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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of ileocecocolic junction (ICJ) resection on gastrointestinal signs, biochemical parameters, and nutritional variables in dogs and cats.

ANIMALS

20 dogs and 15 cats that underwent ICJ resection between January 2008 and June 2020.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent ICJ resection were reviewed, and clinical signs, laboratory abnormalities, and nutritional information were obtained. Additional follow-up information was obtained by contacting primary care veterinarians or owners. A subset of dogs (n = 6) and cats (2) were evaluated in the hospital via clinical examination, clinicopathologic testing, nutritional testing, and abdominal ultrasound.

RESULTS

Twenty dogs and 15 cats underwent resection of the ICJ for treatment of a variety of conditions. Ten of 20 dogs (50%) and 11/15 cats (73%) were reported by their owners to have a good long-term outcome based on the lack of long-term gastrointestinal signs or the ability to control gastrointestinal signs with diet and supplements alone. Despite owner-reported good outcomes, long-term diarrhea, weight loss, and muscle loss were common. Of the 6 dogs evaluated in the hospital, 3/6 (50%) had muscle loss, 2/6 (33%) had low taurine concentrations, and 1 dog each had low cobalamin, folate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and ionized calcium. Neither of the 2 cats evaluated in the hospital had nutritional abnormalities identified.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Owners should be informed of the possibility of long-term gastrointestinal clinical signs and the potential need for long-term nutritional management after ICJ resection.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify genetic associations with primary glaucoma (PG) in American Cocker Spaniels using a genome-wide association study (GWAS).

ANIMALS

A nationwide ambidirectional case–control cohort study was performed in American Cocker Spaniels that had an ophthalmic examination performed by a veterinarian. Ninety-four dogs with PG (cases) and 111 dogs without glaucoma (controls) met phenotypic criteria and had a blood sample collected after receiving informed owner consent.

PROCEDURES

Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples and genotyped (CanineHD BeadChip, Illumina Inc). A case–control GWAS using a linear mixed model was performed, and 3 significance thresholds were calculated (1) using a Bonferroni correction on all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) included in the GWAS, (2) using a Bonferroni correction on only the unlinked SNPs from a pruned data set, and (3) using 10,000 random phenotype permutations.

RESULTS

Following genotype data quality control, 89 cases and 93 controls were included in the GWAS. We identified an association on canine chromosome (CFA10); however, it did not reach statistical significance. Potential candidate genes within the surrounding linkage disequilibrium interval include coiled-coil domain containing 85A (CCDC85A) and extracellular growth factor containing fibulin extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Primary glaucoma in the American Cocker Spaniel is a complex heterogeneous disease that may be influenced by a locus on CFA10. The candidate genes CCDC85A and EFEMP1 within the identified linkage disequilibrium interval have been shown to be involved in human open-angle glaucoma.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the anatomic structures of the canine middle ear visible during endoscopic examination through ventral and lateral surgical approaches.

SAMPLE

5 cadaveric canine heads representing 4 breeds.

PROCEDURES

A descriptive study was performed. For each head, a lateral approach was performed on one side and a ventral approach was performed on the opposite side. Images were obtained with a 2.7-mm, 30° telescope.

RESULTS

Captured images were reviewed, and anatomic structures visualized through the lateral and ventral approaches were identified. The optimal approach, telescope position, and light post orientation to identify each anatomic structure were subjectively determined.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Middle ear evaluation with a telescope was technically straightforward and allowed identification of middle ear structures not typically visible with an open surgical approach. Findings may serve as an anatomic reference guide for future video-assisted surgical procedures of the middle ear. A better understanding of the location of anatomic structures in the middle ear may help to prevent unnecessary damage to fragile middle ear structures, such as nerves or blood vessels, during surgical procedures.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the clinical, diagnostic, and pathological features and postoperative prognosis of canine combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CCA).

ANIMALS

14 privately owned dogs that underwent surgical treatment.

PROCEDURES

The medical records, including signalment, clinical signs, blood test, urine analysis, computed tomography (CT) findings, intraoperative findings, and pathological findings, were retrospectively reviewed in the dogs with cHCC-CCA.

RESULTS

Of 306 dogs that underwent surgical removal of hepatic masses, 14 dogs (4.6%) were pathologically confirmed to have cHCC-CCA. Median age and body weight were 11.3 years and 7.3 kg, respectively. There were no specific clinicopathological findings for cHCC-CCA. CT revealed a massive hepatic mass in all dogs and the inclusion of cyst-like lesions within the mass in 13 dogs. Intrahepatic metastases were found at time of surgery in 2 dogs (14.3%). Of the residual 12 dogs, 1 dog showed postoperative formation of intrahepatic nodules suggestive of metastases and another had intrahepatic and pulmonary nodules and a forelimb skin mass, suggesting postoperative metastases. The median survival time of the patients with cHCC-CCA was 700 days (range, 10 to 869 days) after surgery.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to describe the clinical, diagnostic, and pathological features and postoperative prognosis of canine cHCC-CCA. The clinical and diagnostic features of canine cHCC-CCA might be more similar to those of HCC rather than to those of CCA, but the preoperative diagnosis differentiating between HCC and cHCC-CCA was challenging. Our study suggests that the postoperative prognosis of canine patients with cHCC-CCA is similar to that of dogs with HCC.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the presence of suspected pigment-associated deafness in North American yaks (Bos grunniens).

ANIMALS

12 North American yaks, including 11 with the homozygous piebald Royal pigmentation phenotype and 1 with the heterozygous piebald Trim phenotype.

PROCEDURES

Hearing was assessed using the brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) on yaks restrained in the head gate of a grooming chute.

RESULTS

Five of the Royal yaks and the Trim yak had hearing in both ears. Six Royal yaks were affected; 3 were deaf in 1 ear and 3 were deaf in both ears.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

For the first time, probable sensorineural deafness has been confirmed to be present in Royal yaks. The disorder is assumed to be congenital and associated with white pigmentation, based on the pattern of occurrence in other species.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the feasibility of a canister-free negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) device (PICO™ 1.6, Smith & Nephew Medical Ltd) and evaluate its effect on early phases of wound healing in canine experimental cutaneous wounds.

ANIMALS

5 adult spayed female research Beagles.

PROCEDURES

In a pilot experimental study, 1 full-thickness 2-cm X 2-cm cutaneous wound was surgically created on each hemithorax in each dog. Wounds were treated with either NPWT or a conventional wound dressing for 14 days. Bandage changes and wound evaluations were done at 7 time points. First macroscopic appearance of granulation tissue, smoothness of granulation tissue, and percentages of wound contraction and epithelialization were compared between treatments. Wounds were sampled at 3 time points for histopathologic analyses and semiquantitative scoring.

RESULTS

NPWT dressings were well tolerated by all dogs. Complete seal of the dressing required the application of adhesive spray, and maintenance of the vacuum lessened over time. Self-limiting skin irritations appeared in all dogs and hampered the attainment of negative pressure. Granulation tissue developed faster and was more abundant in control wounds. Wound contraction, epithelialization, and fibroblast proliferation were greater in control wounds at the end of the study.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This canister-free NPWT device is feasible but problematic in maintaining a vacuum, requiring frequent revisions of the dressing. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effect of this device on early phases of wound healing. Its benefits in wound healing remain unknown.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association