Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 22,868 items for

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To develop an accessible ruminant immune challenge model for rapid in vivo assessments of feed additives.

ANIMALS

60 hair-breed ram lambs.

METHODS

Sheep were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: treatment 1, not immunosuppressed, control fed (n = 12); treatment 2, immunosuppressed, supplemented with a yeast and botanical extract (n = 18); treatment 3, immunosuppressed, supplemented with a blend of natural aluminosilicates and yeast components (n = 18); and treatment 4, immunosuppressed, control fed (n = 12). Twice-daily injections of dexamethasone (Dex; 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight, SC) were used to induce immunosuppression throughout the study (from September 25, 2020, to November 2, 2020). All sheep were immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) on days 0 and 14 and injected with heat-aggregated KLH, ID, to induce a skin induration on day 15. Measurements included body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), CBC, and skin induration diameter.

RESULTS

Dex treatment resulted in reduced BW and ADG that was not mitigated by either feed additive. Dex reduced lymphocyte percentage, RBC count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and skin induration diameter and increased concentrations of granulocytes and granulocyte percentage. Effects on hematocrit, hemoglobin, RBC, and skin induration diameter were mitigated with the addition of feed additives.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The described model is a tool to evaluate the ability of feed additives to mitigate the immunosuppressive effects of Dex.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe changes in circulating hyaluronic acid (HA) concentration, a biomarker of endothelial glycocalyx degradation, after administration of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) in critically ill dogs.

ANIMALS

12 client-owned dogs receiving an FFP transfusion due to underlying disease.

METHODS

Plasma samples were collected for HA concentration measurement pre-FFP transfusion (T0) and 10 minutes (T10) and 90 minutes (T90) following completion of FFP transfusion of a minimum volume of 7 mL/kg. Hyaluronic acid was also measured in the transfused FFP units following in-house validation of a commercial HA assay on citrate phosphate dextrose–anticoagulated plasma. Potential associations of the difference between pre-FFP and post-FFP HA plasma concentrations with the volume of FFP transfused, the cumulative volume of IV fluids administered during the study period, and the HA concentration in the transfused unit were explored.

RESULTS

Concentrations of HA were not significantly different between pre- and post-FFP transfusion measurements. The volume of FFP transfused, the cumulative volume of other IV fluids administered during the study time, and the concentration of HA in the FFP units had no significant effect on the change in HA concentration following FFP transfusion in this study.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This pilot study did not demonstrate an association between FFP administration and changes in plasma HA concentration. The results of this study may serve to help design future research. A commercial assay was validated to measure HA in citrate phosphate dextrose–anticoagulated plasma.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate thermoregulation, thermal antinociception, food/kaolin intake, fecal output, and behavior following long-acting buprenorphine preparations in rats.

ANIMALS

8 adult male rats (Rattus norvegicus) were administered long-acting SC buprenorphine (SB; 0.65 mg/kg), transdermal buprenorphine (TB; 10 mg/kg), and controls in a randomized, cross-over design.

METHODS

Body temperature, self-injury, sedation, food/kaolin intake, fecal output, and thermal withdrawal latencies were measured 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours posttreatment. Data analysis was performed with mixed linear models.

RESULTS

Self-injury was present between 1 and 12 hours and 4 and 12 hours following TB and SB, respectively; sedation was associated with TB at 12 to 24 hours. Withdrawal latencies were longer in both TB and SB groups than in the control group. Food intake decreased with time in all groups but was significantly lower 24 to 48 hours after TB and 24 to 72 hours after SB versus controls. Kaolin intake decreased from baseline 48 to 72 hours in the control group. Fecal output decreased from baseline 24 to 72 hours in all groups but was significantly lower than controls 24 hours following TB and 24 to 48 hours in SB. Body temperature increased from baseline at 1 hour, 1 to 12 hours, and 1 to 24 hours in the control, TB, and SB groups, respectively, and was significantly higher than the control group 1 to 72 hours following TB and 4 to 24 hours after SB. Transdermal buprenorphine and SB in normal rats produced antinociception, self-injurious behavior, hyperthermia, and decreased food/fecal output.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although these buprenorphine preparations may produce antinociception, untoward effects such as hyperthermia, self-injurious behavior, and reduced food intake/fecal output may be seen.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Comparing the utility of the anti-human serum amyloid A (SAA)-specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies assays (LZ-SAA) with the pure monoclonal anti-human antibody assays (VET-SAA) during clinical practice in primary care hospital populations by measuring SAA measurement in healthy and diseased domestic cats.

ANIMALS

52 healthy and 185 diseased client-owned cats.

METHODS

SAA concentration was measured using different LZ-SAA and VET-SAA measurements for healthy and various diseased cats. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for each disease.

RESULTS

VET-SAA has higher sensitivity than LZ-SAA for the most common diseases presenting to primary care veterinary hospitals, including chronic kidney disease, tumors, and gingivostomatitis. Our results reveal the capability of detecting low SAA concentrations in healthy and diseased cats using VET-SAA in contrast to LZ-SAA, which found elevations of SAA concentrations only in diseased cats.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Our findings indicate that switching to the new VET-SAA instead of the conventional LZ-SAA will likely enhance the diagnostic performance in primary care veterinary hospitals.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the treatment of subcutaneous lipomas in the horse.

ANIMALS

3 horses.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION

The horses were aged 1 to 2 years old, with lipoma of the abdomen, prepuce, and tarsus.

RESULTS

Recurrence of an invasive thoracic lipoma occurred in case 1 at the exit site of a passive drain. The recurrence was treated unsuccessfully with injectable cisplatin, and a second revision surgery with the use of an active drain resulted in resolution. In case 2, complete resection of an encapsulated lipoma of the lateral prepuce was successful with no recurrence. In case 3, incomplete resection of a tarsal lipoma resulted in a sound horse, with no further growth. Histopathologic analysis revealed that all masses were composed of well-differentiated adipocytes with no evidence of malignancy.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Subcutaneous lipomas are relatively rare and affect horses ≤ 2 years of age. They are benign, although their presence can be deleterious due to invasion of local structures or the impact on normal locomotion. Invasive tumors are difficult to identify margins due their integration with normal tissue. Incomplete removal may allow for mass recurrence. Active suctions drains are beneficial if dead space is a concern..

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the clinical and analytical accuracy of a new veterinary-calibrated portable blood glucose monitor (PBGM) compared to a reference laboratory analyzer.

ANIMALS

Client-owned dogs (n = 77) and cats (n = 64).

METHODS

Peripheral and paired capillary whole-blood glucose concentrations measured via PBGM were compared to plasma glucose concentrations measured via a Cobas c501 reference analyzer (Roche). Analytical accuracy was evaluated with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman difference plot analysis, and Deming regression. Clinical accuracy was evaluated with Parkes error grid analysis. Paired peripheral and capillary blood samples were compared with the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test.

RESULTS

There was a high correlation between PBGM and reference analyzer readings in dogs and cats. Human quality assurance standards (International Organization for Standardization 15197:2013 guidelines) for analytical accuracy were met for 95% of feline peripheral blood samples and 89% of canine samples. Similar veterinary standards (American Society of Veterinary Clinical Pathology guidelines) were met for 89% of canine and 92% of feline peripheral blood glucose measurements. Error grid analysis showed that all peripheral canine and 97% of feline measurements were clinically accurate (zone A). Any altered clinical decision for the remaining feline measurements was expected to minimally impact outcome (zone B). No significant difference was found between peripheral and capillary blood glucose measurements in either species.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The PBGM produced clinically accurate results and is suitable for use in veterinary and home settings to measure blood glucose.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Equine fungal keratitis represents a substantial portion of keratitis cases in horses, with fungal involvement identified in approximately half of all infectious keratitis cases. Despite its prevalence, more comprehensive retrospective analyses are needed to better understand this condition. Outcomes vary, with approximately two-thirds of cases achieving complete healing with retained vision, although enucleation is often necessary. Predominant pathogens include Aspergillus and Fusarium, with yeast reported in a minority of cases. Resistance to common antifungal agents among filamentous fungi poses a significant challenge. Advances in diagnostics, including repeat culture and antifungal susceptibility testing, as well as the incorporation of PCR technology, hold promise for improving detection and guiding treatment decisions. Newer antifungals, combination therapies, and innovative modalities such as photodynamic therapy offer hope for improved outcomes. Continued research efforts are essential to further elucidate the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and optimal management strategies for this condition.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the thickness of each layer of the gallbladder wall with different diseases in dogs.

SAMPLE

72 gallbladders.

METHODS

Retrospective study of dogs that underwent cholecystectomy. Histopathological specimens of the gallbladders were reviewed. Histopathological diagnosis was made as gallbladder mucocele or cholecystitis, and cholecystitis was further categorized into chronic cholecystitis, acute-on-chronic cholecystitis, acute cholecystitis, and necrotic cholecystitis. The thickness of each layer of the gallbladder wall was measured.

RESULTS

22 dogs were diagnosed with gallbladder mucocele without cholecystitis, 24 with gallbladder mucocele and cholecystitis, 20 with only cholecystitis, and 6 as normal. Histopathological subclassification of cholecystitis in 44 gallbladders led to diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis in 21 gallbladders, acute-on-chronic cholecystitis in 10 gallbladders, acute cholecystitis in 6 gallbladders, and necrotic cholecystitis in 7 gallbladders. The thickness of the entire wall of the gallbladder (P < .0001) and the thickness of the mucosa (P < .0001) and subserosa (P < .0001) were affected by the different disease processes.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Layers of the gallbladder wall were affected by diseases present in the gallbladder. It resulted in a difference in the thickness of the wall of the gallbladder among the gallbladder diseases in this study. Histopathological changes should be taken into consideration before surgery while deciding what technique to use to perform a cholecystectomy.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research