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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the anatomic structures of the canine middle ear visible during endoscopic examination through ventral and lateral surgical approaches.

SAMPLE

5 cadaveric canine heads representing 4 breeds.

PROCEDURES

A descriptive study was performed. For each head, a lateral approach was performed on one side and a ventral approach was performed on the opposite side. Images were obtained with a 2.7-mm, 30° telescope.

RESULTS

Captured images were reviewed, and anatomic structures visualized through the lateral and ventral approaches were identified. The optimal approach, telescope position, and light post orientation to identify each anatomic structure were subjectively determined.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Middle ear evaluation with a telescope was technically straightforward and allowed identification of middle ear structures not typically visible with an open surgical approach. Findings may serve as an anatomic reference guide for future video-assisted surgical procedures of the middle ear. A better understanding of the location of anatomic structures in the middle ear may help to prevent unnecessary damage to fragile middle ear structures, such as nerves or blood vessels, during surgical procedures.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the clinical, diagnostic, and pathological features and postoperative prognosis of canine combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CCA).

ANIMALS

14 privately owned dogs that underwent surgical treatment.

PROCEDURES

The medical records, including signalment, clinical signs, blood test, urine analysis, computed tomography (CT) findings, intraoperative findings, and pathological findings, were retrospectively reviewed in the dogs with cHCC-CCA.

RESULTS

Of 306 dogs that underwent surgical removal of hepatic masses, 14 dogs (4.6%) were pathologically confirmed to have cHCC-CCA. Median age and body weight were 11.3 years and 7.3 kg, respectively. There were no specific clinicopathological findings for cHCC-CCA. CT revealed a massive hepatic mass in all dogs and the inclusion of cyst-like lesions within the mass in 13 dogs. Intrahepatic metastases were found at time of surgery in 2 dogs (14.3%). Of the residual 12 dogs, 1 dog showed postoperative formation of intrahepatic nodules suggestive of metastases and another had intrahepatic and pulmonary nodules and a forelimb skin mass, suggesting postoperative metastases. The median survival time of the patients with cHCC-CCA was 700 days (range, 10 to 869 days) after surgery.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to describe the clinical, diagnostic, and pathological features and postoperative prognosis of canine cHCC-CCA. The clinical and diagnostic features of canine cHCC-CCA might be more similar to those of HCC rather than to those of CCA, but the preoperative diagnosis differentiating between HCC and cHCC-CCA was challenging. Our study suggests that the postoperative prognosis of canine patients with cHCC-CCA is similar to that of dogs with HCC.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the presence of suspected pigment-associated deafness in North American yaks (Bos grunniens).

ANIMALS

12 North American yaks, including 11 with the homozygous piebald Royal pigmentation phenotype and 1 with the heterozygous piebald Trim phenotype.

PROCEDURES

Hearing was assessed using the brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) on yaks restrained in the head gate of a grooming chute.

RESULTS

Five of the Royal yaks and the Trim yak had hearing in both ears. Six Royal yaks were affected; 3 were deaf in 1 ear and 3 were deaf in both ears.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

For the first time, probable sensorineural deafness has been confirmed to be present in Royal yaks. The disorder is assumed to be congenital and associated with white pigmentation, based on the pattern of occurrence in other species.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the feasibility of a canister-free negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) device (PICO™ 1.6, Smith & Nephew Medical Ltd) and evaluate its effect on early phases of wound healing in canine experimental cutaneous wounds.

ANIMALS

5 adult spayed female research Beagles.

PROCEDURES

In a pilot experimental study, 1 full-thickness 2-cm X 2-cm cutaneous wound was surgically created on each hemithorax in each dog. Wounds were treated with either NPWT or a conventional wound dressing for 14 days. Bandage changes and wound evaluations were done at 7 time points. First macroscopic appearance of granulation tissue, smoothness of granulation tissue, and percentages of wound contraction and epithelialization were compared between treatments. Wounds were sampled at 3 time points for histopathologic analyses and semiquantitative scoring.

RESULTS

NPWT dressings were well tolerated by all dogs. Complete seal of the dressing required the application of adhesive spray, and maintenance of the vacuum lessened over time. Self-limiting skin irritations appeared in all dogs and hampered the attainment of negative pressure. Granulation tissue developed faster and was more abundant in control wounds. Wound contraction, epithelialization, and fibroblast proliferation were greater in control wounds at the end of the study.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This canister-free NPWT device is feasible but problematic in maintaining a vacuum, requiring frequent revisions of the dressing. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effect of this device on early phases of wound healing. Its benefits in wound healing remain unknown.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effect of stage of estrus cycle (day after ovulation) at the time of transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration (TVA) on parameters related to the success of in vitro equine embryo production.

ANIMALS

14 healthy mares were used; 11 completed the study and were included for analysis.

PROCEDURES

Mares underwent TVA of all follicles ≥ 5 mm diameter at each of 3 timepoints: 7 days after ovulation, 14 days after ovulation, and S-DSF (subordinate to a dominant stimulated follicle), during estrus at 24 hours after gonadotropin administration. The 3 treatments were assigned to each mare in random order; mares underwent follicle growth and ovulation between treatments. Recovered oocytes were matured in vitro, subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and cultured to the blastocyst stage in vitro.

RESULTS

Total follicle numbers differed significantly between individual mares but did not differ between treatments. The number of follicles of different sizes significantly (P < 0.05) differed between treatments, with mares in the Day 7 treatment having more follicles 5 to 9 mm in diameter and fewer follicles 20 to 24 mm in diameter than mares in the other 2 treatments. After in vitro maturation culture, there were significantly more mature oocytes in the S-DSF treatment than in the other 2 treatments. There were no differences in blastocyst rate after ICSI among treatment groups.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Timing of TVA for aspiration of S-DSFs may increase the number of mature oocytes available for ICSI. Understanding of the effects of timing of TVA will help veterinarians to maximize the efficiency of this procedure.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Author: Bridgette Bain

Abstract

For year 2021 graduates of US veterinary medical schools and colleges who had accepted a full-time position in a private or public practice or an advanced education program (n = 2,448), mean starting annual salary was $80,844. Excluding salaries for individuals who were pursuing advanced education, mean starting annual salary for graduates who had accepted a full-time position in a private or public practice was $98,088.

For the 2,771 year 2021 graduates who reported information on debt, mean educational debt accumulated during veterinary school was $156,221 (median, $160,000). Mean educational debt for the 2,322 year 2021 graduates who had educational debt was $186,430, compared with a mean of $188,853 for year 2020 graduates who had educational debt.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association