocols were identified. Further research is necessary to identify a safe, efficacious ETT cleaning protocol for use in small animal practice.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To retrospectively investigate the safety of canine therapeutic IA injections, describing and correlating adverse events with the number of injections per visit, joint injected, signalment, body condition score, type, and volume of injectate.

SAMPLE

There were 505 joint injections across 283 visits for 178 client-owned dogs, including the shoulder, elbow, carpus, hip, stifle, tarsus, and metacarpophalangeal.

PROCEDURES

A search was performed of the Cornell University Hospital for Animals medical records for relevant data, identifying dogs treated with therapeutic joint injections and rechecked between 2010 and 2022.

RESULTS

Minor complications were noted in 70 of 283 visits and included transient soreness (18.4%, lasting a median of 2 days; range, 1 to 20 days) and gastroenteritis (6.8%). One case of septic arthritis (1/505 joints), which possessed risks of a hematogenous source, was the only potential major complication. Soreness was not correlated with the number of joints injected per visit. Larger volumes of injectate normalized to body size were more likely to be associated with transient soreness in the stifle and tarsus. Across injectates, only stem cells had significantly increased odds of soreness. Gastroenteritis was not associated with the type of injectate.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Therapeutic joint injections in dogs are safe, with an extremely low risk of major adverse effects. Transient soreness is a commonly expected minor adverse event. The use of stem cells or larger injectate volumes (confined to the stifle and smaller distal joints) may be more likely to invoke discomfort.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether anesthesia type (sedation or general anesthesia) affects kid survival to discharge in caprine cesarean sections (C-sections).

ANIMALS

Retrospective cohort of 99 caprine C-sections (2011–2021).

PROCEDURES

All surgeries were performed via left flank laparotomy in right lateral recumbency. The number of kids alive at presentation, surgery, and discharge was recorded. Kids that were dead on presentation or euthanized intraoperatively were excluded. Goats were classified as “healthy” (American Society of Anesthesiologists status ≤ 2) or “sick” (≥ 3).

RESULTS

Kid survival was significantly higher for C-sections performed under sedation (47/52 [90%]) than for C-sections performed under general anesthesia (16/24 [66%]; P = .004). Relative risk was 1.4 and odds ratio was 4.7.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Performing C-sections in sedated goats may improve kid survival rates over those under general anesthesia.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The term asymptomatic and its antonyms symptomatic and symptom apply exclusively to humans. However, veterinarians commonly use these terms instead of subclinical and clinical. We examined the use of these terms to determine how, by whom, and in what context they are used.

SAMPLE

Veterinary articles on PubMed.

PROCEDURES

We searched PubMed for the terms asymptomatic, subclinical, and symptomatic within the title and abstract or as MeSH terms, restricting the search to veterinary (nonhuman) species, and downloaded and categorized each article based on species, topic, field of study, and presumed primary language of the authors. We noted whether the term appeared in the title or abstract or as a MeSH term and described the frequencies of use of these terms within each category.

RESULTS

The term asymptomatic appeared in 2,248 entries, mostly in the title or abstract. The term symptomatic appeared in 956 entries, also mostly in the title or abstract. Non-English–speaking authors used asymptomatic but not symptomatic relatively more frequently in the past decade. Certain fields of study, or disease specialties, used the terms more frequently; conversely, other fields of study, or specific journals, avoided the terms.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Authors of articles about animals use the term asymptomatic interchangeably with subclinical and symptomatic interchangeably with clinical. Distinct language cultures appear to exist within different veterinary fields. However, no ambiguity appears to exist with the use of these terms. Therefore, asymptomatic is the same as subclinical and symptomatic is the same as clinical in the veterinary lexicon. Both terms should be equally acceptable.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effectiveness of a digital interactive multimedia tutorial (DIMT) for preparing veterinary students to perform ultrasonography in horses.

SAMPLE

42 third-year veterinary students.

PROCEDURES

Students were randomly assigned to 3 instructional methods: independent study (ie, 45 minutes to read a highlighted textbook chapter), lecture (ie, 45-minute lecture by a faculty member), or digital interactive multimedia tutorial (DIMT; ie, 45-minute narrated, interactive module). Written and practical tests were administered after each instruction session. For the practical test, each student was required to obtain a series of ultrasound images of a live horse, and images were later scored for quality by an individual unaware of the instructional method used.

RESULTS

Higher-quality ultrasound images were obtained by veterinary students who had reviewed the DIMT rather than the analogous information in textbook chapters. No difference in scores was identified between students in the lecture group and those in the DIMT group. Students’ perceptions suggested that practical instruction facilitated by clinicians was a key component of learning how to perform ultrasonography in horses.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results supported the use of DIMTs in preparing veterinary students to perform ultrasonography in horses.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Author:

Abstract

Institutions that conduct agricultural research must plan for emergencies and disasters that have the potential to compromise the health and safety of research animals and personnel. Agricultural research facilities have unique challenges owing to the overall size and scope of operations, wide range of species housed, and various types of facilities maintained. Identification of hazards and development of strategies to minimize anticipated risks are important to creating a successful mitigation and recovery plan that will minimize both short- and long-term adverse effects on program operations and resources.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe an animal health database used to facilitate effective disaster response and retrospective analysis of data concerning animals other than cats and dogs affected by the 2018 California Camp Fire.

ANIMALS

Veterinary medical entries (n = 206) for evacuated or rescued animals (151) of various species, including avian, bovine, camelid, caprine, equine, ovine, and porcine species, temporarily housed at the Butte County fairgrounds in Gridley, Calif.

PROCEDURES

Case data were collected via a standardized form by volunteers with the University of California-Davis Veterinary Emergency Response Team during triage and treatment of animals brought to the shelter. Collected data were entered into a database. Multiple correspondence analysis was used to evaluate associations among patient species, types and severity of injuries, and behavior.

RESULTS

Burns, respiratory disease, gastrointestinal illnesses, and lacerations were the most prevalent illnesses and injuries among the overall shelter population for the first 12 days of the Camp Fire. Ovine patients were more likely to have had respiratory illness than were other species. The most prevalent medical conditions among equine patients were lacerations and gastrointestinal illnesses. Severe burns were most common among porcine, camelid, and avian patients. The temporal distribution of cases suggested the immediate evacuation of equine species and the delayed movement of bovine and avian species to the shelter.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Collection of animal health information through the database allowed assessment of prevalent medical conditions among various farm animals following a wildfire. Adaptation of this database to other disasters could improve emergency response protocols by providing guidance for management of resources and allow retrospective assessment for response improvement.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association