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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine if multistrain probiotics administered to asthmatic cats treated with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids would attenuate the asthmatic phenotype and beneficially alter respiratory, blood, and oropharyngeal (OP) microbial communities and immune parameters versus placebo.

ANIMALS

13 client-owned asthmatic cats.

METHODS

A randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial of asthmatic cats receiving anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids with oral multistrain probiotics or placebo assessed owner-perceived improvement and airway eosinophilia at baseline and after 2 weeks of treatment. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), blood, OP, and rectal microbial communities were compared using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Real-time PCR for transcription factors, activation markers and cytokines, and IgA ELISAs were evaluated. Statistical analyses used 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA or permutational ANOVA (significance, P < .05).

RESULTS

After treatment, there were no significant differences in owner-perceived clinical signs or mean ± SEM BALF eosinophils between groups. There was a significant decrease in rectal α-diversity but not in α- or β-diversity in BALF, blood, or OP between groups or over time. There were no significant differences in CD25, FoxP3, GATA, Helios, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IFN-γ mRNA, or serum or BALF IgA between groups or over time.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In asthmatic cats, oral multistrain probiotics failed to improve owner-perceived signs, reduce airway eosinophilia, modify microbial community composition, or alter assessed immune responses versus placebo or over time. Longer treatment, different probiotic composition or delivery (eg, aerosolized), or larger number of cats would represent the next stages of study.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether subtotal pericardectomy affects recurrence and long-term outcomes in dogs with idiopathic chylothorax (IC).

ANIMALS

12 client-owned dogs diagnosed with IC between July 26, 2016, and March 23, 2023.

METHODS

The diagnosis of constrictive physiology (CP) was established with cardiac catheterization and defined as elevated and equal diastolic pressures in all 4 cardiac chambers. Dogs were then entered into the constrictive physiology (CP) group or non-CP (NCP) group. All dogs received at least a thoracic duct ligation (TDL). The dogs in the CP group had a subtotal pericardectomy performed in addition to TDL. Repeated surgical interventions, recurrence, long-term outcomes, and survival times were recorded.

RESULTS

8 dogs were entered into the CP group and underwent TDL and subtotal pericardectomy. Four dogs were entered in the NCP group and underwent only a TDL. Four dogs in the CP group and 1 in the NCP group required multiple surgeries for recurrent chylothorax. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year disease-free rates were, respectively, 100%, 100%, and 50% for the NCP group and 87.5%, 72.9%, and 72.9% for the CP group (P = .935). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were, respectively, 100%, 100%, and 100% for the NCP group and 87.5%, 72.9%, and 72.9% for the CP group (P = .317).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Constrictive physiology should be evaluated by cardiac catheterization before surgical treatment of IC in dogs. If CP is not diagnosed, subtotal pericardectomy may not be required.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of 4 cases of splenic torsion with associated spherocytosis.

ANIMALS

4 client-owned dogs with spherocytosis and splenic torsion.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION

Each dog presented with nonspecific clinical signs, and 3 out of 4 dogs were anemic on presentation.

RESULTS

The diagnosis of splenic torsion was made with abdominal ultrasound or CT and confirmed during exploratory laparotomy. Spherocytosis was described as occasional (patient 1), rare (patient 2), and low number (patients 3 and 4). Two dogs survived to hospital discharge, and 2 dogs died following cardiorespiratory arrest.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Spherocytosis has not previously been reported in cases of splenic torsion, and identification of spherocytes on blood film evaluation warrants further investigation. The cause of spherocytosis in splenic torsion remains unknown but may be associated with microangiopathic fragmentation injury.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the temperature stability of an autodefrost freezer commonly used in veterinary practices, whether the use of a Styrofoam cooler within the freezer provides temperature stability, and the ease of use of a remote monitoring system for the notification of temperature elevations.

ANIMALS

None.

METHODS

Temperature in the freezer and 2 Styrofoam coolers were assessed with remote monitoring thermometers every 15 minutes. Temperature values were monitored from October 11 to December 18, 2023 (for a 68-day period). Data analysis focused on temperatures for the freezer exceeding 0 °C and the elevations in temperatures within the coolers relative to the freezer.

RESULTS

The freezer had an increase in temperature approximately every 16 hours. Over 68 days, the freezer had a temperature greater than 0 °C 27 times, representing 26 separate elevations. The Styrofoam coolers within the freezer never registered a temperature higher than −5 °C. Elevations in temperature within the freezer were larger in magnitude than temperature elevations within the coolers, which showed smaller-magnitude changes in temperature.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The temperature stability provided by the Styrofoam cooler would avoid potential freeze-thaw cycles of any stored biological samples. Additionally, the remote temperature monitoring system is easy to install and monitor, providing peace of mind to practice management.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the biomechanical properties of lateral femoro-fabella ligament suture (FFLS) and lateral suture with a bone anchor suture (BAS) for management of feline cranial cruciate ligament disease.

ANIMALS

12 femurs from 6 mature cat cadavers.

METHODS

The samples were collected from April to June 2023. The specimens had an FFLS and, subsequently, BAS placed and were positioned into a biomechanical testing machine, preloaded from 5 N to 15 N for 100 cycles, and subsequently, a load to suture failure was applied. The displacement at 5 N and 15 N, the total precycle displacement (millimeters), the force at 3 mm displacement and at failure (newtons), the displacement at failure (millimeters), and the stiffness to failure (Newton:millimiter) were recorded. Nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare data between the 2 groups.

RESULTS

The displacement at 5 N and 15 N and the total precycle displacement were significantly higher in the FFLS group compared to the BAS group. Additionally, the FFLS group results showed less consistent displacement and marked variability. The force (newtons) at 3 mm displacement was higher in the BAS group. There was no significant difference in force and no significant difference in displacement at failure between the 2 groups. However, the stiffness to failure (N/mm) was significantly higher in the BAS group.

CONCLUSION

BAS represented a more stable and reliable femur attachment for extracapsular suture in cats.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

To demonstrate the stability and reliability between BAS and FFLS and influence implant selection in the treatment of cranial cruciate ligament rupture in cats with evaluation of biomechanical properties.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to compare the effects of low-dose subarachnoid injections of 2% lidocaine (LIDO) and 0.5% bupivacaine (BUPI) in goats.

ANIMALS

6 healthy, privately owned female goats.

METHODS

In this randomized blind crossover clinical trial, each goat received 0.05 mL/kg−1 of LIDO, BUPI, or sterile saline solution into the lumbosacral subarachnoid space, with a seven-day washout. Cardiorespiratory variables, rectal temperature, and somatosensory (pinprick) and motor (ataxia) functions were recorded at baseline (time 0) and 2, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes after injection, then every 20 minutes until the goat was standing and able to walk. Time to regain somatosensory and motor functions was compared between treatments using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the Cox proportional hazards model. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare cardiorespiratory variables between treatments and over time. A P value ≤ .05 was considered significant.

RESULTS

Somatosensory recovery was longer with BUPI, though not statistically significant. The median time to stand was 50 (50, 67) minutes after LIDO injection and 104 (101, 156) minutes after BUPI injection (P = .031). The median time to walk was 72 (54, 85) minutes after LIDO versus 225 (220, 245) minutes after BUPI injection (P = .031). Cardiovascular and respiratory variables showed no significant differences between treatments.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Despite prolonged ataxia with BUPI, pinprick sensation recovery did not differ. At reduced doses, both LIDO and BUPI are deemed acceptable for short procedures of the flank, pelvic limb, or tail in healthy goats.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Present an approach to the safe and efficient provision of anesthesia and birth control measures to a large group of primates.

ANIMALS

98 hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) held in a German zoological institution.

METHODS

A group of 12 veterinarians, 2 zookeepers, and 6 volunteers anesthetized all animals within 2 days. The baboons were orally premedicated with midazolam (0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg) and anesthetized with medetomidine (40 to 60 µg/kg, IM) and ketamine (2 to 4 mg/kg, IM); isoflurane at rates of 1.5% to 2% was used for maintaining anesthesia if necessary. All animals received a physical examination, prophylactic medication, and tuberculin testing. For population management, the animals received a contraceptive implant (adult females), orchiectomy (young males), or vasectomy (breeding males). Young males received intratesticular blocks with lidocaine. All animals received atipamezole (125 to 150 µg/kg) before recovery.

RESULTS

Premedication resulted in anxiolysis, which facilitated separating and darting. Median time from darting to access to the animal was 10 minutes. Mean anesthetic times were 25 minutes for females and 55 minutes for males. The depth of anesthesia was appropriate for the procedures. No fatalities were recorded. One animal was injured by other baboons but recovered after treatment.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Health management and birth control measures are necessary in baboon troops under human care. Anesthesia and/or contraception of individual animals often leads to intraspecific aggression. This case series describes how to provide anesthesia and contraception to an entire troop as an alternative approach that can be adopted to future similar interventions.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine antibiotic levels in plasma and interstitial fluid (ISF) after SC placement of compounded florfenicol (FF) calcium sulfate beads (CSBs) in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

ANIMALS

6 juvenile female rabbits (n = 5 treatment and 1 control).

METHODS

An ultrafiltration probe and CSBs were placed SC in 6 rabbits (n = 5 for FF CSBs and 1 for control CSBs). Plasma (3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours and 7, 14, and 21 days) and ISF (daily for 21 days) samples were collected, and FF was measured by HPLC for pharmacokinetic analysis. Hematology, biochemistry, and histopathology were assessed.

RESULTS

Means ± SD for the area under the curve, maximum concentration, time of maximum concentration, terminal half-life, and mean residence time to the last data point for plasma and ISF were 16.63 ± 8.16 and 17,902 ± 7,564 h·µg/mL, 0.79 ± 0.38 and 245 ± 223 µg/mL, 2.90 ± 0.3 and 59 ± 40 hours, 30.81 ± 16.9 and 27.3 ± 9.39 hours, 23.4 ± 10 and 73.7 ± 13 hours, respectively. Plasma FF was < 2 µg/mL at all time points. The ISF FF remained > 8 μg/mL for 109.98 to 231.58 hours. One rabbit death occurred during treatment, but the cause of death was undetermined. Local tissue inflammation was present, but no clinically significant systemic adverse effects were found on hematology, biochemistry, or histopathology in the remaining rabbits.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Florfenicol CSBs maintained antibiotic concentrations in ISF at levels likely to be effective against bacteria sensitive to > 8 µg/mL for 5 to 10 days while maintaining low (< 2 µg/mL) plasma levels. Florfenicol CSBs may be effective for local antibiotic treatment in rabbit abscesses.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to examine in detail the complaints against veterinarians submitted by pet owners and evaluated by the Turkish Veterinary Medical Association in Türkiye, with the aim to create awareness among Turkish veterinarians about the nature of the complaints and how they might reduce the risk of making medical errors.

SAMPLE

127 files of complaints.

METHODS

A total of 127 written complaints from pet owners filed between January 2012 and December 2021 were analyzed. The pet owners’ complaints were subjected to a conventional content analysis to identify the primary, secondary, and tertiary themes. Each case was evaluated by a 3-level complaint-coding taxonomy. The first level included 3 domains (themes), namely clinical, management, and relationship, while the second level was ordered in a total of 7 subcategories of complaint types. Thereafter, the third-level minor themes were grouped into related subcategories.

RESULTS

From 127 file complaints, 296 specific issues were identified. Of these, 62% were in the clinical domain, 24% in the management domain, and 14% about poor behavior of the attending veterinarians. The most common (43%) complaint was medical errors.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

An increased awareness of common medical errors should be promoted among Turkish veterinarians in order to reduce the risk of negligence and malpractice.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association