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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of dexmedetomidine after IM administration in dogs.

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult purpose-bred dogs (3 males, 3 females) with a mean ± SD body weight of 25.2 ± 1.8 kg.

PROCEDURES

Each dog received 10 µg/kg dexmedetomidine, IM. Heart rate and respiratory rate were counted via cardiac auscultation and visual assessment of chest excursions. Sedation was assessed utilizing 2 sedation scoring systems. Plasma concentrations were determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. Plasma concentrations versus time data after IM dexmedetomidine were analyzed using noncompartmental analysis for extravascular administration.

RESULTS

Over the first 2 hours following IM injection of dexmedetomidine, plasma concentrations fluctuated in each dog. The geometric mean (range) maximum plasma concentration was 109.2 (22.4 to 211.5) ng/mL occurring at 20.5 (5 to 75) minutes, and the mean half-life was 25.5 (11.5 to 41.5) minutes. Heart rate was significantly lower than baseline from 30 minutes to 2 hours postdexmedetomidine administration, and respiratory rate was significantly lower than baseline from 45 minutes to 1.75 hours. Dogs were significantly more sedated from 30 minutes to 1.5 hours postdexmedetomidine administration. Median time to onset of sedation was 7.5 minutes (range, 2 to 10 minutes), and median time to peak sedation was 30 minutes (range, 15 to 60 minutes).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Variations in plasma concentrations occurred in all dogs for the 2 hours postinjection of dexmedetomidine at 10 µg/kg, IM. This was likely due to alterations in absorption due to dexmedetomidine-induced local vasoconstriction. Despite variable plasma concentrations, all dogs were sedated following IM dexmedetomidine administration.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To develop quantitative measures that, when combined with the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) score, would potentially enhance the accuracy of the scoring process.

ANIMALS

153 client-owned purebred German Shepherd Dogs with normal and near normal (71 dogs) and dysplastic coxofemoral joint (82 dogs).

PROCEDURES

Center edge (CE) angle, Norberg angle (NA), indexes of dorsal acetabular femoral head (AFH) coverage width and area, acetabular index angle, and inclination angle were determined. We also investigated the correlation between selected variables. Coxofemoral joints were classified into normal, near normal, and mildly, moderately, and severely dysplastic joints based on the morphometric criteria previously established by the conventional FCI scoring. Variables were compared among the 5 groups using ANOVA. Linear relationships were determined using Spearman correlation coefficients.

RESULTS

All radiographic measurements differed significantly (P < .0001) among the 5 assigned groups (normal, near normal, mildly dysplastic, moderately dysplastic, and severely dysplastic hip joints). NA was the only measure that differed significantly (P ≤ .03) between the 5 assigned groups. Positive correlations were identified between Norberg and CE angles (r s = 0.93), between width and area indexes of dorsal AFH coverage (rs = 0.92), and between the measurement techniques utilized to assess lateral versus dorsal AFH coverage (rs ≥ 0.65).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Evaluation of lateral and dorsal AFH coverage may help to refine the scoring system used to select German Shepherd Dogs for breeding. German Shepherd Dogs with NA < 103°, CE angle < 20.8°, dorsal AFH coverage width index ≤ 49%, and/or dorsal AFH coverage area index ≤ 51% should be considered to have mild, moderate, or severe hip dysplasia and are therefore not good candidates for breeding. Borderline values between near normal and mildly dysplastic joints should be reevaluated.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe and classify cervical muscle jerks associated with cervical pain or myelopathy and evaluate their clinical and diagnostic relevance.

ANIMALS

20 dogs with a history of unilateral or bilateral cervical jerks associated with cervical pain or myelopathy.

PROCEDURES

A retrospective study. Detailed history, complete clinical and neurological examinations, CT studies, and outcome were available for each dog. All dogs received a treatment adapted to each diagnosis. The presence or absence of jerks was evaluated at short- and long-term recheck examinations. An immediate postoperative CT scan was obtained for all cases that were treated surgically.

RESULTS

20 dogs were selected for the study, 13 of which were French Bulldogs. Jerks all presented as focal repetitive rhythmic contractions on the lateral aspect of the neck (on one or both sides). All dogs had a diagnosis of cervical intervertebral disk extrusion (IVDE), half of them at the C2-C3 level. No dogs presented with extrusion caudal to the C4-C5 intervertebral disk space. The prevalence of myoclonia among all dogs diagnosed with IVDE was 3.77% (20/530) in our hospital.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Cervical jerk associated with cervical pain or myelopathy may represent myoclonus and was exclusively secondary to cranial cervical IVDE in this study. Full recovery was observed following medical or surgical treatment of IVDE. The exact origin and classification of this involuntary movement has yet to be established.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine the probability estimates for modifying terms used by clinical pathologists when interpreting cytologic samples and compare these to probability estimates assigned to these terms by clinicians, and to provide restricted, standardizing terms used in cytology reports.

SAMPLE

49 clinical pathologists and 466 Veterinary Information Network members responded to 2 similar surveys.

PROCEDURES

Online surveys were distributed to diplomates of the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathologists and clinician members of the Veterinary Information Network, made available between March 17, 2022, through May 5, 2022. Respondents assigned a range of probabilities to each of 18 modifier terms used by clinical pathologists to denote probability associated with diagnoses; clinicians identified terms that would affect their treatment decisions in cases of canine lymphoma. Respondents then provided thoughts about restricting and standardizing modifying terms and assigning numeric estimates in reports.

RESULTS

49 clinical pathologists and 466 clinicians provided responses. For many terms, probability ranges agreed between the 2 groups. However, differences in estimated probability inferred by a term existed for at least 6 terms. Modifying terms could be restricted to 7 largely nonoverlapping terms that spanned the range of probabilities. Clinicians preferred having numeric estimates of probability, but clinical pathologists resisted providing such estimates in reports.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Reducing and standardizing the number of modifying terms to reflect specific probability ranges would reduce disagreement between the clinical pathologist’s intended probability range and the clinician’s interpretation of a modifying term. This could result in fewer errors in interpretation and better patient care.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

ABSTRACT

Regenerative medicine therapies have become significant tools for treatment of joint, soft tissue, and a variety of other conditions in animals and humans. Regenerative medicine aims to restore form and function of injured tissues using the body’s own resources such as cells, fluids (ie, plasma and serum), and their resulting anti-inflammatory and prohealing cytokines. Platelet-rich plasma and other hemoderivatives have application for joint disorders such as osteoarthritis, cartilage injury, synovitis, and soft tissue injuries. These therapies achieve anti-inflammatory and healing effects without the use of corticosteroid therapy. This response is an advantage when treating young animals or human patients, and in animals with metabolic or hormonal issues such as equine pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. Also, these therapies may have beneficial effects when traditional IA treatments such as corticosteroids and/or hyaluronan are no longer effective at reducing joint inflammation and pain. Examples of hemoderivative regenerative therapies to be discussed include platelet-rich plasma, autologous conditioned serum, autologous protein solution, and α-2 macroglobulin.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the author’s surgical guidelines for the effective use of a modified von Langenbeck technique, utilizing bilateral bipedicle mucoperiosteal flaps in the dog.

ANIMALS

12 client-owned dogs with cleft palate defects of the hard and soft palates.

PROCEDURES

12 dogs with cleft palate were presented to the Angell Animal Medical Center from May 20, 2015, to March 24, 2022. The patient’s ages ranged from 5 months to 3 years. All 12 dogs had closure of the hard palate clefts by use of modifications of the original von Langenbeck technique in this prospective study.

RESULTS

Successful closure of the cleft (hard and soft) palate defects was achieved in all 12 dogs in a single surgical procedure. A small residual opening was noted at the level of the incisive papilla in each dog; this was of no clinical consequence in this report.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The von Langenbeck technique, using the simple closure modifications reported, was effective in closing both narrow and wide defects. Successful execution requires the complete elevation of each flap, which facilitates their tension-free advancement over the palatal cleft. Vertical mattress sutures evert the flap margins, allowing for direct collagen surface contact for proper healing. Placement of sutures in the rugal folds increases the tissue purchase to reduce the risk of suture cut-out. Fine interrupted sutures, placed between the vertical mattress sutures, maintains the proper alignment of the incisional margins. The author waits a minimum of 5 months before closing cleft palate defects, enabling the donor areas time to mature and improving their ability to retain sutures more effectively.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the clinical presentation and outcome in dogs diagnosed with Trypanosoma cruzi infection in nonendemic areas and to survey veterinary cardiologists in North America for Chagas disease awareness.

ANIMALS

12 client-owned dogs; 83 respondents from a veterinary cardiology listserv.

PROCEDURES

A retrospective, multicenter medical records review to identify dogs diagnosed with American trypanosomiasis between December 2010 and December 2020. An anonymous online survey was conducted August 9 to 22, 2022.

RESULTS

Diagnosis was made using indirect fluorescent antibody titer (n = 9), quantitative PCR assay (1), or postmortem histopathology (2). Time spent in Texas was < 1 year (n = 7) or 2 to 8 years (5). Time in nonendemic areas prior to diagnosis was < 1 year (n = 10) and > 3 years (2). Eleven had cardiac abnormalities. Of the 12 dogs, 5 had died unexpectedly (range, 1 to 108 days after diagnosis), 4 were still alive at last follow-up (range, 60 to 369 days after diagnosis), 2 were euthanized because of heart disease (1 and 98 days after diagnosis), and 1 was lost to follow-up. Survey results were obtained from 83 cardiologists in North America, of which the self-reported knowledge about Chagas disease was limited in 49% (41/83) and 69% (57/83) expressed interest in learning resources.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results highlight the potential for encountering dogs with T cruzi infection in nonendemic areas and need for raising awareness about Chagas disease in North America.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association