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Abstract

Aging is the single most important cause of disease, disability, and death in companion animal species. Contrary to the common view of aging as mysterious and inevitable, it is more usefully understood as a set of complex but comprehensible and modifiable biological processes that are highly conserved across species. The purpose of this Currents in One Health manuscript is to describe key mechanisms of aging at the cellular and molecular level and the manifestations of these in the tissues of the musculoskeletal system, adipose, and the brain. The characteristics of these processes as identified in common laboratory animal models and in humans will be described and compared with the much more limited information available concerning aging in dogs and cats. This will highlight important targets for future research in these species. The consistent patterns across species in the hallmarks of aging and their manifestations at the level of tissues, organ systems, and individual animals signify potential targets for interventions to mitigate the negative health impacts of aging and extend both life span and health span (the period of life free of significant disease or disability). Further research to elucidate aging mechanisms in companion dogs and cats will eventually support development, testing, and implementation of clinical therapies to prevent and ameliorate age-related dysfunction, disease, and death.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the agreement between 3 point-of-care (POC) devices and a reference laboratory for measuring β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) concentration in African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) whole blood (WB) and plasma samples and the precision of each POC device for measuring β-HB concentration in plasma samples.

ANIMALS

48 healthy African penguins.

PROCEDURES

Blood was obtained from the right jugular vein of each penguin, and β-HB concentration was measured on each POC device using fresh WB and heparinized plasma and at the reference laboratory using plasma. β-HB concentration was measured in plasma on each POC device.

RESULTS

All devices overestimated serum β-HB concentrations on average by 0.46 mM relative to the reference laboratory. WB samples had less error than plasma for meters A and C. Meter A had the lowest total error observed (26.4%) and the lowest mean difference (0.19 mmol/L) relative to the reference laboratory. Controlling for other factors, the magnitude of disagreement was not affected by sex, age, packed cell volume, or serum total solids concentration.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

WB, not plasma, should be used for measurement of β-HB concentration on the POC meters tested. Meter A showed good correlation with the reference laboratory for WB. The use of POC devices for the measurement of β-HB concentration may be acceptable when laboratory analyzers are not available. Further research is needed for clinical application and the diagnostic value of POC meters compared with reference laboratories.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate feline injection site-associated sarcoma (FISAS) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) cells in 3-D hydrogel-based cell cultures to determine chemosensitivity to carboplatin at concentrations comparable to those eluted from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate (C-ICSH) beads.

SAMPLE

2 immortalized cell lines, each from a histologically confirmed primary FISAS and FOSCC.

PROCEDURES

Hydrogels (10% wt/vol) were formed via UV exposure from methacrylamide-functionalized gelatin dissolved in PBSS. For each cell line, approximately 100,000 cells were encapsulated per hydrogel. Three cell-seeded 3-D hydrogels were evaluated for each carboplatin concentration (0, 150, 300, 450, and 600 µM) across 3 experiments. Drug efficacy was assessed by luminescence assay 72 hours after treatment. Growth of tumor cells treated with 300 µM or 600 µM carboplatin was evaluated using live-cell morphology imaging and confocal microscopy at 3, 7, and 14 days after treatment.

RESULTS

Mean half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for FISAS and FOSCC cells ranged from 123 to 171 µM and 155 to 190 µM, respectively, based on luminescence assay. Viability at 3, 7, and 14 days for both cell lines at 300 µM carboplatin was 50%, 25%, and 5% and at 600 µM carboplatin was 25%, 10%, and < 5%.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

3-D hydrogel cell culture systems supported growth of feline tumor cells for determination of in vitro chemosensitivity. IC50s of each cell line were within the range of carboplatin concentrations eluted from C-ICSH beads. Cells from FISAS and FOSCC cell lines treated with carboplatin showed dose-dependent and time-dependent decreases in viability.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate feline injection site-associated sarcoma (FISAS) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (FOSCC) cells in 3-D hydrogel-based cell cultures to determine chemosensitivity to carboplatin at concentrations comparable to those eluted from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate (C-ICSH) beads.

SAMPLE

2 immortalized cell lines, each from a histologically confirmed primary FISAS and FOSCC.

PROCEDURES

Hydrogels (10% wt/vol) were formed via UV exposure from methacrylamide-functionalized gelatin dissolved in PBSS. For each cell line, approximately 100,000 cells were encapsulated per hydrogel. Three cell-seeded 3-D hydrogels were evaluated for each carboplatin concentration (0, 150, 300, 450, and 600 µM) across 3 experiments. Drug efficacy was assessed by luminescence assay 72 hours after treatment. Growth of tumor cells treated with 300 µM or 600 µM carboplatin was evaluated using live-cell morphology imaging and confocal microscopy at 3, 7, and 14 days after treatment.

RESULTS

Mean half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for FISAS and FOSCC cells ranged from 123 to 171 µM and 155 to 190 µM, respectively, based on luminescence assay. Viability at 3, 7, and 14 days for both cell lines at 300 µM carboplatin was 50%, 25%, and 5% and at 600 µM carboplatin was 25%, 10%, and < 5%.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

3-D hydrogel cell culture systems supported growth of feline tumor cells for determination of in vitro chemosensitivity. IC50s of each cell line were within the range of carboplatin concentrations eluted from C-ICSH beads. Cells from FISAS and FOSCC cell lines treated with carboplatin showed dose-dependent and time-dependent decreases in viability.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 15-year-old 15-kg male English Setter was evaluated because of polyuria, polydipsia, exercise intolerance, and intermittent panting for the preceding 3 weeks. The owners reported that episodes of panting were not related to either physical activity or emotional stress and that the dog had collapsed during a walk. The patient was an indoor dog that was up to date with vaccinations and parasite prevention and had no known exposure to toxic agents or human medications.

On initial examination, the dog was bright and alert. Cardiac auscultation revealed a grade 2/6 left apical systolic murmur; the heart rate was 140

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 16-year-old 4.94-kg castrated male domestic shorthair cat was referred to Garden State Veterinary Specialists for further treatment of congestive heart failure, azotemia, collapse, and an arrhythmia. The referring emergency veterinarian had performed a single-lead ECG that raised concerns for atrioventricular (AV) block and concurrent ventricular tachycardia. The cat had a history of chronic kidney disease (creatinine, 3.0 mg/dL 2 weeks prior to presentation) that had been static over the preceding 3 months, well-managed hyperthyroidism, and heart disease characterized by normal left ventricular wall thickness (values not reported), moderate left atrial enlargement (left atrial diameter, 18.9 mm; reference range,

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Advancing equality and equity in society is creating positive change, and the time has come to critically evaluate veterinary medicine, which, by all metrics, lacks diversity. To keep pace with increasingly diverse demographics and recent surges in pet ownership among all racial/ethnic groups, significant efforts to enhance diversity, equity, inclusion, and belonging (DEIB) must occur in veterinary colleges and the profession. Recruiting more underrepresented students, building pipelines for diverse faculty/staff, and creating inclusive, welcoming environments where all can thrive are critical steps toward enhancing DEIB within our organizations and profession. Our goal is to share experiences and lessons learned from our intentional commitment to strengthen DEIB, with the hope that our journey will be helpful to others. Increasing diversity in the veterinary profession will be facilitated through removing barriers, creating inclusive work environments where all people feel they belong, and ensuring fair and equitable hiring and personnel management practices. These steps should in turn improve access and quality of veterinary care, ensure we are more representative of the communities we serve, increase revenue, and preserve the human-animal bond.

“You cannot change any society unless you take responsibility for it, unless you see yourself belonging to it, and responsible for changing it.”

– Grace Lee Boggs

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 12-year-old 2.5-kg sexually intact male Pomeranian mix was presented for pacemaker interrogation 2 weeks following placement of a transvenous VVI pacemaker with active lead fixation. The pacemaker was placed following episodes of collapse secondary to third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block. Examination, radiographic, and echocardiographic findings prior to pacemaker implantation were consistent with stage B1 chronic degenerative valve disease. The dog was bright and alert on presentation and was reported to be asymptomatic by the owner, other than frequent head shaking since surgery. The owner reported a heart rate at home ranging from 60 to 80 beats/min. On physical examination,

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 22-year-old Warmblood gelding was referred to the North Carolina State University Large Animal Emergency Service for evaluation of anemia. The horse was treated for signs of colic and fever (38.9 °C)suspected to be secondary to a large colon impaction the day before the referral. Treatment consisted of administration of an unknown dose of flunixin meglumine and enteral fluids administered via nasogastric intubation.

Clinical and Gross Findings

On physical examination, the horse was quiet and alert, with mild tachycardia (52 beats/min), tachypnea (28 beats/min), and pale pink mucous membranes. Complete blood count showed marked macrocytic, normochromic, regenerative anemia with

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association