This retrospective clinical study was performed to determine the suitability and success rate of endodontic treatment of equine incisors presenting with apical and periapical disease.
All horses presented to a referral equine dental clinic between March 2013 and December 2019 specifically selected as candidates suitable for endodontic treatment were included in this study.
Initial clinical and radiographic presentation of incisor disorder cases suitable for endodontic treatment were recorded (88 incisors) and follow-up examination for long-term viability (8 months to 5 years) was performed in cases involving 32 incisors in total.
A total of 68 horses with 88 incisors were included in this study for endodontic restorative treatment. Different dental materials were used, with a temporary 3-layered technique using calcium hydroxide apically and temporary cement and resin composite occlusally most commonly used at the first treatment. Complete obturation with resin composite was performed in 48% of the cases requiring second treatments (50 incisors). Follow-up examination involving 32 incisors showed that successful endodontic treatment was achieved in 75% of the teeth treated.
Endodontic treatment of diseased incisors is a viable option in equid patients with a success rate comparable to humans in practice. The use of flowable resin composite as an obturation material has been shown to be successful at either the second treatment or in carefully selected patients at the first treatment.
Evaluate the short-term effects of acupuncture on the dynamic manifestations of axial stiffness in steeplechase racehorses.
12 steeplechase racehorses presenting signs of axial stiffness during training.
Horses were randomly assigned to either an acupuncture treatment by an experienced certified acupuncturist (n = 6) or no treatment as negative controls (6). The horses’ locomotion was evaluated during training before treatment (D0) and 7 (D7) and 14 (D14) days after by their rider and trainer through a questionnaire. Additionally, the improvement of their dorsal flexibility 2 days after treatment was evaluated subjectively at the trot, free jumping at the canter was evaluated by expert clinicians, and free jumping at the trot was evaluated objectively via inertial measurement units.
Significantly more horses were improved on D7 and D14 in the acupuncture group (6/6) compared with the control group (1/5; P =.01) according to the scores set by the trainer and riders. Subjective evaluation of the dorsal flexibility also revealed a significant improvement (P = .04) for horses receiving the acupuncture treatment (median improvement score, 0.50 [reference range, 0.5 to 0.9]) compared with control horses (–0.25 [reference range, –0.5 to 0]).
Acupuncture may be an interesting nondoping strategy to improve clinical signs of axial stiffness and performance on steeplechase racehorses.
To conduct a retrospective multi-institutional study reporting short- and long-term outcomes of adrenalectomy in patients presenting with acute hemorrhage secondary to spontaneous adrenal rupture.
59 dogs and 3 cats.
Medical records of dogs and cats undergoing adrenalectomy between 2000 and 2021 for ruptured adrenal masses were reviewed. Data collected included clinical presentation, preoperative diagnostics, surgical report, anesthesia and hospitalization findings, histopathology, adjuvant treatments, and long-term outcome (recurrence, metastasis, and survival).
Median time from hospital admission to surgery was 3 days, with 34% of surgeries being performed emergently (within 1 day of presentation). Need for intraoperative blood transfusion was significantly associated with emergent surgery and presence of active intraoperative hemorrhage. The short-term (≤ 14 days) complication and mortality rates were 42% and 21%, respectively. Negative prognostic factors for short-term survival included emergent surgery, intraoperative hypotension, and performing additional surgical procedures. Diagnoses included adrenocortical neoplasia (malignant [41%], benign [12%], and undetermined [5%]), pheochromocytoma (38%), a single case of adrenal fibrosis and hemorrhage (2%), and a single case of hemangiosarcoma (2%). Local recurrence and metastasis of adrenocortical carcinoma were confirmed in 1 and 3 cases, respectively. Overall median survival time was 574 days and 900 days when short-term mortality was censored. No significant relationship was found between histopathological diagnosis and survival.
Adrenalectomy for ruptured adrenal gland masses was associated with similar short- and long-term outcomes as compared with previously reported nonruptured cases. If hemodynamic stability can be achieved, delaying surgery and limiting additional procedures appear indicated to optimize short-term survival.