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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Cardioplegic solutions are indispensable for open-heart surgeries, including mitral valve repair (MVR), a potentially curative treatment for myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs. However, procedural methodologies are not fully established, and complications are yet to be comprehensively understood. Cardioplegic solutions contain various substances to protect the myocardium under temporal cardiac arrest. Nevertheless, ventricular fibrillation (VF) occurs as a common complication after releasing the crossclamp. Based on these backgrounds, the search for optimal cardioplegic solutions in dogs undergoing MVR is an urgent issue. This study aims to evaluate the occurrence of VF in dogs treated with blood cardioplegia (BCP) versus crystalloid cardioplegia (CCP) during MVR.

ANIMALS

A total of 251 client-owned dogs who underwent MVR from November 2015 to November 2017 were included.

METHODS

We retrospectively assessed the relationship between VF and type of cardioplegia (CCP or BCP) based on surgical records, including VF incidence, transfusion use, crossclamp time, and echocardiographic measurements.

RESULTS

Logistic regression analysis showed that the CCP group was associated with the occurrence of VF (OR, 2.378; CI, 1.133–4.992; P = .022). In addition, the CCP group was associated with transfusion use (OR, 2.586; CI, 1.232–5.428, P = .022). There was no difference between the groups for the pre- and postoperative echocardiographic measurements.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The BCP group had a lower incidence of VF and less transfusion use than the CCP group. This finding indicates that BCP may be a superior cardioplegic technique for MVR in dogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Author:

Abstract

The ability to genetically redirect the antigenic specificity of T cells using chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) has led to unprecedented durable clinical remissions in human patients with relapsed/refractory hematological malignancies. This remarkable advance in successful immune cell engineering has now led to investigations into the application of CAR–T-cell technology to treat nonmalignant diseases. The use of CAR-T cells to target and eliminate specific cell subsets involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, fibrosis, senescence, and infectious disease represents a new direction for adoptive cell therapies. While the use of CAR-T cells for nonmalignant disease is still in its infancy, early reports of dramatic clinical responses to CAR-T cells targeting CD19+ B cells in patients with severe autoimmune disease raise the possibility that this approach could lead to durable remissions, eliminating the need for ongoing conventional immunosuppressive therapies. Excitingly, nonmalignant disease processes that may be addressed by CAR–T-cell therapy in humans also occur in our canine populations. Given that technologies for developing canine CAR constructs are now available, robust protocols have been described for generating canine CAR-T cells, and experience is being gathered with their clinical use in oncology, it is anticipated that CAR-T cells will soon enter the veterinary clinics for the treatment of debilitating nonmalignant diseases. Here, we provide a broad overview of CAR–T-cell therapies for nonmalignant diseases and extrapolate these advances into the veterinary space, highlighting areas in which canine CAR-T cells are poised to enter the clinics for the treatment of nonmalignant disease.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To provide veterinarians with updated radiographic descriptions of select radiolucent foreign material in a simulated gastrointestinal environment.

SAMPLE

368 veterinarian respondents from the US.

METHODS

An online survey was administered between June 18, 2023, and July 2, 2023, through a private veterinarian-based social media group. Representative commonly ingested foreign bodies were radiographed surrounded by air and water to simulate being within the gastrointestinal tract. Two examiners evaluated and qualified the opacity of the objects for each environment.

RESULTS

The private social media group had a total of 3,900 members including veterinarians from all disciplines. A total of 362 small animal veterinarians (9.3% of the group) responded to the study reporting a total of 123 foreign objects that were not causing mechanical obstruction at the time of initial presentation. Sixty-eight foreign bodies were reported greater than or equal to 5 times and grouped as balls (n = 4), food (9), fabric (14), wood (3), soft plastic (14), hard plastic (18), or other (6). Most (98.5% [67/68]) objects were easily identifiable in air. In water, 23.5% (16/68) of the objects were obscured, and 39.7% (27/68) had inversion of the major opacity when compared to the opacity in air.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The opacity of some ingested radiolucent material can invert relative to air or fluid, which may reflect substantial differences in detection following repositioning. When known dietary indiscretion occurs, radiographing a sample of the material in air and water will improve the accuracy of assessment.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to characterize changes induced by a high-fat diet in body composition, insulin levels and sensitivity, blood lipids, and other key biomarkers also associated with the metabolic dysfunction that occurs with natural aging.

ANIMALS

24 male Beagle dogs, 3 to 7 years of age, of mixed castration status.

METHODS

Dogs were randomly assigned to continue twice daily feeding of the commercial adult maintenance diet (n = 12, including 2 intact) that they were previously fed or to a high-fat diet (12, including 2 intact) for 17 weeks between December 1, 2021, and April 28, 2022. Assessments included body composition (weight, body condition score, and adipose mass determined by deuterium enrichment), clinical chemistries, plasma fatty acid quantification, oral glucose tolerance test, and histology of subcutaneous and visceral adipose biopsy samples.

RESULTS

The high-fat diet led to increased body weight, body condition score, fat mass and adipocyte size, hyperinsulinemia and peripheral insulin resistance, and elevations in serum lipids, including cholesterol, triglycerides, and several species of free fatty acids. Leptin levels increased in dogs fed a high-fat diet but not in control dogs. There were no significant changes in routine clinical chemistry values in either group.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Feeding a high-fat diet for 17 weeks led to potentially deleterious changes in metabolism similar to those seen in natural aging in dogs, including hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. A high-fat diet model may provide insights into the similar metabolic dysfunction that occurs during natural aging.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate if a difference in synovial amikacin concentrations exists in the radiocarpal joint (RCJ) following different durations of instillation of an IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) perfusate.

ANIMALS

7 healthy horses.

METHODS

Horses received 2 IVRLPs with 2 g amikacin diluted to 60 mL with 0.9% NaCl via the cephalic vein in a crossover study design with a wash-out period between procedures. Instillation of the perfusate was administered over a 1-minute (technique 1) and 5-minute (technique 5) period. Concentrations of amikacin within the RCJ were measured at time (T) 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after instillation of the perfusate. Systemic concentrations of amikacin were measured at T0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 29 minutes, and 1 minute after tourniquet removal (T31). Amikacin concentrations were determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

RESULTS

The median maximum concentration (CMAX) of amikacin within the RCJ for technique 1 was 338.4 µg/mL (range, 60 to 4,925 µg/mL), while the median CMAX for technique 5 was higher at 694.8 µg/mL (range, 169.2 to 3,410 µg/mL; P = .398). There was a higher amikacin blood concentration over time for technique 1 compared to technique 5 (P = .004).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Administration of perfusate at different rates did not significantly affect synovial concentration of amikacin within the RCJ when performing IVRLP. However, increased systemic leakage was noted when the perfusate was administered over 1 minute, which might affect synovial concentrations in a larger group of horses.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate associations between hepatic fat accumulation, fibrosis, and plasma values of primary metabolites, biochemical measurands, insulin, and lipoproteins in bearded dragons.

ANIMALS

48 adult central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

METHODS

Dragons were sedated with alfaxalone, and a blood sample was collected. Plasma was submitted for untargeted primary metabolomics using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry, a biochemistry panel, and a lipoprotein panel determined by PAGE. Hepatic lipid content was quantified by liver attenuation measurements from CT images and digital image analysis of standardized histologic sections of the liver. Fibrosis was quantified by digital image analysis on Masson’s trichrome–stained histologic sections. Severity was determined from pathologic review of liver sections according to a standardized grading system. Statistical associations were investigated using serial linear models adjusted for false discovery rate and multivariate statistics.

RESULTS

Both hepatic fat and fibrosis had a significant effect on CT liver attenuation values. Several oligosaccharides (maltotriose, maltose, ribose, trehalose) and alkaline phosphatase were significantly and linearly increased with hepatic lipid content (all q < .05). On partial least square–discriminant analysis, β-hydroxybutyric acid was the most important discriminatory variable between fatty liver severity grades on histology. No significant associations were found with insulin, lipoproteins, and succinic acid.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Bearded dragons with hepatic lipid accumulation experienced multiple metabolic pathway disruptions, some being compatible with mitochondrial dysfunction. No evidence of insulin resistance or dyslipidemia was found. Hepatic biopsy and histopathology remain recommended for reliably diagnosing and staging fatty liver disease in bearded dragons.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to characterize extracellular vesicles (EVs) in plasma and synovial fluid obtained from horses with and without naturally occurring post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA).

ANIMALS

EVs were isolated from plasma and synovial fluid from horses with (n = 6) and without (n = 6) PTOA.

METHODS

Plasma and synovial fluid EVs were characterized with respect to quantity, size, and surface markers. Small RNA sequencing was performed, and differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) underwent bioinformatic analysis to identify putative targets and to explore potential associations with specific biological processes.

RESULTS

Plasma and synovial fluid samples from horses with PTOA had a significantly higher proportion of exosomes and a lower proportion of microvesicles compared to horses without PTOA. Small RNA sequencing revealed several differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR-144, miR-219-3p, and miR-199a-3l in plasma and miR-199a-3p, miR-214, and miR-9094 in synovial fluid EVs. Bioinformatics analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs highlighted their potential role in fibrosis, differentiation of chondrocytes, apoptosis, and inflammation pathways in PTOA.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

We have identified dynamic molecular changes in the small noncoding signatures of plasma and synovial fluid EVs in horses with naturally occurring PTOA. These findings could serve to identify promising biomarkers in the pathogenesis of PTOA, to facilitate the development of targeted therapies, and to aid in establishing appropriate translational models of PTOA.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has persisted as a One Health threat whose current circulation and impact are addressed in the companion Currents in One Health by Puryear and Runstadler, JAVMA, May 2024. Highly pathogenic avian influenza emerged as a by-product of agricultural practices and adapted to endemic circulation in wild bird species. Over more than 20 years, continued evolution in a complex ecology involving multiple hosts has produced a lineage that expanded globally over the last 2 years. Understanding the continued evolution and movement of HPAI relies on understanding how the virus is infecting different hosts in different contexts. This includes understanding the environmental factors and the natural ecology of viral transmission that impact host exposure and ultimately evolutionary trajectories. Particularly with the rapid host expansion, increased spillover to mammalian hosts, and novel clinical phenotypes in infected hosts, despite progress in understanding the impact of specific mutations to HPAI viruses that are associated with spillover potential, the threat to public health is poorly understood. Active research is focusing on new approaches to understanding the relationship of viral genotype to phenotype and the implementation of research and surveillance pipelines to make sense of the enormous potential for diverse HPAI viruses to emerge from wild reservoirs amid global circulation.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to describe the historical, physical, neurologic, and clinicopathologic findings in dogs with a definitive diagnosis of marijuana/tetrahydrocannabinol toxicity.

ANIMALS

A total of 223 dogs with known ingestion of marijuana or a positive tetrahydrocannabinol result on human urine multidrug test.

METHODS

Retrospective study from January 2017 to July 2021.

RESULTS

Median age was 1 year (1 month to 12 years). A common history was becoming acutely neurologic after going outside or to a public place (62/223 [27.8%]). Most owners denied possibility of exposure (152/223 [68%]). Median vitals were normal, but hyperthermia (38/212 [22.6%]), tachycardia (82/222 [37%]), and systemic hypertension (37/61 [60.7%]) were common abnormalities. The most common clinical signs included ataxia (197/223 [88.3%]), hyperesthesia (168/223 [75.3%]), urinary incontinence (102/223 [45.7%]), lethargy (140/223 [62.5%]), and vomiting (58/223 [26%]). The most common combinations of neurologic signs included ataxia and hyperesthesia (157/223 [70.4%]) and ataxia, hyperesthesia, and urinary incontinence (81/223 [36.3%]). Mild hyperkalemia (39/76 [51.3%]) and mild hypercalcemia (53/67 [79.1%]) were common. Twenty-two dogs were hospitalized. Survival was 100%.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A common presentation for marijuana toxicosis included young dogs with acute ataxia and hyperesthesia, with and without urinary incontinence, after going outside or to a public place. Vitals were often normal, but hyperthermia, tachycardia, and hypertension were common. Bloodwork was mostly normal, but mild hyperkalemia and mild ionized hypercalcemia were common. Marijuana should be high on the differential list with these history, physical examination, neurologic, and electrolyte abnormalities, regardless of owner denial or negative human urine multidrug test.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Thromboelastography (TEG) is a whole blood assay that yields global assessment of hemostasis, as it evaluates clot time, strength, and kinematics of clot formation and lysis. The main objective was to describe preoperative TEG findings in dogs that had an adrenalectomy performed and, secondarily, to describe TEG findings in the dogs with or without hyperadrenocorticism (HAC).

ANIMALS

30 dogs that had preoperative TEG and adrenalectomy performed.

METHODS

Medical records between 2018 and 2022 were reviewed. Signalment, diagnostic data, and perioperative treatment were abstracted.

RESULTS

53% (16/30) of the dogs were hypercoagulable, and none were hypocoagulable. Based on histopathology, 6 of 9 dogs with adenocarcinoma were hypercoagulable, 4 of 8 with pheochromocytoma were hypercoagulable, and 6 of 10 with adenoma were hypercoagulable. None of the 3 dogs with other histopathologic diagnoses or combinations of diagnoses (adrenocortical hyperplasia, poorly differentiated sarcoma, and both adrenocortical adenocarcinoma and pheochromocytoma) were hypercoagulable. Of the 14 dogs tested preoperatively for HAC, 4 of 8 HAC dogs were hypercoagulable and 2 of 6 non-HAC dogs were hypercoagulable.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The present report describes for the first time TEG findings for dogs undergoing adrenalectomy and suggests that the majority of dogs with adrenal neoplasia are hypercoagulable based on TEG results.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association