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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to compare the effects of low-dose subarachnoid injections of 2% lidocaine (LIDO) and 0.5% bupivacaine (BUPI) in goats.

ANIMALS

6 healthy, privately owned female goats.

METHODS

In this randomized blind crossover clinical trial, each goat received 0.05 mL/kg−1 of LIDO, BUPI, or sterile saline solution into the lumbosacral subarachnoid space, with a seven-day washout. Cardiorespiratory variables, rectal temperature, and somatosensory (pinprick) and motor (ataxia) functions were recorded at baseline (time 0) and 2, 5, 10, 15, and 30 minutes after injection, then every 20 minutes until the goat was standing and able to walk. Time to regain somatosensory and motor functions was compared between treatments using Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the Cox proportional hazards model. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare cardiorespiratory variables between treatments and over time. A P value ≤ .05 was considered significant.

RESULTS

Somatosensory recovery was longer with BUPI, though not statistically significant. The median time to stand was 50 (50, 67) minutes after LIDO injection and 104 (101, 156) minutes after BUPI injection (P = .031). The median time to walk was 72 (54, 85) minutes after LIDO versus 225 (220, 245) minutes after BUPI injection (P = .031). Cardiovascular and respiratory variables showed no significant differences between treatments.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Despite prolonged ataxia with BUPI, pinprick sensation recovery did not differ. At reduced doses, both LIDO and BUPI are deemed acceptable for short procedures of the flank, pelvic limb, or tail in healthy goats.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Present an approach to the safe and efficient provision of anesthesia and birth control measures to a large group of primates.

ANIMALS

98 hamadryas baboons (Papio hamadryas) held in a German zoological institution.

METHODS

A group of 12 veterinarians, 2 zookeepers, and 6 volunteers anesthetized all animals within 2 days. The baboons were orally premedicated with midazolam (0.1 to 0.5 mg/kg) and anesthetized with medetomidine (40 to 60 µg/kg, IM) and ketamine (2 to 4 mg/kg, IM); isoflurane at rates of 1.5% to 2% was used for maintaining anesthesia if necessary. All animals received a physical examination, prophylactic medication, and tuberculin testing. For population management, the animals received a contraceptive implant (adult females), orchiectomy (young males), or vasectomy (breeding males). Young males received intratesticular blocks with lidocaine. All animals received atipamezole (125 to 150 µg/kg) before recovery.

RESULTS

Premedication resulted in anxiolysis, which facilitated separating and darting. Median time from darting to access to the animal was 10 minutes. Mean anesthetic times were 25 minutes for females and 55 minutes for males. The depth of anesthesia was appropriate for the procedures. No fatalities were recorded. One animal was injured by other baboons but recovered after treatment.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Health management and birth control measures are necessary in baboon troops under human care. Anesthesia and/or contraception of individual animals often leads to intraspecific aggression. This case series describes how to provide anesthesia and contraception to an entire troop as an alternative approach that can be adopted to future similar interventions.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine antibiotic levels in plasma and interstitial fluid (ISF) after SC placement of compounded florfenicol (FF) calcium sulfate beads (CSBs) in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

ANIMALS

6 juvenile female rabbits (n = 5 treatment and 1 control).

METHODS

An ultrafiltration probe and CSBs were placed SC in 6 rabbits (n = 5 for FF CSBs and 1 for control CSBs). Plasma (3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours and 7, 14, and 21 days) and ISF (daily for 21 days) samples were collected, and FF was measured by HPLC for pharmacokinetic analysis. Hematology, biochemistry, and histopathology were assessed.

RESULTS

Means ± SD for the area under the curve, maximum concentration, time of maximum concentration, terminal half-life, and mean residence time to the last data point for plasma and ISF were 16.63 ± 8.16 and 17,902 ± 7,564 h·µg/mL, 0.79 ± 0.38 and 245 ± 223 µg/mL, 2.90 ± 0.3 and 59 ± 40 hours, 30.81 ± 16.9 and 27.3 ± 9.39 hours, 23.4 ± 10 and 73.7 ± 13 hours, respectively. Plasma FF was < 2 µg/mL at all time points. The ISF FF remained > 8 μg/mL for 109.98 to 231.58 hours. One rabbit death occurred during treatment, but the cause of death was undetermined. Local tissue inflammation was present, but no clinically significant systemic adverse effects were found on hematology, biochemistry, or histopathology in the remaining rabbits.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Florfenicol CSBs maintained antibiotic concentrations in ISF at levels likely to be effective against bacteria sensitive to > 8 µg/mL for 5 to 10 days while maintaining low (< 2 µg/mL) plasma levels. Florfenicol CSBs may be effective for local antibiotic treatment in rabbit abscesses.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to examine in detail the complaints against veterinarians submitted by pet owners and evaluated by the Turkish Veterinary Medical Association in Türkiye, with the aim to create awareness among Turkish veterinarians about the nature of the complaints and how they might reduce the risk of making medical errors.

SAMPLE

127 files of complaints.

METHODS

A total of 127 written complaints from pet owners filed between January 2012 and December 2021 were analyzed. The pet owners’ complaints were subjected to a conventional content analysis to identify the primary, secondary, and tertiary themes. Each case was evaluated by a 3-level complaint-coding taxonomy. The first level included 3 domains (themes), namely clinical, management, and relationship, while the second level was ordered in a total of 7 subcategories of complaint types. Thereafter, the third-level minor themes were grouped into related subcategories.

RESULTS

From 127 file complaints, 296 specific issues were identified. Of these, 62% were in the clinical domain, 24% in the management domain, and 14% about poor behavior of the attending veterinarians. The most common (43%) complaint was medical errors.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

An increased awareness of common medical errors should be promoted among Turkish veterinarians in order to reduce the risk of negligence and malpractice.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To provide a video tutorial detailing how to perform “blind” and ultrasound-guided abdominocentesis for diagnostic and therapeutic guidance, and to provide a brief demonstration of intra-abdominal pressure measurement (IAP).

ANIMALS

Any cat or dog with suspicion of free abdominal effusion or patients requiring measurement of IAP.

METHODS

Abdominocentesis should be performed when there is high suspicion for peritoneal effusion based on physical exam and/or diagnostic imaging. The 4-quadrant tap uses 20-gauge or larger needles placed blindly in ≥ 1 of the 4 quadrants of the abdomen to collect abdominal fluid. In contrast, ultrasound allows visualization of fluid in the abdomen prior to percutaneous insertion of a needle and syringe to collect fluid. Regardless of collection technique, fluid should have immediate cytologic analysis and later can be submitted for biochemical parameters, additional cellular analysis by a pathologist, and culture and sensitivity (in rare cases if indicated). Intravesicular bladder pressure measurement using a manometer–urinary catheter system approximates the IAP when there is concern for organ hypoperfusion and compartment syndrome.

RESULTS

Abdominocentesis can be performed with and without the use of ultrasound guidance. Intravesicular bladder pressure measurement is used to diagnose and trend IAP values before and after treatments are performed.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Abdominocentesis is a simple and safe technique that all small animal clinicians should be comfortable performing. Effusion sampling can guide further diagnostics and treatments. Measurement of IAP is simple and requires no specialized equipment.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To measure interobserver agreement for 4 functional tasks and their summed geriatric functional score (GFS) and correlate tasks and GFS with client-specific outcome measurements (CSOMs): Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) pain severity, CBPI pain interference, and Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs.

ANIMALS

89 geriatric dogs were recruited between April and September 2023 from staff, friends, and clients of the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine with a median age of 11.0 years and weight of 26.4 kg.

METHODS

Dogs underwent 4 sequential functional tests: timed up and go (TUG), cavallettis, figure 8s, and down to stands. Two observers independently scored each dog. The GFS was calculated based on the summed scores of the individual tests. Additional information collected included signalment, weight, measurements reflecting the comorbidities of aging (body condition score and muscle condition score), and CSOMs.

RESULTS

Strong interrater agreement was found for all functional tests. The TUG in seconds (sTUG) and figure 8s demonstrated significant (P < .05) moderate to strong correlations to all CSOMs. The GFS showed similar significant correlations with all CSOMs except CBPI pain severity; however, when correlating individual tests to CSOMs, only figure 8s and TUG were significantly contributing to GFS results. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis defined highly functional dogs as those completing the sTUG in under 3.83 seconds. The sTUG represented the best test for geriatric function given it was objective, reliable, correlated well to CSOMs, and could help identify highly functioning dogs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The sTUG appears to be the first practical and reliable functional test of canine geriatric mobility.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Assess markers for pancreatic function and gastrointestinal malabsorption in African painted dogs (Lycaon pictus), including canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI), canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI), cobalamin, and folate at one North American facility.

ANIMALS

15 healthy African painted dogs held at one institution were sampled during routine health examinations.

METHODS

Blood was collected at routine health examinations, and serum was separated and stored until testing. Serum was analyzed for cTLI, cPLI, cobalamin, and folate. The results were evaluated for correlation to sex, age, and storage time of samples.

RESULTS

All individuals had cTLI and folate levels below normal reference ranges for domestic dogs (< 5.0 µg/L and < 7.7 µg/L, respectively). Cobalamin values were within or above reported domestic dog ranges, and cPLI values were within range as well. No analytes were significantly influenced by sex or time in storage, while cTLI was positively correlated with age.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

cTLI and folate did not fall within normal domestic canid reference ranges in this population of healthy African painted dogs. Clinical interpretation of these values based on domestic canid recommendations would indicate clinical disease, which was not apparent in this population. Analytes for pancreatic function and malabsorption or gastrointestinal indicators, including cTLI, cPLI, and folate, in African painted dogs should be interpreted with caution when using domestic dog references ranges.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Assess femorotibial features in foals with and without medial femoral condyle (MFC) subchondral radiolucencies (SR+ and SR–).

METHODS

3 independent, sequential radiographic studies were performed. Study 1 retrospectively measured femorotibial morphological parameters in repository radiographs (SR– and SR+). Study 2 qualitatively compared drawings of intercondylar notch shape in postmortem radiographs (SR–). Study 3 prospectively measured femorotibial parameters in 1-month-old foals (SR–). In studies 1 and 3, 13 morphologic parameters were measured. Limb directional asymmetry was assessed in 2 age groups (< 7 or ≥ 7 months).

RESULTS

Study 1 (SR– group; n = 183 radiographs) showed increased femoral measurements with maturation, except the distal femoral intercondylar notch width (FINwal), which decreased. In contrast, in SR+ stifles (53 radiographs), 3 femoral parameters (MFC width [MFCwpf], MFC height, or FINwal) showed no changes. Tibial plateau width alone increased with maturation in both groups. Interobserver reliability was good to excellent. Study 2 (n = 53 radiographs) confirmed a distal FINw decrease in SR– foals. In study 1, left SR– stifles in greater than or equal to 7-month-old fillies had significantly larger femoral bicondylar width and FINw, while right SR+ stifles in fillies greater than or equal to 7 months had a significantly larger MFCw. In study 3 of 1-month-old foals (n = 94 SR– radiographs), the MFCw, femoral condyle bicondylar width, and lateral femoral condyle height were all greater on the left, whereas the intercondylar intereminence space width was larger on the right.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In SR+ stifles, the distal femur exhibited divergent maturation, indicating a wider MFC in the right stifle in older foals. As SR lesions are more common on the right, this suggests a potential association with MFC morphology.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in American Journal of Veterinary Research