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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To estimate the effects of practice ownership on wellbeing of US private practice veterinarians.

Sample

1,217 practice owners and 1,414 associate veterinarians (ie, nonowners) who participated in the 2021 AVMA Census of Veterinarians and Practice Owners Survey.

Procedures

A professional quality of life instrument was used to measure compassion satisfaction (CS; a positive attribute), burnout (BO), and secondary traumatic stress (STS) in practice owners and nonowners both as scores and as score categories (low, moderate, and high CS, BO, and STS). For hypothesis tests, propensity score matching was used, with owners (n = 595) matched to nonowners (595) on several demographic and employment factors.

Results

Owners had significantly (P < .001) higher CS scores (mean ± SE, 34.1 ± 0.3) and lower BO scores (26.1 ± 0.3) than nonowners (32.8 ± 0.3 and 26.9 ± 0.3, respectively), but STS scores were comparable between groups (27.4 ± 0.3 and 27.5 ± 0.3; P = .55). The prevalence of low CS scores and high BO scores was significantly (P < .001) higher for nonowners versus owners (53.8% vs 42.7% and 51.6% vs 46.4%, respectively). Both owners and nonowners had a high prevalence of high STS scores (81.8% and 83.2%, respectively; P = .53).

Clinical Relevance

Results suggested that practice ownership confers a benefit to private practice veterinarians in terms of CS and BO, but not STS. The prevalence of poor CS, BO, and STS scores was higher than reported previously for 2016 to 2018, suggesting an impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The high prevalence of high STS scores in both groups warrants attention and action to protect the welfare of the veterinary workforce and support optimal patient care.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To measure the mitral annulus in dogs. Our hypothesis was that mitral measurement would be possible and consistent among observers using CT.

SAMPLE

Thoracic CT scans of dogs without known heart disease.

PROCEDURES

Five trained investigators measured 4 aspects of the mitral valve and the fourth thoracic vertebrae (T4) length using multiplanar reformatting tools. Ten randomly chosen animals were measured by all investigators to determine interobserver reliability.

RESULTS

There were 233 CT scans eligible for inclusion. Dogs weighed 2 to 96 kg (mean, 28.1 kg), with a variety of breeds represented. Golden Retrievers (n = 28) and Labrador Retrievers (n = 37) were overrepresented. The intraclass correlations were all greater than 0.9, showing excellent agreement between observers. The means and SDs of each measurement were as follows: trigone-to-trigone distance, 17.2 ± 4.7 mm; the remaining circumference, 79.0 ± 17.5 mm; commissure-to-commissure distance, 30.8 ± 6.5 mm; septal leaflet-to-lateral leaflet distance, 26.3 ± 6.0 mm; T4 length, 16.9 ± 3.1 mm; and the total circumference normalized by T4, 5.7 ± 0.7 mm.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study provides information that may help in the development of future treatment for mitral valve dysfunction and subsequent annular enlargement.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) expression and response to LHR activation in isolated canine splenic hemangiosarcoma cell lines in vitro.

SAMPLES

In vitro cultures of commercially available canine splenic hemangiosarcoma cell lines (EFS, GRACE-HSA, and DAL-4).

PROCEDURES

The percentage of each cell line expressing LHR was determined by immunocytochemistry. Cells were then treated with increasing doses (7.5 ng/mL, 75 ng/mL) of recombinant canine luteinizing hormone (cLH) for 48 hours and evaluated using a cell proliferation assay.

RESULTS

The percentage of cells expressing LHR was 17.2 ± 4.5%, 11.8 ± 3.1%, and 6.9 ± 2.5% in EFS, GRACE-HSA, and DAL-4, respectively. There was significant increase in cell count in the DAL-4 and EFS cell lines following a 48-hour incubation at the highest cLH concentration (P = .028 and P = .019, respectively). There was not a significant increase in cell count in the GRACE-HSA cell line at either cLH concentration.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Activation of LHR results in cell proliferation in some canine splenic hemangiosarcoma cell lines. These results may explain why spayed and castrated dogs with high circulating LH concentrations may develop hemangiosarcoma more frequently than intact dogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Author:

ABSTRACT

This review, which is part of the “Currents in One Health” series, describes the importance of the study of immune-mediated ocular disease in the development of innovative therapeutics, such as cell and gene therapy for the eye. Recent examples of cell and gene therapy studies from the author’s laboratory are reviewed to emphasize the importance of One Health initiatives in developing innovative therapies for ocular diseases. Spontaneous immune-mediated corneal disease is common in horses, cats, dogs, and humans. Autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) injected subconjunctivally resulted in the resolution of naturally occurring immune-mediated keratitis (IMMK) without adverse effects. These results support that autologous subconjunctival BM-MSC therapy may be a viable treatment alternative for IMMK. Furthermore, the use of subconjunctival MSCs may be an effective method to treat ocular surface immune-mediated diseases in humans and other species, including herpetic stromal keratitis and immunologic dry eye disease. Furthermore, the use of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors to deliver the immunosuppressive transgene cDNA of equine interleukin 10 (eqIL-10) or human leukocyte antigen G injected intravitreally was shown to be safe and inhibited the development of uveitis in the experimental autoimmune uveitis rat model. Efficacy and safety studies of ocular gene therapy in models will pave the way for clinical trials in animals with naturally occurring immune-mediated diseases, such as a therapeutic clinical trial for AAV-eqIL-10 in horses with equine recurrent uveitis.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship of diet and management factors with the glandular gastric mucosal microbiome. We hypothesize that the gastric mucosal microbial community is influenced by diet and management factors. Our specific objective is to characterize the gastric mucosal microbiome in relation to these factors.

ANIMALS

57 client-owned horses in the southern Louisiana region with and without equine glandular gastric disease.

PROCEDURES

Diet and management data were collected via a questionnaire. Gastroscopy was used for evaluation of equine gastric ulcer syndrome and collection of glandular mucosal pinch biopsies. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used for microbiome analysis. Similarity and diversity indices and sequence read counts of individual taxa were compared between diet and management factors.

RESULTS

Differences were detected in association with offering hay, type of hay, sweet feed, turnout, and stalling. Offering hay and stalling showed differences in similarity indices, whereas hay type, sweet feed, and turnout showed differences in similarity and diversity indices. Offering hay, hay type, and sweet feed were also associated with differences in individual sequence read counts.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study provides preliminary characterization of the complex relationship between the glandular gastric microbiome and diet/management factors. The ideal microbiome to promote a healthy glandular gastric environment remains unknown.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association