Alzheimer disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia among older adults. Current AD treatment options are limited, and the absence of appropriate research animals has significantly hindered the development of new AD therapies. Canine cognitive decline (CCD) is a major determinant of morbidity in older animals, with alterations in blood biomarkers, neuropathology, physiology, and behavior comparable to those seen in humans diagnosed with dementia and AD.
The one-health goal of achieving optimal health is supported by academics, researchers, and governments. Veterinarians’ ability to identify patients in the early stages of CCD is crucial to the successful implementation of interventions that can improve the quality of life of affected dogs. Timely identification of CCD also opens opportunities for innovative interdisciplinary research that will contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms, early detection, and effective treatments for AD, ultimately benefiting human health as well.
Until now, veterinary practitioners have played limited roles as interdisciplinary leaders in the One Health initiative to combat disease. The authors discuss how client-owned animals with spontaneous, naturally occurring CCD can play a significant role as disease-relevant surrogates for translational AD research. The proposed Dogs Overcoming Geriatric Memory and Aging (DOGMA) Study to be conducted in veterinary practices will analyze the relationship between blood biomarkers and biometric behavior in mature and older dogs, with the aim of establishing benchmark CCD data. The DOGMA Study is addressed in the companion Currents in One Health by Hunter et al, AJVR, November 2023.
To describe a novel scoring system of feline pigmented iris lesions prior to utilization of diode laser ablation of progressive pigmented iris lesions and to retrospectively evaluate short- and long-term patient outcomes following transcorneal diode laser ablation.
317 client-owned cats (356 eyes) were included.
Records of cats undergoing diode laser ablation from January 2000 to December 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. A novel clinical grading system to describe severity of feline iris hyperpigmentation was developed. Recorded parameters included signalment, operated-upon eye, presurgical iris pigmentation score, intraocular pressure, visual status, postoperative complications, repeat laser surgery, patient status at last follow-up, time to death, and presumptive or known cause of death.
Complications included corneal ulceration (25/356 [7%]), glaucoma (18/356 [5%]), uveitis (4/356 [1.1%]), and corneal edema (3/356 [0.8%]). Enucleation was performed in 12 eyes due to blindness and secondary glaucoma. Repeat laser due to continued progression of pigment was performed in 18.5% of eyes. Two study patients were euthanized due to presumptive metastatic disease. Of the 250 cats for whom confirmation was available via phone call or medical records, 240 (96%) were alive at 1 year.
Diode laser ablation appears safe overall and may be effective in decreasing progression of feline iris pigmentation. Complication risks appear minimal.
To assess intraobserver and interobserver reliability of capillary refill time (CRT) measurement in dogs using a standardized technique after training.
20 dogs presented to the emergency room.
Dogs presented to the emergency room were prospectively recruited. Using a timing device and standardized technique, CRT was measured at the oral mucosa of the inner lip. Measurements were performed by 2 emergency and critical care residents (observer 1 [Ob1] and observer 2 [Ob2]) and repeated 3 times by each observer for each dog. CRT values and signalment were recorded. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability were analyzed by calculation of the coefficient of variation (CV%), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and minimal detectable difference. Reliability was considered high if CV% was lower than 10% and ICC was between 0.9 and 1.
Median CRT for Ob1 was 1.22 seconds and for Ob2 was 1.19 seconds. Intraobserver reliability was high, evidenced by a median CV% of 6.2% (range, 1.0% to 18.6%) and 9.5% (range, 1.3% to 22.6%) and an ICC of 0.97 (95% CI, 0.94 to 0.99) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.90 to 0.98) for Ob1 and Ob2, respectively. Between observers, the CV% was 4.4% (range, 0.8% to 17.5%) and the ICC was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.94 to 0.99), indicating high interobserver reliability. The minimal detectable differences for intraobserver and interobserver were 0.30 and 0.34 seconds, respectively.
The reported high reliability of CRT despite its subjective nature enhances its usefulness in daily practice. However, further research on the validity of CRT is warranted.
To document any discordance between the set temperature and independently measured temperature of neonatal incubators in order to determine the potential of neonatal incubators to cause hypothermia or hyperthermia in neonatal animals.
5 different veterinary neonatal incubators from 2 separate manufacturers.
Internal temperatures of 5 incubators from 2 manufacturers were monitored with both internal and external monitoring devices to determine how much incubator temperatures might vary from what is reported on the incubator thermostat. The study was conducted on May 25, 2022.
Increases in temperature as measured by thermocouple and infrared sensors of > 2 °C were detected in 3 of the 5 (60%; 95% CI, 17% to 93%) tested incubators. Temperatures exceeded 41 °C at times, despite the incubator thermostat being set to 35 °C.
Neonatal puppies have a decreased capacity to thermoregulate and are susceptible to both hypothermia and hyperthermia if environmental temperatures are not kept within a proper range. Core temperatures below 35.0 °C lead to bradycardia, dyspnea, loss of suckle reflex, hypoglycemia, gastrointestinal ileus, and multiple organ failure; temperatures above 41.1 °C lead to pulmonary edema, petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhage in multiple organs, and death.