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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of a gene transfer approach to IL-1β inhibition in an equine osteochondral chip fragment model of joint injury using a self-complementary adeno-associated virus with interleukin receptor antagonist transgene cassette (scAAVIL-1ra), as posttraumatic osteoarthritis in horses, similar to people, is a significant clinical problem.

ANIMALS

16 horses were utilized for the study.

METHODS

All horses had an osteochondral chip fragment induced arthroscopically in one middle carpal joint while the contralateral joint was sham operated. Eight horses received either scAAVIL-1ra or saline in the osteoarthritis joint. Horses were evaluated over 70 days clinically (lameness, imaging, and biomarker analysis) and euthanized at 70 days and evaluated grossly, with imaging and histopathology.

RESULTS

The following findings were statistically significant. Injection of scAAVIL-1ra resulted in high synovial fluid levels of IL-1ra (0.5 to 9 μg/mL) throughout the duration of the experiment (70 days). Over the duration, we observed scAAVIL-1ra to improve lameness (lameness score relative improvement of 1.2 on a scale of 0 to 5), cause suppression of prostaglandin E2 (a relative decline of 30 pg/mL), and result in histological improvement in articular cartilage (decreased chondrocyte loss and chondrone formation) and subchondral bone (less osteochondral splitting and osteochondral lesions). Within the synovial membrane of scAAVIL-1ra–treated joints, we also observed perivascular infiltration with CD3-positive WBCs, suggesting lymphocytic T-cell perivascular infiltration commonly observed with viral transduction.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

These data provide support for further evaluation and optimization of scAAVIL-1ra gene therapy to treat equine osteoarthritis.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease in ruminants that causes significant economic losses worldwide. However, the prevalence of FMD virus (FMDV) in small ruminants has been overlooked in Pakistan. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of FMD in sheep and goats in the border area between Pakistan and Afghanistan.

ANIMALS

800 sheep and goats belongs to age groups of 6 month to > 2 years.

METHODS

A total of 800 serum samples were collected from sheep (n = 424) and goats (n = 376) and subjected to structural protein (SP) and 3ABC non-SP (NSP) ELISAs for the detection of antibodies against SP and NSP of the FMDV.

RESULTS

For NSP, 340/800 (42.5%) of samples were positive, while SP analysis revealed that serotype O (44.5%) was the most common in sheep and goats, followed by Asia-1 (42%) and A (32%) serotypes. Sheep (39%; 95% CI, 34 to 44) had a higher (P < .05) prevalence of FMD than goats (46%; 95% CI, 41 to 51). Statistically significant (P < .05) differences in the seroprevalence of FMD-SP and FMD-NSPs were observed between various agencies (areas) of the study area. Risk factors such as age, sex, breed, season, flock size, body condition, animal movement, and production system were significantly (P < .05) associated with FMDV prevalence.

CONCLUSIONS

This study showed that FMD is highly prevalent in sheep and goats in the border areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan. Therefore, outbreak investigation teams should be arranged at the border level to develop FMD risk-based surveillance and control plans for small ruminants in order to mitigate infection risks.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a third-generation lentivirus-based vector encoding the feline erythropoietin (EPO) (feEPO) gene in vitro and in rodent models in vivo. This vector incorporates a genetic mechanism to facilitate the termination of the therapeutic effect in the event of supraphysiologic polycythemia, the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) “suicide gene.”

ANIMALS

CFRK cells and replication-defective lentiviral vectors encoding feEPO were used for in vitro experiments. Eight Fischer rats were enrolled in the pilot in vivo study, 24 EPO-deficient mice were used in the initial mouse study, and 15 EPO-deficient mice were enrolled in the final mouse study.

METHODS

Efficacy of a third-generation lentivirus encoding feEPO was determined in vitro using western blot assays. Subsequently, in a series of rodent experiments, animals were administered the viral vector in progressively increasing inoculation doses with serial measurements of blood packed cell volume (PCV) over time.

RESULTS

We documented production of feEPO protein in transduced CRFK cells with subsequent cessation of production when treated with the HSV-TK substrate ganciclovir. In vivo, we demonstrated variably persistent elevated PCV values in treated rats and mice with eventual return to baseline values over time.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

These results provide justification for a lentiviral gene therapy approach to the treatment of nonregenerative anemia associated with chronic renal disease in cats.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the microvascular anatomy of the equine hind limb suspensory ligament.

ANIMALS

18 hind limbs harvested from 9 adult horses euthanized for reasons unrelated to lameness.

METHODS

A catheter was placed in the transected cranial tibial artery at the level of the mid-distal tibia for each hind limb and used to inject 120 to 150 mL of contrast medium (2 limbs) to identify principal vasculature using contrast-enhanced CT or India ink (11 limbs) to identify microvasculature using the Spalteholz tissue-clearing technique. Routine histologic evaluation was performed on transverse sections from 4 hind limbs.

RESULTS

The hind limb suspensory ligament is principally supplied by branches of the medial and lateral plantar metatarsal arteries and, to a lesser extent, the medial and lateral plantar arteries as well as the associated proximal and distal deep plantar arches. A uniformly distributed intraligamentous microvascular supply was observed without relative deficiencies in vascularity between the proximal, midbody, and distal regions. Histologic examination supported these findings, demonstrating a network of connective tissue surrounding and entering the suspensory ligament containing cross-sections of branches of the principal vasculature.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The equine hind limb suspensory ligament has a uniformly distributed and abundant microvascular supply throughout its length, with no evidence of relative deficiency of vascular supply in any region. A region of hypovascularity does not appear to be a viable explanation for the high rate of injury to and commonality of lameness associated with the proximal hind suspensory ligament in horses.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the histological injury and intestinal microperfusion measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and spectrophotometry (LDFS) of the small intestine orad to a strangulation during colic surgery.

ANIMALS

Horses with naturally occurring small intestinal strangulations undergoing colic surgery were included.

METHODS

In this prospective clinical trial, intestinal tissue oxygen saturation (tSO2) and tissue blood flow (tBF) were measured by LDFS orad to the strangulation following release of the strangulation (n = 18). The number of horses with postoperative reflux (POR) and the cases that survived until discharge were compared between groups using Fisher’s exact test (P < .05). Intestinal biopsies were taken in cases that underwent intestinal resection or intraoperative euthanasia (n = 28). Measurements were compared between injured and noninjured segments with a Mann-Whitney U or t test.

RESULTS

The tSO2 and tBF of the orad intestine were lower than previously reported in healthy horses. Horses with low tSO2 of < 35% were significantly more likely to suffer from POR (6/6 cases) compared to cases with tSO2 > 69% (1/6). The number of horses that survived were not statistically different between these groups (2/6 and 6/6). All horses with mucosal injury developed POR (6/6), which was significantly more likely compared to horses without mucosal injury (3/13). No significant difference in tSO2 or tBF could be found between the segments with and without histological injury.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The results suggest that measuring tSO2 in the orad segment during colic surgery may aid in predicting postoperative issues.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the plasma concentrations and determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of atorvastatin and its primary active metabolites (para- and orthohydroxyatorvastatin) after administration of a single oral dose in cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus).

ANIMALS

14 adult cockatiels (7 male, 7 female) around 2 years of age.

METHODS

A compounded oral suspension of atorvastatin 10 mg/mL made with an oral suspending agent and an oral sweetener was administered via oral gavage at 20 mg/kg to each bird. Blood samples were collected at 7 different time points from 0.5 to 24 hours postadministration in a balanced incomplete block design with 3 blood samples per bird and 6 replicates per time point. Plasma concentrations of atorvastatin, parahydroxyatorvastatin, and orthohydroxyatorvastatin were determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using noncompartmental analysis.

RESULTS

The estimated time to maximum concentration (tmax) for atorvastatin, parahydroxyatorvastatin, and orthohydroxyatorvastatin was 3 hours for each. The estimated maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) for atorvastatin, parahydroxyatorvastatin, and orthohydroxyatorvastatin was 152.6, 172.4, and 68.8 ng/mL, respectively. The terminal half-lives were 4, 6.8, and 4.6 hours, respectively.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

These results support the therapeutic use of atorvastatin at the dose evaluated in this species based on human pharmacokinetic data. A starting dose of 20 mg/kg PO every 12 to 24 hours could be used to treat lipid disorders in cockatiels pending more data on multidose use and hypolipidemic efficacy.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Cardioplegic solutions are indispensable for open-heart surgeries, including mitral valve repair (MVR), a potentially curative treatment for myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs. However, procedural methodologies are not fully established, and complications are yet to be comprehensively understood. Cardioplegic solutions contain various substances to protect the myocardium under temporal cardiac arrest. Nevertheless, ventricular fibrillation (VF) occurs as a common complication after releasing the crossclamp. Based on these backgrounds, the search for optimal cardioplegic solutions in dogs undergoing MVR is an urgent issue. This study aims to evaluate the occurrence of VF in dogs treated with blood cardioplegia (BCP) versus crystalloid cardioplegia (CCP) during MVR.

ANIMALS

A total of 251 client-owned dogs who underwent MVR from November 2015 to November 2017 were included.

METHODS

We retrospectively assessed the relationship between VF and type of cardioplegia (CCP or BCP) based on surgical records, including VF incidence, transfusion use, crossclamp time, and echocardiographic measurements.

RESULTS

Logistic regression analysis showed that the CCP group was associated with the occurrence of VF (OR, 2.378; CI, 1.133–4.992; P = .022). In addition, the CCP group was associated with transfusion use (OR, 2.586; CI, 1.232–5.428, P = .022). There was no difference between the groups for the pre- and postoperative echocardiographic measurements.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The BCP group had a lower incidence of VF and less transfusion use than the CCP group. This finding indicates that BCP may be a superior cardioplegic technique for MVR in dogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Author:

Abstract

The ability to genetically redirect the antigenic specificity of T cells using chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) has led to unprecedented durable clinical remissions in human patients with relapsed/refractory hematological malignancies. This remarkable advance in successful immune cell engineering has now led to investigations into the application of CAR–T-cell technology to treat nonmalignant diseases. The use of CAR-T cells to target and eliminate specific cell subsets involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, fibrosis, senescence, and infectious disease represents a new direction for adoptive cell therapies. While the use of CAR-T cells for nonmalignant disease is still in its infancy, early reports of dramatic clinical responses to CAR-T cells targeting CD19+ B cells in patients with severe autoimmune disease raise the possibility that this approach could lead to durable remissions, eliminating the need for ongoing conventional immunosuppressive therapies. Excitingly, nonmalignant disease processes that may be addressed by CAR–T-cell therapy in humans also occur in our canine populations. Given that technologies for developing canine CAR constructs are now available, robust protocols have been described for generating canine CAR-T cells, and experience is being gathered with their clinical use in oncology, it is anticipated that CAR-T cells will soon enter the veterinary clinics for the treatment of debilitating nonmalignant diseases. Here, we provide a broad overview of CAR–T-cell therapies for nonmalignant diseases and extrapolate these advances into the veterinary space, highlighting areas in which canine CAR-T cells are poised to enter the clinics for the treatment of nonmalignant disease.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the predictability of the hemangiosarcoma likelihood prediction (HeLP) score and the Tufts Splenic Tumor Assessment Tool (T-STAT) for hemangiosarcoma and malignancy, respectively.

ANIMALS

261 dogs undergoing splenectomy for a splenic mass.

METHODS

Medical records were retrospectively reviewed; variables for the HeLP score and T-STAT were collected, and scores were assigned. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each score.

RESULTS

The HeLP score included 141 dogs; hemangiosarcoma was diagnosed in 87 (61.7%) dogs. The median cumulative HeLP score was 51 (range, 17 to 82; IQR, 39 to 58) for dogs with hemangiosarcoma and 28 (range, 0 to 70; IQR, 17 to 41) for dogs without hemangiosarcoma. The categorical HeLP score was low (28; 32.2%), medium (31; 35.6%), and high (28; 32.2%) for dogs with hemangiosarcoma and was low (41; 75.9%), medium (9; 16.7%), and high (4; 7.4%) for dogs without hemangiosarcoma. The AUC of the cumulative and categorical HeLP scores for diagnosis of hemangiosarcoma were 0.79 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.86) and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.65 to 0.82), respectively. The T-STAT included 181 dogs. Lesions were benign in 95 (52.5%) and malignant in 86 (47.5%) dogs. The median T-STAT score was 62% (range, 5% to 98%; IQR, 36% to 77%) for dogs with malignant lesions and 38% (range, 5% to 91%; IQR, 24% to 59%) for dogs with benign lesions. The T-STAT had an AUC of 0.68 (0.60 to 0.76) for diagnosis of malignancy.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The HeLP score had acceptable performance, and the T-STAT had poor performance for diagnosis prediction. A tool with excellent or outstanding discrimination is needed to more reliably predict the presence of hemangiosarcoma or a malignant lesion preoperatively.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To provide veterinarians with updated radiographic descriptions of select radiolucent foreign material in a simulated gastrointestinal environment.

SAMPLE

368 veterinarian respondents from the US.

METHODS

An online survey was administered between June 18, 2023, and July 2, 2023, through a private veterinarian-based social media group. Representative commonly ingested foreign bodies were radiographed surrounded by air and water to simulate being within the gastrointestinal tract. Two examiners evaluated and qualified the opacity of the objects for each environment.

RESULTS

The private social media group had a total of 3,900 members including veterinarians from all disciplines. A total of 362 small animal veterinarians (9.3% of the group) responded to the study reporting a total of 123 foreign objects that were not causing mechanical obstruction at the time of initial presentation. Sixty-eight foreign bodies were reported greater than or equal to 5 times and grouped as balls (n = 4), food (9), fabric (14), wood (3), soft plastic (14), hard plastic (18), or other (6). Most (98.5% [67/68]) objects were easily identifiable in air. In water, 23.5% (16/68) of the objects were obscured, and 39.7% (27/68) had inversion of the major opacity when compared to the opacity in air.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The opacity of some ingested radiolucent material can invert relative to air or fluid, which may reflect substantial differences in detection following repositioning. When known dietary indiscretion occurs, radiographing a sample of the material in air and water will improve the accuracy of assessment.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research