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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Atherosclerosis is a chronic lipid-driven inflammatory disease of the arterial wall. Due to its cardiovascular ischemic complications, it is one of the most common causes of death in people. However, atherosclerosis is seldomly reported in dogs.

ANIMAL

A 10-year-old male mixed-breed dog.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES

Severe acute kidney injury associated with thrombosis of the abdominal aorta.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Treatment included renal replacement therapy, antithrombotic therapy, and supportive care. However, the dog developed neurological and respiratory complications and was euthanized due to worsening kidney function and lack of improvement of the thrombosis. Postmortem examination confirmed the presence of aortic thromboembolism and renal infarcts. Histology revealed severe chronic-active atherosclerosis of the distal aorta and renal arteries.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Aortic thrombosis is uncommon in dogs, and it is often associated with underlying conditions such as protein-losing nephropathy, endocrine disorders, cardiac disease, or hypercoagulability. In this case, no specific underlying cause was identified and atherosclerosis was considered the primary cause of the thrombosis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to describe the historical, physical, neurologic, and clinicopathologic findings in dogs with a definitive diagnosis of marijuana/tetrahydrocannabinol toxicity.

ANIMALS

A total of 223 dogs with known ingestion of marijuana or a positive tetrahydrocannabinol result on human urine multidrug test.

METHODS

Retrospective study from January 2017 to July 2021.

RESULTS

Median age was 1 year (1 month to 12 years). A common history was becoming acutely neurologic after going outside or to a public place (62/223 [27.8%]). Most owners denied possibility of exposure (152/223 [68%]). Median vitals were normal, but hyperthermia (38/212 [22.6%]), tachycardia (82/222 [37%]), and systemic hypertension (37/61 [60.7%]) were common abnormalities. The most common clinical signs included ataxia (197/223 [88.3%]), hyperesthesia (168/223 [75.3%]), urinary incontinence (102/223 [45.7%]), lethargy (140/223 [62.5%]), and vomiting (58/223 [26%]). The most common combinations of neurologic signs included ataxia and hyperesthesia (157/223 [70.4%]) and ataxia, hyperesthesia, and urinary incontinence (81/223 [36.3%]). Mild hyperkalemia (39/76 [51.3%]) and mild hypercalcemia (53/67 [79.1%]) were common. Twenty-two dogs were hospitalized. Survival was 100%.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A common presentation for marijuana toxicosis included young dogs with acute ataxia and hyperesthesia, with and without urinary incontinence, after going outside or to a public place. Vitals were often normal, but hyperthermia, tachycardia, and hypertension were common. Bloodwork was mostly normal, but mild hyperkalemia and mild ionized hypercalcemia were common. Marijuana should be high on the differential list with these history, physical examination, neurologic, and electrolyte abnormalities, regardless of owner denial or negative human urine multidrug test.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the effect of different substance combinations administered through mesotherapy in dogs with hip osteoarthritis.

ANIMALS

104 dogs.

METHODS

In this retrospective study, 4 groups (dogs treated with a combination of lidocaine, piroxicam, and thiocolchicoside [MG]; dogs treated with lidocaine, piroxicam, and Traumeel [TG]; dogs treated with lidocaine, piroxicam, and glucosamine [GG]; and dogs treated with the same combination as in MG combined with a photobiomodulation session [MPG]) were set. For all groups, the same treatment frequency was followed. Response to treatment was measured with the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (divided into pain interference score and pain severity score), Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs (LOAD), and Canine Orthopedic Index (divided into function, gait, stiffness, and quality of life) before treatment and 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days after treatment. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to investigate the influence of treatment, age, sex, body weight, breed, and Orthopedic Foundation for Animals score.

RESULTS

Dogs had a mean age of 7.6 ± 3.1 years and body weight of 28.6 ± 5.5 kg. Hip osteoarthritis was classified as mild (4), moderate (70), or severe (30). Greater improvements were observed in MG and MPG. Kaplan-Meier estimators showed MG and MPG had longer periods with clinically significant results. Treatment was the covariable that contributed more frequently to the outcomes observed.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The combination used in MG, particularly combined with photobiomodulation, produced longer-lasting clinically significant results.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of a fragmented, migrating acupuncture needle near the palmar proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ) of a horse.

ANIMAL

A 9-year-old Warmblood cross mare.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES

The mare presented for evaluation of a linear metallic foreign body on the palmar lateral aspect of the PIPJ following acupuncture treatment. The mare had a pinpoint puncture wound and sensitivity to palpation over the lateral aspect of the PIPJ region. The referring veterinarian performed radiographs and found a linear metallic foreign body near the lateral palmar PIPJ. Ultrasonographic examination demonstrated a hyperechoic lesion consistent with a metallic object in the soft tissues of the palmar lateral aspect of the PIPJ.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

The horse was anesthetized, and the linear metallic foreign body was removed. The use of intraoperative ultrasound and digital radiographs assisted in determining the location of and surgical approach to remove the foreign body. The linear metallic foreign body was the fragmented segment (body) of an acupuncture needle. The mare recovered from surgery uneventfully and returned to the previous level of activity.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This report demonstrates the potential risks of prolonged retention and or delayed removal of acupuncture needles in the form of needle fragmentation and migration. It also demonstrates the use of imaging in determining the location and position of small, thin metallic foreign bodies to aid in surgical approach and removal.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association