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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare thoracic ultrasonographic findings in healthy horses before and after general anesthesia for elective MRI utilizing a recently developed ultrasonographic scoring system to aid clinicians in the early identification of pneumonia following anesthesia.

ANIMALS

13 adult horses > 3 years of age.

PROCEDURES

Prior to anesthesia, horses underwent a thorough physical examination, CBC, thoracic radiography, and thoracic ultrasonography. Horses were then anesthetized for elective MRI, and thoracic ultrasonography was repeated within 3 hours after recovery. Thoracic ultrasonographic findings were scored utilizing a recently developed scoring system, and scores were compared before and after anesthesia.

RESULTS

There was no significant difference identified in total thoracic ultrasonography score before and after anesthesia, and there was no correlation between thoracic ultrasonography score following anesthesia and the body weight of the horse, the time recumbent, and the dependent side.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In healthy horses undergoing anesthesia for elective imaging, there was no significant change in thoracic ultrasonographic findings 3 hours after recovery from anesthesia. These data can aid clinicians in determining the clinical significance of ultrasonographic changes in the lung in the immediate postanesthetic period.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dexmedetomidine after IM administration in dogs.

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult purpose-bred dogs (3 males, 3 females) with a mean ± SD body weight of 25.2 ± 1.8 kg.

PROCEDURES

Each dog received 10 µg/kg dexmedetomidine, IM. Heart rate and respiratory rate were counted via cardiac auscultation and visual assessment of chest excursions. Sedation was assessed utilizing 2 sedation scoring systems. Plasma concentrations were determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Plasma concentrations versus time data after IM dexmedetomidine were analyzed using noncompartmental analysis for extravascular administration.

RESULTS

Over the first 2 hours following IM injection of dexmedetomidine, plasma concentrations fluctuated in each dog. The geometric mean (range) maximum plasma concentration was 109.2 (22.4 to 211.5) ng/mL occurring at 20.5 (5 to 75) minutes, and the mean half-life was 25.5 (11.5 to 41.5) minutes. Heart rate was significantly lower than baseline from 30 minutes to 2 hours postdexmedetomidine administration, and respiratory rate was significantly lower than baseline from 45 minutes to 1.75 hours. Dogs were significantly more sedated from 30 minutes to 1.5 hours postdexmedetomidine administration. Median time to onset of sedation was 7.5 minutes (range, 2 to 10 minutes), and median time to peak sedation was 30 minutes (range, 15 to 60 minutes).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Variations in plasma concentrations occurred in all dogs for the 2 hours postinjection of dexmedetomidine at 10 µg/kg, IM. This was likely due to alterations in absorption due to dexmedetomidine-induced local vasoconstriction. Despite variable plasma concentrations, all dogs were sedated following IM dexmedetomidine administration.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Burnout is a syndrome of emotional distress common in health-care professions. The aim of this study was to assess the potential levels of burnout syndrome among veterinarians in Spain as well as different factors involved in its prevalence.

SAMPLE

282 Spanish veterinarians (57.4% women and 42.6% men).

PROCEDURES

All data were obtained through an online survey. The instrument utilized for this purpose was the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey (adapted to a Spanish-speaking population), with analyses performed using statistical software. Moreover, a sociodemographic questionnaire was utilized.

RESULTS

Within the considered population, 23% suffered from burnout syndrome and the average scores were 29 points for emotional exhaustion, 14 points for depersonalization, and 35 points for personal accomplishment. A higher prevalence of burnout was associated with small animal clinicians (75.3%) and women (66.1%), in comparison to large animal clinicians (24.6%) and men (33.8%).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study showed for the first time that burnout syndrome is a current and highly relevant risk for Spanish veterinarians. The results obtained could help to raise awareness of this reality and the factors involved in the development or exacerbation of this syndrome.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To develop quantitative measures that, when combined with the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) score, would potentially enhance the accuracy of the scoring process.

ANIMALS

153 client-owned purebred German Shepherd Dogs with normal and near normal (71 dogs) and dysplastic coxofemoral joint (82 dogs).

PROCEDURES

Center edge (CE) angle, Norberg angle (NA), indexes of dorsal acetabular femoral head (AFH) coverage width and area, acetabular index angle, and inclination angle were determined. We also investigated the correlation between selected variables. Coxofemoral joints were classified into normal, near normal, and mildly, moderately, and severely dysplastic joints based on the morphometric criteria previously established by the conventional FCI scoring. Variables were compared among the 5 groups using ANOVA. Linear relationships were determined using Spearman correlation coefficients.

RESULTS

All radiographic measurements differed significantly (P < .0001) among the 5 assigned groups (normal, near normal, mildly dysplastic, moderately dysplastic, and severely dysplastic hip joints). NA was the only measure that differed significantly (P ≤ .03) between the 5 assigned groups. Positive correlations were identified between Norberg and CE angles (r s = 0.93), between width and area indexes of dorsal AFH coverage (rs = 0.92), and between the measurement techniques utilized to assess lateral versus dorsal AFH coverage (rs ≥ 0.65).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Evaluation of lateral and dorsal AFH coverage may help to refine the scoring system used to select German Shepherd Dogs for breeding. German Shepherd Dogs with NA < 103°, CE angle < 20.8°, dorsal AFH coverage width index ≤ 49%, and/or dorsal AFH coverage area index ≤ 51% should be considered to have mild, moderate, or severe hip dysplasia and are therefore not good candidates for breeding. Borderline values between near normal and mildly dysplastic joints should be reevaluated.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Assess veterinarians’ reported levels of moral distress and professional well-being. Determine the predictive value of moral distress, controlling for demographic factors, on veterinarians’ levels of Professional Fulfillment, Work Exhaustion, Disengagement, and Burnout.

SAMPLE

Members of the Veterinary Information Network.

PROCEDURES

An electronic survey distributed via the Veterinary Information Network data collection portal.

RESULTS

A total of 1,919 veterinarians completed the survey. For both associates and owners, gender and age were significant predictors of moral distress with younger female veterinarians reporting higher levels of distress than older male veterinarians. For associates, age was a positive predictor and moral distress score was a negative predictor of Professional Fulfillment. Age was a negative predictor, and female gender and moral distress score were both positive predictors for Work Exhaustion. For Interpersonal Disengagement and Burnout, age was a negative predictor and moral distress score was a positive predictor. For owners, age was a positive predictor and moral distress score was a negative predictor for Professional Fulfillment. Age was a negative predictor, and female gender and moral distress score were both positive predictors of Work Exhaustion, Interpersonal Disengagement, and Burnout.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

We found that, controlling for age and gender, higher levels of moral distress predicted lower levels of Professional Fulfillment and higher levels of Work Exhaustion, Interpersonal Disengagement, and Burnout. Given the prevalence of moral distress and its impact on mental health, it is imperative that the veterinary field provide training and education on how to recognize and navigate ethical conflicts.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe and classify cervical muscle jerks associated with cervical pain or myelopathy and evaluate their clinical and diagnostic relevance.

ANIMALS

20 dogs with a history of unilateral or bilateral cervical jerks associated with cervical pain or myelopathy.

PROCEDURES

A retrospective study. Detailed history, complete clinical and neurological examinations, CT studies, and outcome were available for each dog. All dogs received a treatment adapted to each diagnosis. The presence or absence of jerks was evaluated at short- and long-term recheck examinations. An immediate postoperative CT scan was obtained for all cases that were treated surgically.

RESULTS

20 dogs were selected for the study, 13 of which were French Bulldogs. Jerks all presented as focal repetitive rhythmic contractions on the lateral aspect of the neck (on one or both sides). All dogs had a diagnosis of cervical intervertebral disk extrusion (IVDE), half of them at the C2-C3 level. No dogs presented with extrusion caudal to the C4-C5 intervertebral disk space. The prevalence of myoclonia among all dogs diagnosed with IVDE was 3.77% (20/530) in our hospital.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Cervical jerk associated with cervical pain or myelopathy may represent myoclonus and was exclusively secondary to cranial cervical IVDE in this study. Full recovery was observed following medical or surgical treatment of IVDE. The exact origin and classification of this involuntary movement has yet to be established.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine the probability estimates for modifying terms used by clinical pathologists when interpreting cytologic samples and compare these to probability estimates assigned to these terms by clinicians, and to provide restricted, standardizing terms used in cytology reports.

SAMPLE

49 clinical pathologists and 466 Veterinary Information Network members responded to 2 similar surveys.

PROCEDURES

Online surveys were distributed to diplomates of the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathologists and clinician members of the Veterinary Information Network, made available between March 17, 2022, through May 5, 2022. Respondents assigned a range of probabilities to each of 18 modifier terms used by clinical pathologists to denote probability associated with diagnoses; clinicians identified terms that would affect their treatment decisions in cases of canine lymphoma. Respondents then provided thoughts about restricting and standardizing modifying terms and assigning numeric estimates in reports.

RESULTS

49 clinical pathologists and 466 clinicians provided responses. For many terms, probability ranges agreed between the 2 groups. However, differences in estimated probability inferred by a term existed for at least 6 terms. Modifying terms could be restricted to 7 largely nonoverlapping terms that spanned the range of probabilities. Clinicians preferred having numeric estimates of probability, but clinical pathologists resisted providing such estimates in reports.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Reducing and standardizing the number of modifying terms to reflect specific probability ranges would reduce disagreement between the clinical pathologist’s intended probability range and the clinician’s interpretation of a modifying term. This could result in fewer errors in interpretation and better patient care.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

ABSTRACT

Regenerative medicine therapies have become significant tools for treatment of joint, soft tissue, and a variety of other conditions in animals and humans. Regenerative medicine aims to restore form and function of injured tissues using the body’s own resources such as cells, fluids (ie, plasma and serum), and their resulting anti-inflammatory and prohealing cytokines. Platelet-rich plasma and other hemoderivatives have application for joint disorders such as osteoarthritis, cartilage injury, synovitis, and soft tissue injuries. These therapies achieve anti-inflammatory and healing effects without the use of corticosteroid therapy. This response is an advantage when treating young animals or human patients, and in animals with metabolic or hormonal issues such as equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. Also, these therapies may have beneficial effects when traditional IA treatments such as corticosteroids and/or hyaluronan are no longer effective at reducing joint inflammation and pain. Examples of hemoderivative regenerative therapies to be discussed include platelet-rich plasma, autologous conditioned serum, autologous protein solution, and α-2 macroglobulin.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association