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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate and compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of SC ceftazidime administered at 20 and 40 mg/kg to red-eared sliders.

ANIMALS

8 adult red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

METHODS

In a sequential, 2-period study with a 3-week washout period between treatments, ceftazidime was administered SC to turtles at 20 and 40 mg/kg. Blood samples were collected from the subcarapacial sinus at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours after ceftazidime administration. Plasma ceftazidime concentrations were quantified using reversed-phase HPLC.

RESULTS

Mean plasma half-life after 20- and 40-mg/kg dosing was 39.75 ± 8.0 hours and 33.03 ± 6.56 hours, respectively. Mean maximum plasma concentration after 20- and 40-mg/kg dosing was 71.0 ± 15.93 µg/mL and 120.0 ± 30.62 µg/mL, respectively. Mean plasma ceftazidime concentrations remained ≥ 8 µg/mL, the theoretical MIC for various reptile pathogens for all time points.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicate that ceftazidime dosed at either 20 or 40 mg/kg produces plasma concentrations exceeding the theoretical MIC of various reptile pathogens for at least 120 hours. An ideal dosing interval could not be determined, as all plasma concentrations remained above the threshold of interest for all time points. Follow-up studies should focus on establishing a dosing interval and more rigorous monitoring for potential adverse effects.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the clinical presentation, progression, and diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with neutrophilic differentiation in an African lion (Panthera leo).

ANIMAL

A 12-year-old male African lion kept at a zoological institution in Colombia.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES

The lion presented for anorexia, pale mucous membranes, and a hind limb lameness of acute onset. Feline leukemia virus testing was negative, and repeated blood samples revealed severe anemia, intermittent thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, and neutrophilia. Coinfection with Anaplasma and Mycoplasma spp and chronic kidney disease were diagnosed based on clinicopathological findings.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

The lion received symptomatic treatment, doxycycline, and methylprednisolone or prednisolone. Euthanasia was elected due to clinical deterioration and unresponsive anemia, despite the resolution of Anaplasma and Mycoplasma spp infections. AML with neutrophilic differentiation was diagnosed based on bone marrow cytology, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

AML is a rare, aggressive hematopoietic disorder in domestic cats, although it has not yet been reported in nondomestic cats. This is the first description of the clinicopathological, histological, and immunohistochemical features of AML with neutrophilic differentiation in an FeLV-negative African lion that lacked circulating blasts.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare results for surgery time, perioperative pain, need for rescue analgesia, variables, serum C-reactive protein concentration, and postoperative complications for dogs with pyometra treated with laparoscopic-assisted ovariohysterectomy (LaOVH) versus open-surgery (OS) ovariohysterectomy.

ANIMALS

12 client-owned dogs with pyometra between June 1, 2016, and December 31, 2019.

METHODS

Dogs enrolled in this prospective single-center randomized clinical trial had pyometra confirmed by history, physical examination, ultrasonography, and blood work and were randomly assigned to treatment group LaOVH or OS. Differences in results for variables of interest were compared between groups using the Mann-Whitney U test, except the number of dogs requiring rescue analgesia was analyzed using the Fisher exact test. Values of P ≤ .05 were considered significant.

RESULTS

6 dogs were recruited in each group; results for 1 dog in the LaOVH group were excluded from further analysis due to free abdominal fluid detected during surgery. Median surgery time was significantly shorter and median total incision length was longer for the OS group (23 minutes; 106 mm), compared to the LaOVH group (37 minutes; 38 mm). No other results differed significantly between groups.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although fewer patients in the LaOVH group required rescue analgesia, this was not statistically significant. Therefore, our results could not prove previously suggested advantages of LaOVH (eg, less perioperative pain or faster recovery) in dogs with pyometra. Additionally, for the LaOVH group, the median surgical time was approximately 50% longer, an assistant was needed, and specialized equipment was required.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to determine hematologic changes of stored caprine whole blood in citrate phosphate dextrose adenine solution over a 28-day period.

SAMPLE

Ten 250-mL bags of whole blood were collected from 10 female Boer goats from Louisiana State University’s Division of Laboratory Animal Medicine herd.

METHODS

10 healthy blood donor goats were selected, and 250 mL of whole blood was drawn from each and stored at 2.78 °C. At the time of collection and every 7 days for a total of 28 days, samples were obtained from the blood bags to determine biochemical and hematologic values of collected blood. Only 5 of the 10 donors had baseline blood bag samples obtained for biochemical evaluation on day 0. At the end of 28 days, the remaining blood was submitted for aerobic and anaerobic culture.

RESULTS

Blood values remained within suitable limits for transfusion and below 1% hemolysis for up to 21 days in most samples. Packed cell volume did not change significantly from day 0 to day 28. Lactate significantly increased over the 28 days, though not as dramatically as expected on the basis of other blood storage studies. pH decreased due to anticoagulant acidity but did not drop below 7. Cultures were negative on all blood bags.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Changes over time are similar to that in other species, and caprine blood appears biochemically and hematologically stable for up to 21 days in storage. In vivo trials are needed for safety and efficacy.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the signalment, clinical findings, presumptive or definitive diagnosis, and outcome in cats with central cord syndrome (CCS).

ANIMALS

22 cats.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION

Cats evaluated for CCS at 7 referral hospitals between 2017 and 2021 were included. Information retrieved from medical records included signalment, physical and neurological examination findings, diagnostic investigations, definitive or presumptive diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up.

RESULTS

Median age at presentation was 9 years. Two neuroanatomical localizations were associated with CCS: C1-C5 spinal cord segments in 17 (77.3%) cats and C6-T2 spinal cord segments in 5 (22.7%) cats. Neuroanatomical localization did not correlate with lesion location on MRI in 8 (36.3%) cats. The most common lesion location within the vertebral column was over the C2 and C4 vertebral bodies in 6 (27.2%) and 5 (22.7%) cats, respectively. Peracute clinical signs were observed in 11 (50%) cats, acute in 1 (4.5%), subacute in 4 (18%), and chronic and progressive signs were seen in 6 (40.9%) cats. The most common peracute condition was ischemic myelopathy in 8 (36.3%) cats, whereas neoplasia was the most frequently identified chronic etiology occurring in 5 (22.7%) cats. Outcome was poor in 13 (59%) cats, consisting of 4 of 11 (36.6%) of the peracute cases, 3 of 4 (75%) of the subacute cases, and 6 of 6 of the chronic cases.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Central cord syndrome can occur in cats with lesions in the C1-C5 and C6-T2 spinal cord segments. Multiple etiologies can cause CCS, most commonly, ischemic myelopathy and neoplasia. Prognosis depends on the etiology and onset of clinical signs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Quantify the minimum individual cow colostral immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration required for pooling to achieve adequate transfer of passive immunity in calves.

ANIMALS

201 Jersey cows.

METHODS

Colostrum was collected from 28 pools and heat treated before being fed to calves or stored. Parity, total number of cows contributing to the pool, individual cow colostral volume contributions, and total volume of each colostrum pool were recorded. Colostrum IgG concentrations in individual and pooled (pre- and post-heat treatment) samples were analyzed by radial immunodiffusion and Brix refractometry. Colostral IgG concentration of ≥ 50g/L was considered the current recommended dairy industry standard for acceptable colostrum quality. Multivariable models were performed to determine factors affecting pooled colostral IgG concentrations. The minimum colostral IgG concentration required for pooling to achieve the recommended total mass of at least 200g IgG to be fed to a calf was calculated.

RESULTS

Total pool volume and the number of cows contributing to the pool were significant factors affecting IgG concentration. Colostrum pools from ≤ 7 cows, with a minimum pool IgG concentration of 70.4 g/L (22.9% Brix) or colostrum pool volume ≤ 40 L, with a minimum pool IgG concentration of 66.2 g/L (21.8% Brix) achieved the recommended total mass of at least 200g IgG in 4L of colostrum.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

When feeding pooled colostrum, IgG concentrations higher than the industry standard of 50 g/L is recommended to reduce the risk of failure of transfer of passive immunity in calves.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association