Determine diagnostic yield of chest, abdomen, and 4-site screening to diagnose metastatic disease and secondary diseases of prognostic significance in dogs with oral cancer.
Medical records from 381 dogs with histologically confirmed oral tumors that underwent preoperative screening were retrospectively reviewed.
Thoracic metastasis was diagnosed in 4.9% (0.9% odontogenic, 6.5% nonodontogenic) of oral tumors. Oral malignant melanoma and multilobular osteochondrosarcoma were most at risk. Abdominal metastasis was diagnosed in 2% of oral tumors (0% odontogenic, 3.1% nonodontogenic) and cytologically confirmed in 2 cases (0.6% [2/295)] of all abdominal ultrasounds (AUS) 5.5% [2/36] of all AUS that had cytology). Both cases had oral malignant melanoma. Incidental disease was diagnosed in 53.1% and 81.3% of thoracic and abdominal screenings, respectively. Major findings were more common in AUS (7.8%) compared to thoracic screening (1.9%). The prevalence of incidental findings was similar for odontogenic and nonodontogenic tumors. Both metastasis and major findings were diagnosed more commonly with thoracic CT compared to radiographs. Metastasis or a major finding of prognostic significance was diagnosed in at least 1 test in 27.8% of patients that had head CT, lymph node cytology, thoracic screening, and AUS (n = 115).
Major incidental findings were more commonly detected with AUS and were diagnosed in 1 in every 12 patients. However, metastatic disease was most commonly detected with thoracic screening. When all 4 screening tests are performed, there is an approximately 1 in 4 chance of diagnosing metastasis or major significant disease regardless of tumor type.
The Dog Aging Project End of Life Survey was used to evaluate factors associated with manner of death (euthanasia vs unassisted death), including cause of death (CoD), reason for euthanasia (RFE) if performed, medical symptoms, old age characteristics, and perimortem quality of life (QoL).
Responses collected between the End of Life Survey launch (January 20, 2021) through December 31, 2021, from 2,570 participants whose dogs died.
Response frequencies were described. Associations between manner of death and medical symptoms or old age characteristics were evaluated using logistic regression. Factors associated with RFE were evaluated using multinomial regression. The effects of CoD, age at death, and QoL on the frequency of euthanasia as the manner of death were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression.
2,195 (85.4%) dogs were euthanized, and 375 (14.6%) experienced unassisted death. The most frequent owner-reported CoD was illness/disease (n = 1,495 [58.1%]). The most frequently reported RFE was pain/suffering (n = 1,080 [49.2% of those euthanized]). As age increased, RFE was more likely to be “poor QoL” than any other response. In a multivariate regression including CoD, chronologic age, and QoL, euthanasia as the manner of death was not significantly associated with age.
Euthanasia was a common manner of death for dogs in the US. Compared with unassisted death, euthanasia was associated with CoD illness/disease, lower QoL scores, and the presence and number of medical symptoms and old age characteristics. Understanding factors associated with manner of death is important to veterinarians who care for dogs at the end of life.
There is limited information on the normal appearance of the cisterna chyli (CC) in cats on CT and MRI. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the CT and MRI characteristics of the CC in a group of cats without lymphatic system pathology.
A total of 31 CT and 63 MRI images were obtained of client-owned cats between January 2017 and March 2022.
The presence, location, shape, maximum width, MRI-signal intensity, mean attenuation, and contrast enhancement of the CC were recorded from CT and MRI scans.
The CC was identified in all the CT scans and in 60 MRI studies. The CC was located level with the cranial mesenteric artery in 56 of 91 cases. It was crescent shaped in 34 of 54 cases. On precontrast CT images, the mean attenuation of the CC was 17 HU, and the mean postcontrast attenuation was 28 HU. On T2-weighted sequences, the CC was isointense to CSF and hyperintense to the muscles, while on T1-weighted images, it was isointense to the muscles. Contrast enhancement was variable in both techniques.
CT and MRI have the potential for noninvasive evaluation of CC in cats.
Alzheimer disease (AD) is the leading cause of dementia among older adults. Current AD treatment options are limited, and the absence of appropriate research animals has significantly hindered the development of new AD therapies. Canine cognitive decline (CCD) is a major determinant of morbidity in older animals, with alterations in blood biomarkers, neuropathology, physiology, and behavior comparable to those seen in humans diagnosed with dementia and AD.
The one-health goal of achieving optimal health is supported by academics, researchers, and governments. Veterinarians’ ability to identify patients in the early stages of CCD is crucial to the successful implementation of interventions that can improve the quality of life of affected dogs. Timely identification of CCD also opens opportunities for innovative interdisciplinary research that will contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms, early detection, and effective treatments for AD, ultimately benefiting human health as well.
Until now, veterinary practitioners have played limited roles as interdisciplinary leaders in the One Health initiative to combat disease. The authors discuss how client-owned animals with spontaneous, naturally occurring CCD can play a significant role as disease-relevant surrogates for translational AD research. The proposed Dogs Overcoming Geriatric Memory and Aging (DOGMA) Study to be conducted in veterinary practices will analyze the relationship between blood biomarkers and biometric behavior in mature and older dogs, with the aim of establishing benchmark CCD data. The DOGMA Study is addressed in the companion Currents in One Health by Hunter et al, AJVR, November 2023.