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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dexmedetomidine after IM administration in dogs.

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult purpose-bred dogs (3 males, 3 females) with a mean ± SD body weight of 25.2 ± 1.8 kg.

PROCEDURES

Each dog received 10 µg/kg dexmedetomidine, IM. Heart rate and respiratory rate were counted via cardiac auscultation and visual assessment of chest excursions. Sedation was assessed utilizing 2 sedation scoring systems. Plasma concentrations were determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Plasma concentrations versus time data after IM dexmedetomidine were analyzed using noncompartmental analysis for extravascular administration.

RESULTS

Over the first 2 hours following IM injection of dexmedetomidine, plasma concentrations fluctuated in each dog. The geometric mean (range) maximum plasma concentration was 109.2 (22.4 to 211.5) ng/mL occurring at 20.5 (5 to 75) minutes, and the mean half-life was 25.5 (11.5 to 41.5) minutes. Heart rate was significantly lower than baseline from 30 minutes to 2 hours postdexmedetomidine administration, and respiratory rate was significantly lower than baseline from 45 minutes to 1.75 hours. Dogs were significantly more sedated from 30 minutes to 1.5 hours postdexmedetomidine administration. Median time to onset of sedation was 7.5 minutes (range, 2 to 10 minutes), and median time to peak sedation was 30 minutes (range, 15 to 60 minutes).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Variations in plasma concentrations occurred in all dogs for the 2 hours postinjection of dexmedetomidine at 10 µg/kg, IM. This was likely due to alterations in absorption due to dexmedetomidine-induced local vasoconstriction. Despite variable plasma concentrations, all dogs were sedated following IM dexmedetomidine administration.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To develop quantitative measures that, when combined with the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) score, would potentially enhance the accuracy of the scoring process.

ANIMALS

153 client-owned purebred German Shepherd Dogs with normal and near normal (71 dogs) and dysplastic coxofemoral joint (82 dogs).

PROCEDURES

Center edge (CE) angle, Norberg angle (NA), indexes of dorsal acetabular femoral head (AFH) coverage width and area, acetabular index angle, and inclination angle were determined. We also investigated the correlation between selected variables. Coxofemoral joints were classified into normal, near normal, and mildly, moderately, and severely dysplastic joints based on the morphometric criteria previously established by the conventional FCI scoring. Variables were compared among the 5 groups using ANOVA. Linear relationships were determined using Spearman correlation coefficients.

RESULTS

All radiographic measurements differed significantly (P < .0001) among the 5 assigned groups (normal, near normal, mildly dysplastic, moderately dysplastic, and severely dysplastic hip joints). NA was the only measure that differed significantly (P ≤ .03) between the 5 assigned groups. Positive correlations were identified between Norberg and CE angles (r s = 0.93), between width and area indexes of dorsal AFH coverage (rs = 0.92), and between the measurement techniques utilized to assess lateral versus dorsal AFH coverage (rs ≥ 0.65).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Evaluation of lateral and dorsal AFH coverage may help to refine the scoring system used to select German Shepherd Dogs for breeding. German Shepherd Dogs with NA < 103°, CE angle < 20.8°, dorsal AFH coverage width index ≤ 49%, and/or dorsal AFH coverage area index ≤ 51% should be considered to have mild, moderate, or severe hip dysplasia and are therefore not good candidates for breeding. Borderline values between near normal and mildly dysplastic joints should be reevaluated.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the prognostic value of lactate concentration measurements at admission in cattle with long-bone fractures.

ANIMALS

43 cattle with long-bone fractures between July 2016 and Dec 2018.

PROCEDURES

In this prospective cohort study, lactate concentration was measured in systemic venous blood and locally in capillary blood sampled from the fractured and contralateral limbs of cattle and assessed for outcome prediction. The cutoff value was determined by maximizing the Youden index from receiver-operating characteristic curves. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to verify whether higher lactate concentrations compared with the cutoff value were an independent risk factor for poor outcomes at 30 days or 3 years after admission.

RESULTS

Poor outcome was associated with higher capillary lactate concentration in the fractured limb (P < .001) and greater difference with systemic blood (P = .005). A cutoff value of lactate difference ≥ 2.4 mmol/L (sensitivity = 0.80; specificity = 0.965) between capillary lactate in the fractured limb and systemic blood was the best predictor of death ≤ 30 days after admission (P < .001). Multivariable analysis revealed that this cutoff value was an independent risk factor for 30-day and 3-year outcomes (P < .001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Admission blood lactate concentration difference ≥ 2.4 mmol/L between the fractured limb and systemic blood was a robust and independent predictor of outcome for cattle of the present report. Lactate metabolism is locally impaired in fractured limbs of nonsurviving or at higher complication risk cattle, which may help identify patients at high risk for poor outcomes.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To provide a postmortem description of anatomic variations and changes of the lumbosacroiliac region in horses. The authors hypothesized that lesion severity would increase with age and body weight and correlate to anatomic variations.

SAMPLES

Lumbosacroiliac vertebral specimens from 38 horses (mean age, 16 years; range, 5 to 30 years) that died or were euthanized for reasons unrelated to the study between November 2019 and October 2021.

PROCEDURES

The lumbosacroiliac region of the vertebral column was removed from each cadaver. After dissection, disarticulation, and boiling, the anatomic specimens were examined for anatomic variations and osseous changes of the articular process joints (APJs), intertransverse joints (ITJs), and sacroiliac joints (SIJs). The lengths of L6-S1 intertransverse articular surfaces were measured and their ratios calculated. Descriptive statistics were obtained, and the χ2 test was used to assess differences in anatomic variations and abnormal changes of the APJs, ITJs, and SIJs.

RESULTS

The most common anatomic variation was a sacrum-like shape of the transverse processes of L6 (29/38 [76%]) and converging orientation of dorsal spinous process of L6 (33/38 [87%]). The highest prevalence of bony changes was detected at L5-L6 (right, 34/38 [89%]; left, 33/38 [87%]) and L6-S1 APJs (right, 38/38 [100%]; left, 37/38 [97%]) and at SIJs (right, 32/38 [86%]; left, 31/38 [82%]). The shape of L6 transverse processes differed between breed (P = .01) and was associated with presence of L4-L5 ITJs (P < .01).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Age and sex were associated with changes of the sacral dorsal spinous processes, ITJs, and APJs. The clinical significance of these findings could not be confirmed based on the study limitations.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate whether intraoperative detection of rising levels of blood glucose could improve the completeness of resection of insulin-secreting tumor tissue and whether this improves long-term outcomes.

ANIMALS

11 client-owned dogs diagnosed with insulinoma.

PROCEDURES

Retrospective review of medical records of dogs undergoing partial pancreatectomy as treatment for insulinoma. A blood glucose reading was obtained at induction, following removal of the pancreatic mass and/or after each suspected metastatic lesion until blood glucose had normalized. Disease-free interval and survival time were measures of outcome.

RESULTS

A positive increase in blood glucose was detected in all cases, with a mean rise of 6.35 ± 4.5 mmol/L. Mean follow-up was 611 days, mean disease-free interval was 382 days, and median survival time was 762 days. Tumor stage was not associated with outcome. Three cases underwent a second surgery (metastasectomy), achieving further prolongation of disease-free survival.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A sustained increase in intraoperative blood glucose provided the surgeon with confidence of more complete resection of insulinoma tissue and resulted in improved outcomes in all cases included in this study. Subsequent metastasectomy of recurrent insulinoma lesions also provided good outcomes. Intraoperative monitoring of blood glucose during surgical treatment of insulinoma resulted in the surgeon continuing to explore and resect abnormal tissue until an increase of glycemia was observed. This was shown to provide the surgeon with more confidence of resection of all active insulinoma tissue and improved clinical outcomes.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association