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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the frequency of abnormal findings on digital rectal examination (DRE) performed during physical examinations at a tertiary referral veterinary hospital, to establish what abnormal findings are most common and whether they impact diagnostic and treatment plans, and to assess whether patient signalment or admitting service influences the frequency of abnormalities.

ANIMALS

Client-owned dogs (n = 440).

METHODS

Veterinarians performed DREs on dogs as part of a physical examination. Patient signalment and DRE findings were recorded in a standardized survey. Findings were deemed normal or abnormal and described. Whether the findings changed the diagnostic or treatment plan was also recorded.

RESULTS

Abnormalities were detected on DRE in 160 of 440 (36%) dogs. Changes to the diagnostic plan occurred in 41 of 160 (26%) cases when an abnormality was found. Changes to the treatment plan occurred in 20 of 160 (12.5%) cases when an abnormality was found. Age (P = .2), sex (P = .9), and breed (P = 1) did not significantly influence the frequency of abnormal findings. Abnormal findings were significantly more common in dogs presenting to the emergency service than elective services (P = .005).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Among dogs presenting to a tertiary veterinary hospital, abnormalities found on DRE are common and change the diagnostic plan in 1 out of 4 dogs and treatment plan in 1 out of 8 dogs. This study supports the continued practice of DREs in dogs, especially in emergency settings, regardless of signalment.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the association of mesenteric volvulus (MV) in New York Police Department police working dogs (PWDs) with and without a prior prophylactic laparoscopic gastropexy (PLG).

ANIMALS

370 PWDs (82 with and 288 without PLG).

METHODS

Medical records and surgery and radiology reports were reviewed from 2012 to 2022. Signalment, pertinent history (medical and surgical), gastropexy status, temperament, and training type were recorded. Statistical analysis was used to identify the relationship between prophylactic gastropexy and MV within the patient population.

RESULTS

3 cases of mesenteric volvulus were noted in this patient population. Two (2.4%) of the 82 PWDs that had undergone prophylactic laparoscopic gastropexy developed MV, whereas 1 (0.3%) of the 288 PWDs that had not undergone a gastropexy procedure developed MV. Police working dogs with PLG were estimated to be at 7.2 times greater odds of MV (point estimate OR, 7.18; 95% CI, 0.642 to 80.143); however, the low incidence of MV in this population limited statistical power, and thus this effect did not achieve statistical significance. Evaluation of MV incidence in additional populations of working dogs will allow greater precision in the point estimate.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Prophylactic gastropexy may be associated with an increased risk for MV. However, patients without prophylactic gastropexy are at risk for gastric dilatation and volvulus, which is more common than MV. Therefore, the authors continue to recommend prophylactic gastropexy to decrease the risk for gastric dilatation and volvulus.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the effectiveness of preoperative bupivacaine inferotemporal retrobulbar blocks to postoperative liposome-encapsulated bupivacaine (Nocita) line blocks for analgesia following enucleation.

ANIMALS

39 client-owned dogs (40 eyes) presenting to the Ophthalmology Service for enucleation.

METHODS

Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either a preoperative inferotemporal retrobulbar block with 0.5% bupivacaine or a peri-incisional line block with liposome-encapsulated bupivacaine (Nocita) at closure. Patients underwent unilateral enucleation and were hospitalized for 24 hours after surgery. Pain scores were performed by a masked observer with the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale and the University of Wisconsin Ocular Pain Scale at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours following surgery. Intraoperative use of blood pressure and anesthetic support mediations as well as need for rescue pain control were recorded and compared between groups.

RESULTS

There was no significant difference in rescue rates between treatment groups. When comparing the use of medical intraoperative heart rate, blood pressure, or anesthetic plane support, there were no significant differences in use between groups.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Use of preoperative bupivacaine retrobulbar blocks and postoperative Nocita line blocks were equally effective at postoperative pain control with similarly low complication rates.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the relationship in equine practice between the time delay for charge entry (time between when work was performed and when the invoice charges were entered) and the total amount of the invoice.

SAMPLE

A total of 67,597 invoices from 3 hospitals were included for analysis.

METHODS

Analysis of 67,597 invoices from 49 doctors working out of 3 hospitals was performed. Variables collected included invoice total, date of work, date of invoice entry, month of work, invoice category (A = ambulatory daytime, E = after-hours, I = hospital), and veterinarian. Time delay to invoice entry was the difference between the day of work and the day of charge entry. A generalized additive model was used to describe the relationship between the time delay for invoice entry and the invoice type, month of work, and invoice category. The best model was selected using the Akaike information criterion.

RESULTS

In the selected model, total invoice amount was associated with time delay for charge entry and invoice category. Invoices entered on the same day of work were 299 ± $345, as compared to those entered the next day (255 ± $271) and those entered > 1 day after the work was performed (193 ± $196; P < .0001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

If the observed relationship between time delay (time between work performed and invoice entry) and total invoice amount is causal, equine practitioners may have significant opportunity to improve revenues by simply entering charges on the same day the work is performed.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising avenues in regenerative medicine, offering unique immunomodulatory and regenerative properties with lower immunogenicity. This study delves into the distinctive features of EVs extracted from feline adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) and placenta-derived MSCs (PMSCs). The tissues were collected from 11 female cats aged between 4 and 7 years old.

SAMPLE

EVs extracted from MSCs from discarded fetal membranes from 7 female cats and SC adipose tissue from 11 cats.

METHODS

We comprehensively explored morphological characteristics, mitochondrial density, surface markers, and pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, uncovering notable differences between ASCs and PMSCs.

RESULTS

Morphologically, ASCs exhibit a spindle-shaped form in contrast to the spherical morphology of PMSCs. Proliferation and clonogenic potential assessments reveal the faster proliferation and robust clonogenic nature of ASCs, suggesting their potential vital role in regenerative processes. Surface marker expression analysis indicates a significantly higher expression of multipotency-associated markers in ASCs, suggesting their superior proregenerative potential. Phenotyping of EVs demonstrates distinctive features, with CD9 expression suggesting varied EV secretion patterns. Notably, PMSCs exhibit superior CD81 expression, indicating their potential as preferred donors of mitochondria. Pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators analyzed at mRNA and microRNA levels reveal higher RNA content in EVs compared to source cells, emphasizing the potential of EVs in directing regenerative processes. Differential microRNA expression in EVs derived from ASCs hints at their regulatory roles in anti-inflammatory and immunometabolic processes.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study lays a foundation for understanding the nuances between ASCs and PMSCs, which is crucial for harnessing the full therapeutic potential of MSCs and their EVs in tissue repair and regeneration.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a biotherapeutic for osteoarthritis; however, manufacturing large quantities is not practical using traditional monolayer (2-D) culture. We aimed to examine the effects of 3-D and 2-D culture 2 types of media: Dulbecco modified Eagle medium and a commercially available medium (CM) on EV yield.

ANIMALS

Banked bone marrow–derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) from 6 healthy, young horses were used.

METHODS

4 microcarriers (collagen-coated polystyrene, uncoated polystyrene, collagen-coated dextran, and uncoated dextran) were tested in static and bioreactor cultures, and the optimal microcarrier was chosen. The BM-MSCs were inoculated into a bioreactor with collagen-coated dextran microcarriers at 5,000 cells/cm2 or onto culture dishes at 4,000 cells/cm2 in either Dulbecco modified Eagle medium or CM media. Supernatants were obtained for metabolite and pH analysis. The BM-MSCs were expanded until confluent (2-D) or for 7 days (3-D) when the 48-hour EV collection period commenced using EV-depleted media. Extracellular vesicles were isolated and characterized via nanoparticle tracking analysis, Western blot, transmission electron microscopy, and protein quantification. The BM-MSCs were harvested, quantified, and immunophenotyped.

RESULTS

The number of EVs isolated was not improved by 3-D culture or CM media, however, the CM 3-D condition improved the number of EVs produced per BM-MSC over the CM 2-D condition (mean ± SD: 306 ± 99 vs 37 ± 22, respectively). Glucose decreased and lactate and ammonium accumulated in 3-D culture. Surface markers of stemness exhibited reduced expression in 3-D culture.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Optimization of our 3-D culture methods could improve BM-MSC expansion and thus EV yield.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Thromboelastography (TEG) is a whole blood assay that yields global assessment of hemostasis, as it evaluates clot time, strength, and kinematics of clot formation and lysis. The main objective was to describe preoperative TEG findings in dogs that had an adrenalectomy performed and, secondarily, to describe TEG findings in the dogs with or without hyperadrenocorticism (HAC).

ANIMALS

30 dogs that had preoperative TEG and adrenalectomy performed.

METHODS

Medical records between 2018 and 2022 were reviewed. Signalment, diagnostic data, and perioperative treatment were abstracted.

RESULTS

53% (16/30) of the dogs were hypercoagulable, and none were hypocoagulable. Based on histopathology, 6 of 9 dogs with adenocarcinoma were hypercoagulable, 4 of 8 with pheochromocytoma were hypercoagulable, and 6 of 10 with adenoma were hypercoagulable. None of the 3 dogs with other histopathologic diagnoses or combinations of diagnoses (adrenocortical hyperplasia, poorly differentiated sarcoma, and both adrenocortical adenocarcinoma and pheochromocytoma) were hypercoagulable. Of the 14 dogs tested preoperatively for HAC, 4 of 8 HAC dogs were hypercoagulable and 2 of 6 non-HAC dogs were hypercoagulable.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The present report describes for the first time TEG findings for dogs undergoing adrenalectomy and suggests that the majority of dogs with adrenal neoplasia are hypercoagulable based on TEG results.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association