The objectives of the current study were to quantify laying hen sternal carina (keel) and tibiotarsal bone and muscle quality using clinical CT, tissue level, and biomechanical measures; test associations among muscle transverse sectional area, bone mineral density, and biomechanical measures of bone quality; and determine whether CT measures of bone and muscle quality would be predictive of biomechanical measures of tibiotarsal bone quality.
60 40-week-old Hy-Line brown laying hens were used.
Associations among CT imaging, tissue level, and biomechanical measures of tibiotarsal and keel bone and muscle quality were tested using multivariate correlational analyses. Bivariate and generalized regressions were performed to determine whether CT measures were predictive of biomechanical measures of tibiotarsal bone quality.
Low positive correlations were identified between tibiotarsal muscle transverse-sectional area (cross-sectional area [CSA]) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the proximal location of the bone (r = −0.11 to 0.31). Tibiotarsal muscle CSA was also low to moderately correlated with biomechanical measures of bone quality (r = 0.20 to 0.41). Keel muscle CSA values were not correlated with keel BMD values, but they were correlated with biomechanical measures of tibiotarsal bone quality (r = 0.18 to 0.40). Keel CT measures of bone quality were not correlated with tibiotarsal CT measures of bone quality. At the proximal location, muscle CSA and tibiotarsal BMD were predictive of biomechanical failure load (F = 9.68, P = .0003muscle CSA; F = 9.13, P = .004tibiotarsal BMD).
Findings supported using noninvasive CT measures of muscle and bone quality in longitudinal research studies evaluating the effects of interventions on laying hen welfare.
To determine setting and temperature properties of diluted polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement in vitro to assess utility for vocal fold augmentation in horses.
4 dilutions of PMMA equivalent to volumes of 15 mL, 20 mL, 25 mL, and 30 mL PMMA powder (PMMAp) in 10 mL solvent.
For each volume PMMAp, setting times (tset), peak temperatures (Tmax), and times to peak temperature (tmax) were determined using a temperature data logger in a 4-mL volume of PMMA. Injectability was assessed in vitro by documenting the force required to inject 0.2 mL PMMA through an 18-gauge 3.5-inch spinal needle attached to a 6-mL syringe at 1-minute intervals. Working time (twork) was calculated from a linear regression of injectability.
Peak temperatures increased with increasing volume of PMMAp: 56 °C, 86 °C, 99 °C, and 101 °C. Times for tset, twork, and tmax were inversely proportional to PMMA concentrations, resulting in tset of 23, 21, 17, and 14 minutes; twork of 22.75, 12.25, 7, and 4 minutes; and tmax of 28, 24, 19, and 16 minutes, respectively, for 15, 20, 25, and 30 mL PMMAp. Pairwise comparisons for all analyses were significant apart from Tmax for 25 and 30 mL PMMAp (P = .96) and twork for 20 and 25 mL PMMAp (P = .06).
Decreasing the concentration of PMMA bone cement resulted in longer working times and setting times; however, peak temperatures did not differ between the 2 strongest concentrations. Further research is warranted to quantify diluted PMMA properties for in vivo use for vocal fold augmentation in horses.
Apply the 3-site echocardiographic metrics utilized to assess pulmonary hypertension (PH) probability in dogs and humans to feline echocardiographic examinations to investigate the translatability of this scheme and subsequent enhancement of detection of PH in cats.
27 client-owned cats (euthyroid [n = 11] and hyperthyroid ).
This was a single-center, prospective, observational case-control study. Demographic, physical examination, and echocardiographic data from hyperthyroid and euthyroid cats were compared via Fisher exact test and Kruskal-Wallis test.
Hyperthyroid versus euthyroid cats had significantly greater right atrial area index values and were more likely to have late-peaking main pulmonary artery pulsed-wave flow profiles. Two hyperthyroid cats had measurable tricuspid regurgitation tracings (one with a high probability of PH and another with a low probability of PH).
Hyperthyroid cats demonstrated altered pulmonary arterial hemodynamics and lacked consistent intermediate or high probability of PH. The 3-site echocardiographic metrics scheme is applicable for the evaluation of right-sided cardiac and pulmonary arterial hemodynamics in cats. Further research is needed to determine reference ranges in larger populations of healthy cats and those with high clinical suspicion for PH.
Treatment options for human dementia remain limited, and additional research is needed to develop and validate translational models. Canine cognitive decline (CCD) is common in older dogs and a major source of morbidity. The decline includes physiological and behavioral changes comparable to those in humans diagnosed with dementia. There are also corresponding changes in plasma neurodegenerative biomarkers and neuropathology. Biomarkers for both human and canine cognitive decline can be used to identify and quantify the onset of behavioral data suggestive of CCD. Successful correlations would provide reference values for the early identification of neurodegeneration in canine patients. This could allow for the subsequent testing of interventions directed at ameliorating CCD and offer translational value leading to safe and effective treatment of dementia in people. Research can help exploit, track, and provide benefits from the rapid progression of spontaneous naturally occurring CCD in a large heterogenous community of companion dogs. Research efforts should work to deliver information using blood biomarkers, comorbidities, and wearable technologies to track and evaluate biometric data associated with neurodegeneration and cognitive decline that can be used by both human and companion animal researchers. The synergistic approach between human and veterinary medicine epitomized in one health underscores the interconnectedness of the well-being of both species. Leveraging the insights gained from studying CCD can not only lead to innovative interventions for pets but will also shed light on the complex mechanisms of human dementia.