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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Cardioplegic solutions are indispensable for open-heart surgeries, including mitral valve repair (MVR), a potentially curative treatment for myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs. However, procedural methodologies are not fully established, and complications are yet to be comprehensively understood. Cardioplegic solutions contain various substances to protect the myocardium under temporal cardiac arrest. Nevertheless, ventricular fibrillation (VF) occurs as a common complication after releasing the crossclamp. Based on these backgrounds, the search for optimal cardioplegic solutions in dogs undergoing MVR is an urgent issue. This study aims to evaluate the occurrence of VF in dogs treated with blood cardioplegia (BCP) versus crystalloid cardioplegia (CCP) during MVR.

ANIMALS

A total of 251 client-owned dogs who underwent MVR from November 2015 to November 2017 were included.

METHODS

We retrospectively assessed the relationship between VF and type of cardioplegia (CCP or BCP) based on surgical records, including VF incidence, transfusion use, crossclamp time, and echocardiographic measurements.

RESULTS

Logistic regression analysis showed that the CCP group was associated with the occurrence of VF (OR, 2.378; CI, 1.133–4.992; P = .022). In addition, the CCP group was associated with transfusion use (OR, 2.586; CI, 1.232–5.428, P = .022). There was no difference between the groups for the pre- and postoperative echocardiographic measurements.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The BCP group had a lower incidence of VF and less transfusion use than the CCP group. This finding indicates that BCP may be a superior cardioplegic technique for MVR in dogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to characterize changes induced by a high-fat diet in body composition, insulin levels and sensitivity, blood lipids, and other key biomarkers also associated with the metabolic dysfunction that occurs with natural aging.

ANIMALS

24 male Beagle dogs, 3 to 7 years of age, of mixed castration status.

METHODS

Dogs were randomly assigned to continue twice daily feeding of the commercial adult maintenance diet (n = 12, including 2 intact) that they were previously fed or to a high-fat diet (12, including 2 intact) for 17 weeks between December 1, 2021, and April 28, 2022. Assessments included body composition (weight, body condition score, and adipose mass determined by deuterium enrichment), clinical chemistries, plasma fatty acid quantification, oral glucose tolerance test, and histology of subcutaneous and visceral adipose biopsy samples.

RESULTS

The high-fat diet led to increased body weight, body condition score, fat mass and adipocyte size, hyperinsulinemia and peripheral insulin resistance, and elevations in serum lipids, including cholesterol, triglycerides, and several species of free fatty acids. Leptin levels increased in dogs fed a high-fat diet but not in control dogs. There were no significant changes in routine clinical chemistry values in either group.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Feeding a high-fat diet for 17 weeks led to potentially deleterious changes in metabolism similar to those seen in natural aging in dogs, including hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. A high-fat diet model may provide insights into the similar metabolic dysfunction that occurs during natural aging.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate if a difference in synovial amikacin concentrations exists in the radiocarpal joint (RCJ) following different durations of instillation of an IV regional limb perfusion (IVRLP) perfusate.

ANIMALS

7 healthy horses.

METHODS

Horses received 2 IVRLPs with 2 g amikacin diluted to 60 mL with 0.9% NaCl via the cephalic vein in a crossover study design with a wash-out period between procedures. Instillation of the perfusate was administered over a 1-minute (technique 1) and 5-minute (technique 5) period. Concentrations of amikacin within the RCJ were measured at time (T) 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 minutes after instillation of the perfusate. Systemic concentrations of amikacin were measured at T0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 29 minutes, and 1 minute after tourniquet removal (T31). Amikacin concentrations were determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

RESULTS

The median maximum concentration (CMAX) of amikacin within the RCJ for technique 1 was 338.4 µg/mL (range, 60 to 4,925 µg/mL), while the median CMAX for technique 5 was higher at 694.8 µg/mL (range, 169.2 to 3,410 µg/mL; P = .398). There was a higher amikacin blood concentration over time for technique 1 compared to technique 5 (P = .004).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Administration of perfusate at different rates did not significantly affect synovial concentration of amikacin within the RCJ when performing IVRLP. However, increased systemic leakage was noted when the perfusate was administered over 1 minute, which might affect synovial concentrations in a larger group of horses.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate associations between hepatic fat accumulation, fibrosis, and plasma values of primary metabolites, biochemical measurands, insulin, and lipoproteins in bearded dragons.

ANIMALS

48 adult central bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

METHODS

Dragons were sedated with alfaxalone, and a blood sample was collected. Plasma was submitted for untargeted primary metabolomics using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry, a biochemistry panel, and a lipoprotein panel determined by PAGE. Hepatic lipid content was quantified by liver attenuation measurements from CT images and digital image analysis of standardized histologic sections of the liver. Fibrosis was quantified by digital image analysis on Masson’s trichrome–stained histologic sections. Severity was determined from pathologic review of liver sections according to a standardized grading system. Statistical associations were investigated using serial linear models adjusted for false discovery rate and multivariate statistics.

RESULTS

Both hepatic fat and fibrosis had a significant effect on CT liver attenuation values. Several oligosaccharides (maltotriose, maltose, ribose, trehalose) and alkaline phosphatase were significantly and linearly increased with hepatic lipid content (all q < .05). On partial least square–discriminant analysis, β-hydroxybutyric acid was the most important discriminatory variable between fatty liver severity grades on histology. No significant associations were found with insulin, lipoproteins, and succinic acid.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Bearded dragons with hepatic lipid accumulation experienced multiple metabolic pathway disruptions, some being compatible with mitochondrial dysfunction. No evidence of insulin resistance or dyslipidemia was found. Hepatic biopsy and histopathology remain recommended for reliably diagnosing and staging fatty liver disease in bearded dragons.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to characterize extracellular vesicles (EVs) in plasma and synovial fluid obtained from horses with and without naturally occurring post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA).

ANIMALS

EVs were isolated from plasma and synovial fluid from horses with (n = 6) and without (n = 6) PTOA.

METHODS

Plasma and synovial fluid EVs were characterized with respect to quantity, size, and surface markers. Small RNA sequencing was performed, and differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) underwent bioinformatic analysis to identify putative targets and to explore potential associations with specific biological processes.

RESULTS

Plasma and synovial fluid samples from horses with PTOA had a significantly higher proportion of exosomes and a lower proportion of microvesicles compared to horses without PTOA. Small RNA sequencing revealed several differentially expressed miRNAs, including miR-144, miR-219-3p, and miR-199a-3l in plasma and miR-199a-3p, miR-214, and miR-9094 in synovial fluid EVs. Bioinformatics analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs highlighted their potential role in fibrosis, differentiation of chondrocytes, apoptosis, and inflammation pathways in PTOA.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

We have identified dynamic molecular changes in the small noncoding signatures of plasma and synovial fluid EVs in horses with naturally occurring PTOA. These findings could serve to identify promising biomarkers in the pathogenesis of PTOA, to facilitate the development of targeted therapies, and to aid in establishing appropriate translational models of PTOA.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has persisted as a One Health threat whose current circulation and impact are addressed in the companion Currents in One Health by Puryear and Runstadler, JAVMA, May 2024. Highly pathogenic avian influenza emerged as a by-product of agricultural practices and adapted to endemic circulation in wild bird species. Over more than 20 years, continued evolution in a complex ecology involving multiple hosts has produced a lineage that expanded globally over the last 2 years. Understanding the continued evolution and movement of HPAI relies on understanding how the virus is infecting different hosts in different contexts. This includes understanding the environmental factors and the natural ecology of viral transmission that impact host exposure and ultimately evolutionary trajectories. Particularly with the rapid host expansion, increased spillover to mammalian hosts, and novel clinical phenotypes in infected hosts, despite progress in understanding the impact of specific mutations to HPAI viruses that are associated with spillover potential, the threat to public health is poorly understood. Active research is focusing on new approaches to understanding the relationship of viral genotype to phenotype and the implementation of research and surveillance pipelines to make sense of the enormous potential for diverse HPAI viruses to emerge from wild reservoirs amid global circulation.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the relationship in equine practice between the time delay for charge entry (time between when work was performed and when the invoice charges were entered) and the total amount of the invoice.

SAMPLE

A total of 67,597 invoices from 3 hospitals were included for analysis.

METHODS

Analysis of 67,597 invoices from 49 doctors working out of 3 hospitals was performed. Variables collected included invoice total, date of work, date of invoice entry, month of work, invoice category (A = ambulatory daytime, E = after-hours, I = hospital), and veterinarian. Time delay to invoice entry was the difference between the day of work and the day of charge entry. A generalized additive model was used to describe the relationship between the time delay for invoice entry and the invoice type, month of work, and invoice category. The best model was selected using the Akaike information criterion.

RESULTS

In the selected model, total invoice amount was associated with time delay for charge entry and invoice category. Invoices entered on the same day of work were 299 ± $345, as compared to those entered the next day (255 ± $271) and those entered > 1 day after the work was performed (193 ± $196; P < .0001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

If the observed relationship between time delay (time between work performed and invoice entry) and total invoice amount is causal, equine practitioners may have significant opportunity to improve revenues by simply entering charges on the same day the work is performed.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

While diverse strains of low-pathogenicity avian influenza have circulated in wild birds for a long period of time, there has previously been little pathology in wild birds, ducks have been the primary and largely asymptomatic wild reservoir, and spillover into mammals has been limited and rare. In recent years, a high-pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus has emerged on the global scene and shifted the previously established dogmas for influenza infection. High-pathogenicity avian influenza has expanded into wildlife in unprecedented numbers and species diversity, with unmatched disease severity for influenza in wildlife. As the disease ecology of influenza has shifted with this new variant, significant efforts are underway to understand disease course, pathology, and species susceptibility. Here we focus primarily on the impact that HPAI has had in wild mammals while framing these novel spillovers within the context of significantly expanding disease in avian species and geography. The clinical and pathology presentations of HPAI in these atypical hosts are discussed, as well as prognosis and risk for continued spillover. The companion Currents in One Health by Runstadler and Puryear, AJVR, May 2024, provides further context on viral reservoirs and possible routes of direct or environmental transmission and risk assessment of viral variants that are emerging within wildlife.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the survival times in dogs diagnosed with adrenal tumors with vascular or soft tissue invasion that did not undergo adrenalectomy.

ANIMALS

Retrospective case series of 32 client-owned dogs.

METHODS

The medical records of a referral veterinary hospital were reviewed to identify dogs that were diagnosed with an invasive adrenal mass and did not undergo adrenalectomy between January 2013 and December 2022. Data collected included signalment, examination findings, and diagnostic results from the initial presentation. Descriptive statistics were calculated to summarize dog signalment information, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed for calculation of median survival time.

RESULTS

Most dogs (n = 28) had vascular invasion, primarily into the caudal vena cava. Surgery was offered but not pursued due to perceived risk of sudden death (n = 5), risk of hemorrhage (4), or concurrent diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation (1). Only 1 dog pursued stereotactic body radiation therapy, and 1 was prescribed toceranib phosphate (Palladia). Of these 32 dogs, 30 (93.8%) died or were euthanized and 2 (6.2%) dogs survived. The median follow-up time was 49 days (range, 0 to 1,910 days). The median survival time was 50 days (95% CI, 4 to 194 days). The most common cause of death or euthanasia was hemoabdomen (n = 8).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Nonsurgical management of invasive adrenal tumors was associated with short survival times in this case series.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association