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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

This study evaluates the amplitude of the anatomical-mechanical angle (AMA-angle) using 4 measuring methods of the tibial distal anatomical axes (DAA) previously described, comparing the literature results to determine if there are significant differences in patients with cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture.

ANIMALS

This study was comprised of 30 tibiae (29 dogs), including 1 bilateral case.

METHODS

A retrospective study was selected for this research. DAA measurements were performed on all surgically confirmed cases of canine CrCL rupture at Hospital Veterinário de Especialidades Bruselas from 2019 to 2022. Four different published methods (identified by surname of the corresponding author of the original publication) were compared. Tibial measurements were made using Veterinary Preoperative Orthopedic Planning Pro software (https://vpop-pro.com/) on mediolateral radiographic projections obtained from a digital database.

RESULTS

The mean (range) in the DAA method conducted by Hulse obtained a AMA-angle of 5.4° (3.3 to 8.1°), 3.0° (0 to 5.8°) for Osmond et al, 3.2° (0.9 to 6°) for Miles, and 5.9° (2.4 to 8.8°) for Tudury. Differences among the means of the AMA-angle of the authors methods were found with a statistical difference (P < .05), except between Osmond and Miles. The mean AMA-angle with the Osmond method concurred with previous study results that determined the magnitude using the same measurement method of DAA in patients with CrCL rupture.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The AMA-angle magnitude has been associated with higher sensitivity and specificity for predicting the development of CrCL rupture compared to other anatomical factors evaluated; therefore, future comparisons with different methods of measurement of the DAA between healthy and affected patients are recommended to determine whether any of them can increase the percentage value as a predictive factor for the occurrence of this condition.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Authors and

Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious health issue shared across all One Health domains. Wildlife species represent a key intersection of the animal and environmental domains. They are a relevant but understudied reservoir and route of spread for AMR throughout the environment. Most wildlife AMR research thus far has focused on avian species, terrestrial mammals, and a selection of aquatic and marine species. Pathogens often identified in terrestrial wildlife include enteric zoonotic organisms such as Eschericia coli and Salmonella spp, in addition to nonenterics such as Staphylococci. Resistances have been commonly identified to antimicrobials important in veterinary and human medicine, including β-lactams, tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and macrolides. Our emerging understanding of the dynamics of AMR distribution across life on Earth provides further opportunities for us to assess the risk it poses to veterinary and human health. Future work will require prioritizing which wildlife most exacerbates and indicates AMR in domestic animals. However, decreasing prices and increasing ease for metagenomic sequencing allows for synergies with expanding wildlife viral disease surveillance. Improved understanding of how wildlife impacts veterinary and human healthcare may increase opportunities for related research funding and global equity in such research. The companion Currents in One Health article by Vezeau and Kahn, JAVMA, June 2024, addresses in further detail the routes of spread of AMR across different animal populations and actions that can be taken to mitigate AMR with special consideration for wildlife sources.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of a gene transfer approach to IL-1β inhibition in an equine osteochondral chip fragment model of joint injury using a self-complementary adeno-associated virus with interleukin receptor antagonist transgene cassette (scAAVIL-1ra), as posttraumatic osteoarthritis in horses, similar to people, is a significant clinical problem.

ANIMALS

16 horses were utilized for the study.

METHODS

All horses had an osteochondral chip fragment induced arthroscopically in one middle carpal joint while the contralateral joint was sham operated. Eight horses received either scAAVIL-1ra or saline in the osteoarthritis joint. Horses were evaluated over 70 days clinically (lameness, imaging, and biomarker analysis) and euthanized at 70 days and evaluated grossly, with imaging and histopathology.

RESULTS

The following findings were statistically significant. Injection of scAAVIL-1ra resulted in high synovial fluid levels of IL-1ra (0.5 to 9 μg/mL) throughout the duration of the experiment (70 days). Over the duration, we observed scAAVIL-1ra to improve lameness (lameness score relative improvement of 1.2 on a scale of 0 to 5), cause suppression of prostaglandin E2 (a relative decline of 30 pg/mL), and result in histological improvement in articular cartilage (decreased chondrocyte loss and chondrone formation) and subchondral bone (less osteochondral splitting and osteochondral lesions). Within the synovial membrane of scAAVIL-1ra–treated joints, we also observed perivascular infiltration with CD3-positive WBCs, suggesting lymphocytic T-cell perivascular infiltration commonly observed with viral transduction.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

These data provide support for further evaluation and optimization of scAAVIL-1ra gene therapy to treat equine osteoarthritis.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the kinematics and stability of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) of cats and dogs with and without a TMJ replacement (TMJR) prosthesis under simulated bite forces and mouth opening.

ANIMALS

Sixteen cadaver skulls from domestic cats (n = 8) and medium- to large-breed dogs (n = 8).

METHODS

Intact TMJs were tested. Following condylectomy and coronoidectomy, the skulls were fitted with a TMJR prosthesis unilaterally and retested. Prosthesis was similarly implanted in the contralateral TMJ in 4 cats and 4 dogs before retesting. Left and right bite motions were evaluated before bite contact to peak bite force (200 N in dogs, 63 N in cats). Mouth opening motion was recorded. Mandibular displacement under load was evaluated in 3 orthogonal planes. Maximal displacement was compared between TMJR groups and native TMJ. Prosthesis-bone motion of the temporal and mandibular components was evaluated during simulated bites and mouth opening.

RESULTS

TMJR resulted in joint motion not demonstrably different from the native TMJ, with the ability to fully open and close the mouth and with minimal laterotrusion. The TMJR prosthesis demonstrated similar stability after unilateral and bilateral replacement during bite force and with an open mouth. Mean implant-bone motion during bite simulations for the temporal and mandibular TMJR components was ≤ 60 µm in cats and ≤ 30 µm in dogs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A novel TMJR can be implanted and allows normal jaw motion. Joint stability is maintained after TMJR implantation in the TMJ of dogs and cats TMJ that is devoid of muscular support.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the prandial effects of a semielemental diet on plasma uric acid, bile acid, and glucose concentrations in the central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

ANIMALS

13 healthy adult male bearded dragons.

METHODS

Following a 72-hour fasting period, blood was collected to measure preprandial uric acid, bile acid, and glucose concentrations. The animals were then gavage fed 1.2% body weight of an omnivore critical-care diet containing 20% protein, 9.5% fat, 2.5% fiber, and 2.39 kcal/mL. Blood was collected for repeat concentrations at 4 and 24 hours.

RESULTS

Median (IQR) uric acid concentration (mg/dL) increased from 3.8 preprandial (2.8 to 4.3) to 4.7 4 hours postprandial (4 to 7; P = .0001). Median (IQR) bile acid concentration (mg/dL) increased from 1.8 preprandial (1 to 3.4) to 9.5 24 hours postprandial (5.6 to 10.4; P = .004). Median (IQR) glucose concentration (mg/dL) was 209 at time 0 (193 to 216), 287 at 4 hours (258 to 312), and 393 at 24 hours (361 to 464). Significant increases were seen between pre- and 4-hours-postprandial (P < .0001), pre- and 24-hours-postprandial (P < .0001), and 4-hours- and 24-hours-postprandial (P < .0001) glucose concentrations.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggest that postprandial status and diet composition should be considered during the interpretation of some biochemical analytes in the bearded dragon.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease in ruminants that causes significant economic losses worldwide. However, the prevalence of FMD virus (FMDV) in small ruminants has been overlooked in Pakistan. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of FMD in sheep and goats in the border area between Pakistan and Afghanistan.

ANIMALS

800 sheep and goats belongs to age groups of 6 month to > 2 years.

METHODS

A total of 800 serum samples were collected from sheep (n = 424) and goats (n = 376) and subjected to structural protein (SP) and 3ABC non-SP (NSP) ELISAs for the detection of antibodies against SP and NSP of the FMDV.

RESULTS

For NSP, 340/800 (42.5%) of samples were positive, while SP analysis revealed that serotype O (44.5%) was the most common in sheep and goats, followed by Asia-1 (42%) and A (32%) serotypes. Sheep (39%; 95% CI, 34 to 44) had a higher (P < .05) prevalence of FMD than goats (46%; 95% CI, 41 to 51). Statistically significant (P < .05) differences in the seroprevalence of FMD-SP and FMD-NSPs were observed between various agencies (areas) of the study area. Risk factors such as age, sex, breed, season, flock size, body condition, animal movement, and production system were significantly (P < .05) associated with FMDV prevalence.

CONCLUSIONS

This study showed that FMD is highly prevalent in sheep and goats in the border areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Therefore, outbreak investigation teams should be arranged at the border level to develop FMD risk-based surveillance and control plans for small ruminants in order to mitigate infection risks.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a third-generation lentivirus-based vector encoding the feline erythropoietin (EPO) (feEPO) gene in vitro and in rodent models in vivo. This vector incorporates a genetic mechanism to facilitate the termination of the therapeutic effect in the event of supraphysiologic polycythemia, the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) “suicide gene.”

ANIMALS

CFRK cells and replication-defective lentiviral vectors encoding feEPO were used for in vitro experiments. Eight Fischer rats were enrolled in the pilot in vivo study, 24 EPO-deficient mice were used in the initial mouse study, and 15 EPO-deficient mice were enrolled in the final mouse study.

METHODS

Efficacy of a third-generation lentivirus encoding feEPO was determined in vitro using western blot assays. Subsequently, in a series of rodent experiments, animals were administered the viral vector in progressively increasing inoculation doses with serial measurements of blood packed cell volume (PCV) over time.

RESULTS

We documented production of feEPO protein in transduced CRFK cells with subsequent cessation of production when treated with the HSV-TK substrate ganciclovir. In vivo, we demonstrated variably persistent elevated PCV values in treated rats and mice with eventual return to baseline values over time.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

These results provide justification for a lentiviral gene therapy approach to the treatment of nonregenerative anemia associated with chronic renal disease in cats.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the microvascular anatomy of the equine hind limb suspensory ligament.

ANIMALS

18 hind limbs harvested from 9 adult horses euthanized for reasons unrelated to lameness.

METHODS

A catheter was placed in the transected cranial tibial artery at the level of the mid-distal tibia for each hind limb and used to inject 120 to 150 mL of contrast medium (2 limbs) to identify principal vasculature using contrast-enhanced CT or India ink (11 limbs) to identify microvasculature using the Spalteholz tissue-clearing technique. Routine histologic evaluation was performed on transverse sections from 4 hind limbs.

RESULTS

The hind limb suspensory ligament is principally supplied by branches of the medial and lateral plantar metatarsal arteries and, to a lesser extent, the medial and lateral plantar arteries as well as the associated proximal and distal deep plantar arches. A uniformly distributed intraligamentous microvascular supply was observed without relative deficiencies in vascularity between the proximal, midbody, and distal regions. Histologic examination supported these findings, demonstrating a network of connective tissue surrounding and entering the suspensory ligament containing cross-sections of branches of the principal vasculature.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The equine hind limb suspensory ligament has a uniformly distributed and abundant microvascular supply throughout its length, with no evidence of relative deficiency of vascular supply in any region. A region of hypovascularity does not appear to be a viable explanation for the high rate of injury to and commonality of lameness associated with the proximal hind suspensory ligament in horses.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the histological injury and intestinal microperfusion measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and spectrophotometry (LDFS) of the small intestine orad to a strangulation during colic surgery.

ANIMALS

Horses with naturally occurring small intestinal strangulations undergoing colic surgery were included.

METHODS

In this prospective clinical trial, intestinal tissue oxygen saturation (tSO2) and tissue blood flow (tBF) were measured by LDFS orad to the strangulation following release of the strangulation (n = 18). The number of horses with postoperative reflux (POR) and the cases that survived until discharge were compared between groups using Fisher’s exact test (P < .05). Intestinal biopsies were taken in cases that underwent intestinal resection or intraoperative euthanasia (n = 28). Measurements were compared between injured and noninjured segments with a Mann-Whitney U or t test.

RESULTS

The tSO2 and tBF of the orad intestine were lower than previously reported in healthy horses. Horses with low tSO2 of < 35% were significantly more likely to suffer from POR (6/6 cases) compared to cases with tSO2 > 69% (1/6). The number of horses that survived were not statistically different between these groups (2/6 and 6/6). All horses with mucosal injury developed POR (6/6), which was significantly more likely compared to horses without mucosal injury (3/13). No significant difference in tSO2 or tBF could be found between the segments with and without histological injury.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The results suggest that measuring tSO2 in the orad segment during colic surgery may aid in predicting postoperative issues.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research