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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine hepatic copper concentrations and zonal distribution in ferrets with and without hepatobiliary disease, validate rhodanine-based qualitative copper scoring and digital copper quantification in ferret hepatic samples, and ascertain whether clinical features predicted copper accumulation.

ANIMALS

34 ferrets, including 7 with necroinflammatory disease, 5 with hepatocellular carcinoma, 13 with non-necroinflammatory disease, and 9 with no hepatobiliary disease.

PROCEDURES

Rhodanine-based digital copper quantification was validated by use of liver dually measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy and digital scanning (R 2 = 0.98). Clinical features and hepatic copper scores and concentrations (dry weight liver) were compared between groups. Zonal copper distribution was determined.

RESULTS

Hepatic copper concentration was strongly correlated with copper scores (ρ = 0.88). Ferrets with hepatobiliary disease were significantly older and had significantly higher serum alkaline phosphatase and γ-glutamyltransferase activities and creatinine concentrations. Centrilobular copper accumulated in 23 of 34 (64%) ferrets with (n = 15) and without (8) hepatobiliary disease. Median copper concentrations were not significantly different between ferrets with and without hepatobiliary disease but were significantly higher within neoplastic hepatic tissue in ferrets with hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatic copper concentrations exceeded feline (> 180 µg/g) and canine (> 400 µg/g) reference limits in 19 and 9 ferrets, respectively. Hepatic copper > 1,000 µg/g occurred in 5 ferrets with and 2 without hepatobiliary disease. Clinical features did not predict copper accumulation.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Rhodanine-based digital copper quantification and qualitative copper scoring discerned liver copper accumulation in ferrets. Ferrets with and without hepatobiliary disease displayed a propensity for centrilobular hepatic copper accumulation of uncertain clinical importance. Clinical and clinicopathologic features could not exclusively implicate pathologic copper accumulation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To replicate a previously defined behavioral procedure to acclimate adult cats to temporary restriction in indirect calorimetry chambers and measure energy expenditure and respiratory quotient changes during acclimation.

ANIMALS

8 healthy adult cats (4 spayed females, and 4 neutered males; mean ± SEM age, 2.5 ± 1.5 years; mean body weight, 4.8 ± 1.8 kg).

PROCEDURES

Cats underwent a 13-week incremental acclimation procedure whereby cats were acclimated to the chambers in their home environment (weeks 1 to 3), to the study room (weeks 4 to 6), and to increasing lengths of restriction within their home environment (weeks 7 to 8) and the chambers (weeks 9 to 13). Cat stress score, respiratory rate, fearfulness (assessed with a novel object test), energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient were measured. Data were analyzed by use of a repeated-measures mixed model.

RESULTS

Stress, based on cat stress scores, fearfulness, and respiration, peaked at weeks 4, 9, and 10 but returned to baseline levels by week 11. Energy expenditure and respiratory quotient peaked at weeks 10 and 11, respectively, but were reduced significantly by weeks 11 and 13, respectively. All cats returned to baseline by the end of the study and were deemed fully acclimated.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Changes in perceived stress level, energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient at various stages of the acclimation procedure suggest that stress should be considered a significant variable in energy balance measurements when indirect calorimetry is used in cats. An incremental acclimation procedure should therefore be used to prepare cats for the temporary space restriction necessary for indirect calorimetry studies.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether intrarenal injection of sodium pentobarbital is a viable method for euthanasia in anesthetized client-owned cats and assess potential factors associated with time to cardiopulmonary arrest (TCPA) for such treated cats.

ANIMALS

131 client-owned cats.

PROCEDURES

In this retrospective study, client-owned cats presented for euthanasia between March 1, 2009, and January 15, 2010, were evaluated by veterinarians to determine suitability of intrarenal injection versus other methods of euthanasia. Cats included were anesthetized and then received 6 mL of sodium pentobarbital (390 mg/mL) by intrarenal injection. Results for TCPA were compared for cats grouped on the basis of variables of interest.

RESULTS

131 cats were included, of which 74 (79%) had a TCPA < 1 minute and 28 (21%) had a TCPA between 1.5 and 8 minutes after intrarenal injection. Most (124/131 [95%]) cats had no observable reaction to the intrarenal injection other than cardiopulmonary arrest. Median TCPA was longer for cats without (1 min; 25/131 [19%]) versus with (0 min; 106/131 [81%]) palpable kidney swelling upon injection.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The effects of intrarenal injection of sodium pentobarbital in cats of the present study were similar to those typically observed with IV administration of euthanasia solution. When this intrarenal injection method is used, cardiopulmonary arrest with few agonal reactions can be expected to occur quickly in most patients. The intrarenal injection method is suited for euthanasia of anesthetized cats with easily located kidneys when IV access may be difficult.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate changes in electrolyte concentrations and hydration status that take place in endurance horses prior to the start of a competition and determine whether these changes would be associated with elimination.

ANIMALS

19 horses entered in the 2016 Tevis Cup 100-Miles (160 km) One-Day Western States Trail Ride.

PROCEDURES

Heparinized blood samples were collected at 5 time points: prior to transport to the ride (T0), during check-in the day before the ride (T1), 1 to 2 hours before the start of the ride (T2), at the 15-km mark (T3), and at the 55-km mark (T4). Packed cell volume and plasma sodium, potassium, chloride, urea nitrogen, glucose, bicarbonate, and total protein concentrations were determined and compared across time points and between finishers and nonfinishers.

RESULTS

Signif icant differences were detected among plasma sodium, potassium, and urea nitrogen concentrations measured prior to the start of the ride (ie, T0, T1, and T2). For all variables except chloride and bicarbonate concentrations, significant differences were detected between values obtained prior to the start of the ride and values obtained during the ride (ie, T3 and T4). Only bicarbonate concentration at the 15-km mark of the ride was significantly associated with finishing status.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that significant changes in plasma sodium, potassium, and urea nitrogen concentrations can occur in endurance horses during transport to a competition and when horses are stabled overnight before an event. Additionally, a lower bicarbonate concentration following a steep climb early during the ride was associated with subsequent elimination.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate glucose absorption rates as an indirect measure of fluid absorption after SC or intracoelomic (ICe) administration of 2.5% dextrose solution to experimentally dehydrated inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

ANIMALS

9 adult bearded dragons.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design study, bearded dragons were experimentally dehydrated with a previously described protocol and then received 2.5% dextrose solution (a 1:1 mixture of 5% dextrose in isotonic multiple electrolytes solution; 20 mL/kg), SC or ICe, or a control treatment (the same electrolytes solution without added glucose; 20 mL/kg). Blood glucose (BG) concentrations were measured at predetermined times up to 24 hours after fluid administration. There was a ≥ 14-day washout period between treatments. Mean changes in BG concentration from baseline were compared among treatments.

RESULTS

Administration of 2.5% dextrose solution by either route increased BG concentration with a significantly greater change in values within 5 minutes, compared with control treatment results. The mean change in BG concentration after ICe administration was significantly greater than that after SC administration 15 and 30 minutes after injection, with mean differences of −50 and −36 mg/dL, respectively, for the SC treatment. Within 1 hour after fluid administration, there was no significant difference in BG values between the 2 dextrose administration routes.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings supported that fluid therapy by SC administration, which carries a lower risk of iatrogenic complications, can provide results similar to those achieved with ICe administration.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To measure serum fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF-19) concentration and gallbladder volume in healthy dogs before and after feeding to determine whether serum FGF-19 concentration increases following gallbladder contraction and to assess FGF-19 stability in blood samples kept under different storage conditions after collection in tubes containing no anticoagulant or in serum separator tubes.

ANIMALS

10 healthy dogs of various ages and breeds (30 blood samples and 30 gall-bladder volume measurements).

PROCEDURES

Serum FGF-19 concentration was measured with a commercially available ELISA. Gallbladder volume was determined ultrasonographically. Blood samples and gallbladder measurements were obtained from the dogs after food had been withheld for 12 hours (baseline) and at 1 and 3 hours after feeding. The stability of serum FGF-19 was assessed in samples collected in tubes containing no anticoagulant or in serum separator tubes and stored at –80°C for variable intervals or 4°C for 1 or 5 days.

RESULTS

Serum FGF-19 concentration was significantly increased from baseline at 1 and 3 hours after feeding. There was a significant decrease in gallbladder volume 1 hour after feeding, compared with baseline findings. Regardless of collection tube used, concentrations of FGF-19 in serum obtained from blood samples that were collected and immediately stored at –80°C differed significantly from concentrations in serum obtained from blood samples that had been collected and stored at 4°C for 5 days.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that postprandial gallbladder contraction results in increases of serum FGF-19 concentration in healthy dogs. Assessment of circulating FGF-19 concentration could be used to detect disruptions in the enterohepatic-biliary axis in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the sublingual microcirculation between healthy horses anesthetized for elective procedures and horses with colic anesthetized for abdominal surgery and to determine the effect of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) on the microcirculation.

ANIMALS

9 horses in the elective group and 8 horses in the colic group.

PROCEDURES

Sublingual microcirculation was assessed with sidestream dark field video microscopy. Videos were captured at 3 time points during anesthesia. Recorded microvasculature parameters were De Backer score (DBS), total density of perfused vessels (PVD) and small vessels (PVD-S), total proportion of perfused vessels (PPV) and small vessels (PPV-S), vascular flow index (MFI), and heterogeneity index (HI). Blood pressure during hypotensive (MAP < 60 mm Hg) and normotensive (MAP ≥ 60 mm Hg) episodes was also recorded.

RESULTS

During normotensive episodes, the elective group had significantly better PPV and PPV-S versus the colic group (median PPV, 76% vs 50%; median PPV-S, 73% vs 51%). In both groups, PPV decreased during anesthesia (elective group, −29%; colic group, −16%) but significantly improved in the elective group 15 minutes before the end of anesthesia (59%). During hypotensive episodes, PVD-S was better preserved in the colic group (11.1 vs 3.8 mm/mm2). No differences were identified for the microcirculatory parameters between normo- and hypotensive episodes in the colic group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Sublingual microcirculation was better preserved in healthy horses anesthetized for elective procedures than in horses with colic anesthetized for abdominal surgery despite resuscitation maneuvers. Results indicated that the macrocirculation and microcirculation in critically ill horses may be independent.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe daily changes in serum concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomarker of endothelial glycocalyx degradation, in dogs with septic peritonitis and to determine whether relationships exist among serum concentrations of HA and biomarkers of inflammation and patient fluid status.

ANIMALS

8 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

Serum samples that had been collected for a previous study and stored at −80°C were used. Blood samples were collected at admission and daily thereafter during hospitalization and were analyzed for concentrations of HA and interleukins 6, 8, and 10. Patient data including acute patient physiologic and laboratory evaluation score, type and amount of fluids administered daily, and daily CBC and lactate concentration results were recorded. To determine the significant predictors of HA concentration, a general linear mixed model for repeated measures was developed.

RESULTS

All dogs survived to discharge. Concentrations of HA ranged from 18 to 1,050 ng/mL (interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 49 to 119 ng/mL) throughout hospitalization. Interleukin-6 concentration was a significant predictor of HA concentration as was total administered daily fluid volume when accounting for interleukin-6 concentration. When fluid volume was analyzed independent of inflammatory status, fluid volume was not a significant predictor. Concentrations of HA did not significantly change over time but tended to increase on day 2 or 3 of hospitalization.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results supported the theory that inflammation is associated with endothelial glycocalyx degradation. Dogs recovering from septic peritonitis may become more susceptible to further endothelial glycocalyx damage as increasing fluid volumes are administered.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe functional and anatomic changes of the lower urogenital tract of healthy male dogs during the sexually immature period and up to 2 years of age by urodynamic and morphometric assessment.

ANIMALS

6 sexually intact male Beagle littermates.

PROCEDURES

Dogs underwent electromyography-coupled urodynamic tests, CT-assisted retrograde urethrography, prostatic washes, and blood sampling monthly from 4 through 12 months of age and then at 3-month intervals. Urodynamic and morphometric variables and serum canine prostate–specific esterase concentrations were analyzed by statistical methods.

RESULTS

Integrated pressure of the urethra was significantly increased beginning at 8 months of age, compared with earlier time points. Urethral pressure peak amplitudes varied among anatomic regions. During bladder filling, few electromyographic signals were concurrent with urethral pressure peaks; these were most commonly detected in the penile portion of the urethra. Urethral length and prostate gland volume were significantly greater from 7 to 24 months of age than at younger ages. Urethral length was approximately 26 to 27 cm after 9 months, and prostate gland volume was approximately 11 to 12 cm after 11 months of age. Serum canine prostate–specific esterase concentrations correlated with prostate gland volume. Urinary bladder threshold volume was significantly increased at 6 months of age, compared with that at 4 months, with a maximum of 197.7 mL at 24 months.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Urethral resistance was acquired at approximately 8 months of age, when growth of the lower urinary tract was incomplete. Electromyographic and integrated pressure measurement results and the distribution and amplitude of urethral pressure peaks highlighted the potential role of the prostate gland and possibly the bulbocavernosus muscles in control of continence.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of 3 electrolyte solutions administered SC to experimentally dehydrated inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

ANIMALS

9 inland bearded dragons.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized, complete crossover study, experimental dehydration was induced by means of furosemide (10 mg/kg, SC, q 12 h for 4 doses), and then lactated Ringer solution, Plasma-Lyte A, or reptile Ringer solution (RRS; 1:1 mixture of 5% dextrose solution and isotonic crystalloid solution) was administered SC in a single 50-mL/kg dose in 3 treatments sessions separated by a minimum of 14 days. Food and water were withheld during treatment sessions. Plasma biochemical values, PCV, blood total solids and lactate concentrations, and plasma osmolarity were measured prior to (baseline) and 4 and 24 hours after fluid administration.

RESULTS

Administration of RRS resulted in severe hyperglycemia (mean ± SD plasma glucose concentration, 420 ± 62 mg/dL), compared with baseline values (190 ± 32 mg/dL), and this hyperglycemia persisted for at least 24 hours. It also resulted in significant reductions in plasma osmolarity and sodium and phosphorus concentrations, which were not observed after administration of the other 2 solutions. Administration of lactated Ringer solution caused no significant increase in blood lactate concentration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The changes in plasma glucose, sodium, and phosphorus concentrations and plasma osmolarity observed after SC administration of a single dose of RRS suggested this type of electrolyte solution should not be used for rehydration of bearded dragons. Rather, lactated Ringer solution or Plasma-Lyte A should be considered instead.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research