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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate and compare the anesthetic effects of alfaxalone-ketamine-midazolam (AKM) and alfaxalone-ketamine-dexmedetomidine (AKD) in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus).

ANIMALS

9 male black-tailed prairie dogs.

PROCEDURES

Prairie dogs were anesthetized with AKM (6 mg/kg alfaxalone, 30 mg/kg ketamine, and 1.5 mg/kg midazolam) and AKD (6 mg/kg alfaxalone, 30 mg/kg ketamine, and 0.15 mg/kg dexmedetomidine) in a prospective, complete cross-over study. Atipamezole (1.5 mg/kg) after AKD or flumazenil (0.1mg/kg) after AKM was administered 45 minutes after induction of anesthesia. Onset of general anesthesia, physiologic parameters, depth of anesthesia, and time to recovery after reversal administration were evaluated for each treatment.

RESULTS

Both AKM and AKD produced a deep plane of anesthesia in black-tailed prairie dogs that varied in duration. The median induction times for AKM and AKD were 82 and 60 seconds, respectively. The median recovery times for AKM and AKD were 27 and 21 minutes, respectively. There were no significant differences between protocols for induction (P = .37) and recovery (P = .51) times. All measured reflexes were absent in all animals at 5 minutes postinduction, with hindlimb reflexes returning prior to forelimb reflexes. Heart rate was lower but respiratory rate was higher in the AKD treatment. Body temperature decreased significantly for both protocols (P < .001) and was significantly lower with AKM than AKD (P < .001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Both AKM and AKD produced a deep plane of anesthesia in black-tailed prairie dogs. For both protocols, heat support and oxygen support are indicated.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the feasibility and accuracy of using 2 methods for reduction and alignment of simulated comminuted diaphyseal tibial fractures in conjunction with 3-D–printed patient-specific pin guides.

SAMPLE

Paired pelvic limbs from 8 skeletally mature dogs weighing 20 to 35 kg.

METHODS

CT images of both tibiae were obtained, and 3-D reconstructions of the tibiae were used to create proximal and distal patient-specific pin guides. These guides were printed and used to facilitate fracture reduction and alignment in conjunction with either a 3-D–printed reduction guide or a linear type 1A external fixator. Postreduction CT images were used to assess the accuracy of pin guide placement and the accuracy of fracture reduction and alignment.

RESULTS

The 3-D–printed guides were applied with acceptable ease. Guides for both groups were placed with minor but detectable deviations from the planned location (P = .01), but deviations were not significantly different between groups. Fracture reduction resulted in similar minor but detectable morphological differences from the intact tibiae (P = .01). In both groups, fracture reduction and alignment were within clinically acceptable parameters for fracture stabilization by means of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Virtual surgical planning and fabrication of patient-specific 3-D–printed pin guides have the potential to facilitate fracture reduction and alignment during use of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis for fracture stabilization.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the potential contamination of commercial raw dog food products with bacteria of the Enterobacterales order that produce extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase enzymes, determine risk factors for contamination, and understand isolate genetic diversity.

SAMPLES

A total of 200 canine raw food products.

METHODS

Products were cultured on selective chromogenic agar following enrichment steps. Whole-genome sequencing was performed for isolates that were confirmed to produce an ESBL. Isolates were characterized by antimicrobial resistance genes, and multilocus sequences typing, and compared to other isolates in the NCBI database for clonality. Preservation method and protein sources were assessed as potential risk factors for contamination with ESBL and carbapenemase-producing bacteria of the Enterobacterales order.

RESULTS

No carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) were identified, but ESBL-producing Enterobacterales bacteria were isolated from 20/200 products (10.0%; 95% CI, 7.3 to 16.5%), all of which were frozen. Pork-derived protein source products were 8.1 times (P = .001; 95% CI, 2.53 to 26.2) more likely to carry ESBL-producing Enterobacterales bacteria than other protein sources. WGS analysis confirmed the presence of ESBL genes in a total of 25 distinct isolates (19 Escherichia coli, 5 Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 1 Citrobacter braakii). Genes encoding CTX-M type ESBL enzymes were the most common (24/25 isolates, 96.0%) with bla CTX-M-27 being the most common allele (8/25, 32.0%).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Frozen, raw food products may serve as a route of transmission of ESBL-producing Enterobacterales bacteria to companion animals. Veterinarians should advise owners about the risks of raw food diets, including potential exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate changes in ground reaction forces (GRFs) in relation to gait velocity using 2 force plates (FPs) for healthy Beagles.

ANIMALS

18 healthy Beagles were included (body weight, 10.45 ± 1.28 kg; age, 26 ± 11 months).

PROCEDURES

Ten GRF parameters were measured at three gait velocities (walk, 0.9 to 1.2 m/s; trot 1, 1.6 to 2.0 m/s; and trot 2, 2.1 to 2.5 m/s): peak lateral force (PLF), peak medial force (PMF), lateral impulse (LI), medial impulse (MI), peak propulsive force (PPF), peak braking force (PBF), propulsive impulse (PI), braking impulse (BI), peak vertical force (PVF), and vertical impulse (VI).

RESULTS

As velocity increased, the PVF of all limbs increased, the VI of all limbs decreased, and the PPF of the forelimbs increased. At all velocities, PBF and BI were significantly higher than the PPF and PI in forelimbs; however, PBF and BI were significantly lower than the PPF and PI in hindlimbs. There were no significant differences in the PLF, PMF, LI, and MI of the forelimbs and hindlimbs among all velocities. The PLF was significantly higher than the PMF of forelimbs during trot 1 and trot 2.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

These results may be useful when comparing healthy Beagles with diseased ones when premorbid data are not available. Because the forelimbs are mainly responsible for the braking force, it is suggested that weight bearing is more stable in the forelimbs than in the hindlimbs, which are mainly responsible for the propulsive force, and that a greater force is generated laterally than medially during trot.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Compare changes in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), abdominal perfusion pressure (APP), hemodynamics, and clinicopathological variables in nonpregnant and late-term pregnant queens undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy (OHE) and evaluate the effect of patient positioning on IAP and APP measurements.

ANIMALS

18 late-term pregnant queens and 25 nonpregnant controls.

PROCEDURES

Temperature, heart rate (HR), Doppler blood pressure (DBP), IAP (dorsal and right lateral), PCV, total protein (TP), and lactate were recorded preoperatively, at abdominal wall closure (dorsal IAP only), and postoperatively under general anesthesia. Uterine weight, blood loss, and surgical duration were recorded. Abdominal perfusion pressure was calculated as DBP minus IAP.

RESULTS

Pre- and postoperatively, pregnant queens had lower DBP, APP, and PCV compared to controls (P < 0.001). IAP was higher in pregnant queens preoperatively (P < 0.001). Controls had a decrease in HR and increase in IAP, while both groups had a decrease in body temperature, DBP, APP, and lactate over time (P < 0.05). Pregnant queens had a decrease (P = 0.029), and controls had an increase in TP (P = 0.001). Blood loss and surgical time were greater for pregnant queens (P < 0.001). Dorsal IAP and APP were higher and lower than right lateral measurements (P < 0.001), respectively, and correlation was strong.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Hemodynamics and APP are impaired in late-term pregnant queens undergoing OHE, and increased monitoring is warranted. Although strongly correlated, feline IAP and APP measurements in dorsal and right lateral recumbency are not interchangeable.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the biomechanical properties of the mandibles of cats with experimentally created osteotomies simulating oblique ramus fractures, which were stabilized with malleable L-miniplates with either locking screws [locking construct (LC)] or nonlocking screws [nonlocking construct (NLC)], compared with those for intact mandibles.

SAMPLES

20 mandibles from 10 adult cat cadavers.

PROCEDURES

A block study design was adopted to allocate the mandibles of each cadaver to 2 of the 3 test groups (LC, NLC, or intact mandible). Mandibles within each cadaver were allocated systematically to a test group. For mandibles assigned to an LC and an NLC, a complete oblique osteotomy was performed from the mid rostral aspect of the ramus in a caudoventral direction. All mandibles were loaded in a single-load-to-failure test through cantilever bending. Load and actuator displacement were recorded simultaneously. Mode of failure and radiographic evidence of damage to tooth roots and the mandibular canal were evaluated. Biomechanical properties were compared among the groups.

RESULTS

No iatrogenic tooth root damage was evident, but all mandibles with an LC and an NLC had evidence of screw invasion into the mandibular canal. Plated mandibles had significantly less stiffness and bending moment than intact mandibles. Stiffness was not significantly different between the LC and the NLC; the NLC had a greater bending moment at failure than the LC. The pre-yield stiffness of plated mandibles decreased when the number of screw holes overlapping the mandibular canal increased.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The use of a malleable L-miniplate in a caudal mandibular fracture model is feasible. Both the LC and the NLC were inferior mechanically to intact mandibles. Type of construct used did not affect the construct stiffness significantly in tested mandibles.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the duration of bupivacaine liposome suspension in the dog with that of bupivacaine and dexmedetomidine following a perineural injection.

ANIMALS

8 healthy Beagles.

PROCEDURES

The left sciatic nerve of each dog was randomly assigned to an ultrasound-guided perineural injection with either bupivacaine liposome suspension (BLS) or with 0.5% bupivacaine with dexmedetomidine (1 µg/mL) (BUP-DEX). The contralateral nerve was assigned to the alternate agent. The sensory, motor, and proprioceptive functions were evaluated before the injection (baseline) and at 4, 10, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours.

RESULTS

The block in 1 limb in the BLS treatment appeared to have failed (data set excluded). The motor scores of 2 individuals could not be evaluated leaving 5 limbs to evaluate in the BLS treatment and 6 in the BUP-DEX.

A total of 6 out of 7 limbs in the BLS achieved a complete sensory block. In 3 out of 5 treatments with BLS, motor block was only partial and in 2 not apparent at all. Proprioceptive block was partial in 5 out of 7 dogs in the BLS treatment. All functions were still completely obliterated at 10 hours in 6 cases in treatment BUP-DEX. All functions were restored in all cases by 96 and 24 hours after administration of BLS and BUP-DEX, respectively.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The blockade characteristics of bupivacaine liposome suspension were effective and long lasting. Motor and proprioceptive deficits may be inconsistent over time.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare stress markers, gastrointestinal motility, and behavioral indicators of pain between guinea pigs undergoing pneumoperitoneum with carbon dioxide (CO2) and control guinea pigs.

ANIMALS

Fourteen 4- to 5-month-old intact female Hartley guinea pigs.

PROCEDURES

Guinea pigs were randomized to receive insufflation or serve as controls (anesthesia and abdominal catheter placement without insufflation), with 7 animals/group. Insufflated animals underwent 6 mm Hg of CO2 pneumoperitoneum for 30 minutes. Afterward, results for vital signs, blood glucose, fecal cortisol, appetite, fecal output, and behaviors (via video recording) were compared between the 2 groups.

RESULTS

There was no difference between groups and over time for body temperature, heart rate, fecal output in grams, pellets consumed, blood glucose, and fecal cortisol. Guinea pigs that underwent insufflation had significantly more fecal pellets at 36 hours after the procedure. Several behaviors were expressed similarly between groups and over time, such as body turns, incomplete movement, rearing, lying down, drinking, and hiding. Coprophagy occurred less often in the insufflated versus noninsufflated group at 12 h postprocedure but was similar between groups at other time points. At 60 hours after the procedure, insufflated animals spent less time squinting compared to noninsufflated animals. Other behaviors were differentially expressed over time but not between treatments.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Overall, there were no major differences in appetite, stress markers, and behaviors between insufflated and control guinea pigs. CO2 insufflation did not appear to cause undue pain or stress in guinea pigs and may be a reasonable technique to use during laparoscopy.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe misoprostol pharmacokinetics and anti-inflammatory efficacy when administered orally or per rectum in endotoxin-challenged horses.

ANIMALS

6 healthy geldings.

PROCEDURES

A randomized 3-treatment crossover design was performed with a minimum washout period of 28 days between treatment arms. Prior to endotoxin challenge (lipopolysaccharide, 30 ng/kg IV over 30 minutes), horses received misoprostol (5 µg/kg once) per os (M-PO) or per rectum (M-PR) or water as control (CON). Clinical parameters were evaluated and blood samples obtained to measure plasma misoprostol free acid concentration, leukocyte counts, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) leukocyte gene expression and serum concentrations.

RESULTS

In the M-PO treatment arm, maximum plasma concentration and area under the concentration-versus-time curve (mean ± SD) were higher (5,209 ± 3,487 pg/mL and 17,998,254 ± 13,194,420 h·pg/mL, respectively) and median (interquartile range) time to maximum concentration (25 min [18 to 34 min]) was longer than in the M-PR treatment arm (854 ± 855 pg/mL; 644,960 ± 558,866 h·pg/mL; 3 min [3 to 3.5 min]). Significant differences in clinical parameters, leukocyte counts, and TNFα or IL-6 gene expression or serum protein concentration were not detected. Downregulation of relative gene expression was appreciated for individual horses in the M-PO and M-PR treatment arms at select time points.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Considerable variability in measured parameters was detected among horses within and between treatment arms. Misoprostol absorption and systemic exposure after PO administration differed from previous reports in horses not administered LPS. Investigation of multidose administration of misoprostol is warranted to better evaluate efficacy as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare electroretinographic (ERG) responses obtained in dogs before and after oral administration of gabapentin, trazodone, and a combination of both medications.

ANIMALS

12 clinically normal dogs.

PROCEDURES

A short-protocol ERG with 20 minutes of dark adaption was recorded for all dogs to establish baseline ERG responses. Dogs then received gabapentin (approx 30 mg/kg), trazadone (approx 20 mg/kg or approx 5 mg/kg), or a combination of gabapentin (approx 20 mg/kg) and trazodone (approx 5 mg/kg) orally, and the same ERG protocol was repeated 2 hours later. Dogs were given a washout period of at least 1 week between treatments.

RESULTS

a-Wave amplitudes were significantly (P = 0.018) decreased after administration of the combination of gabapentin and trazodone. b-Wave amplitudes were significantly decreased after administration of the 20-mg/kg dose of trazodone (P = 0.006) and after administration of the combination of gabapentin and trazodone (P = 0.002). Heavier dogs that received higher total doses of trazodone had decreases in a-wave amplitude after administration of the 20-mg/kg dose of trazodone and in b-wave amplitude after administration of the 5-mg/kg dose of trazodone.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

High doses of trazodone and the combination of gabapentin and trazodone significantly decreased a-wave and b-wave amplitudes in clinically normal dogs. However, the effects on retinal responses had little clinical importance. Therefore, these medications can be used safely in a clinical setting; however, further studies are needed in dogs with retinal disease.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research