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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of using an internal fixation plate to augment primary 3-loop pulley (3LP) repair of canine gastrocnemius tendons (GTs).

SAMPLE

48 cadaveric GTs from 24 adult dogs.

PROCEDURES

GTs were dissected free from other tissues, transected, and randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 12/group). GTs were repaired with 2-0 polypropylene with a 3LP repair alone or a 3LP repair augmented with a 3-hole veterinary cuttable plate (3VCP), a 5-hole veterinary cuttable plate (5VCP), or a 7-hole veterinary cuttable plate (7VC P). Biomechanical loads, construct stiffness, gap formation, and failure modes were compared between groups.

RESULTS

Yield, peak, and failure loads were all significantly increased for the 5VCP and 7VCP groups, compared with the 3LP alone group. Increasing plate length from 3VCP to 5VCP and from 3VCP to 7VCP increased yield, peak, and failure loads. No differences were found between the 3LP and 3VCP groups with regard to yield and peak loads, but failure load was increased in the 3VCP group. Loads to create 1-mm and 3-mm gaps were significantly greater for the 5VCP and 7VCP groups, compared with the 3LP alone and 3VCP groups. Mode of plate attachment failure differed among groups.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Tendon plate augmentation may be a viable surgical option to increase the strength of the tenorrhaphy in dogs. However, in vivo studies evaluating the effects of plate augmentation on the tendon blood supply and progression of healing are needed prior to clinical application.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether use of a protective cover would affect temporospatial gait or ground reaction force (GRF) measurements obtained from dogs walking on a validated pressure-sensitive walkway (PSW).

ANIMALS

5 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES

In a crossover study design, all dogs were walked across a calibrated PSW with and without a protective cover in place in random order. Temporospatial gait data and GRFs obtained with and without the cover in place were compared.

RESULTS

No significant differences were identified in temporospatial gait measurements obtained with versus without the cover in place. The bias was low for all variables, and the 95% limits of agreement included 0. In contrast, significant differences were found between measurements obtained with versus without the cover in place for most GRFs, with measurements obtained with the cover in place significantly lower than those obtained without a cover.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that for dogs walking over a PSW, GRFs, but not temporospatial gait variables, would be significantly lower if a protective cover was placed over the walkway, compared with values obtained without a cover in place.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effect of knot location on the biomechanical strength and gapping characteristics of ex vivo canine gastrocnemius tenorrhaphy constructs.

SAMPLE

36 cadaveric gastrocnemius tendons from 18 adult dogs.

PROCEDURES

Tendons were randomly assigned to 3 groups (12 tendons/group) and sharply transected and repaired by means of a core locking-loop suture with the knot at 1 of 3 locations (exposed on the external surface of the tendon, buried just underneath the external surface of the tendon, or buried internally between the apposed tendon ends). All repairs were performed with size-0 polypropylene suture. All constructs underwent a single load-to-failure test. Yield, failure, and peak forces, mode of failure, and forces required for 1- and 3-mm gap formation were compared among the 3 knot-location groups.

RESULTS

Mean yield, failure, and peak forces and mean forces required for 1- and 3-mm gap formation did not differ significantly among the 3 groups. The mode of failure also did not differ significantly among the 3 groups, and the majority (33/36 [92%]) of constructs failed owing to the suture pulling through the tendinous substance.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Final knot location did not significantly affect the biomechanical strength and gapping characteristics of canine gastrocnemius tenorrhaphy constructs. Therefore, all 3 evaluated knot locations may be acceptable for tendon repair in dogs. In vivo studies are necessary to further elucidate the effect of knot location in suture patterns commonly used for tenorrhaphy on tendinous healing and collagenous remodeling at the repair site.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of a flotation vest (FV) and water flow rate (WFR) on limb kinematics of dogs swimming against a current.

ANIMALS

7 (1 male and 6 female) healthy adult Siberian Huskies.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were habituated to swim with and without an FV beside an investigator in a continuous-flow pool against WFRs up to 2.9 km/h. During each of 4 experimental sessions in a repeated-measures study, markers were wrapped around the right carpus and tarsus, and a video was recorded while each dog swam with or without an FV for about 2 minutes at each of 7 WFRs between 0 and 2.9 km/h when the WFR was incrementally decreased or increased. Motion tracking software was used to measure stroke excursion and frequency.

RESULTS

Stroke excursion varied more than frequency among all dogs and in response to changes in experimental conditions. The male dog and 1 female dog were unable to complete the study. For the remaining 5 dogs across all experimental conditions, mean tarsus excursion was 30% that of the carpus. Mean total excursion (sum of the excursion-frequency products for the carpus and tarsus) decreased when an FV was worn and increased with WFR by 69% and 19% when WFR was incrementally increased and decreased, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In dogs, range of motion during swimming was greater for the carpus than tarsus, when an FV was not worn, and increased more with WFR when WFR was incrementally increased. Those factors should be considered during swimming-based rehabilitation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effects of 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-strand suture repairs on the biomechanical properties of canine gastrocnemius tenorrhaphy constructs in an ex vivo model.

SAMPLE

56 cadaveric gastrocnemius musculotendinous units from 28 adult large-breed dogs.

PROCEDURES

Tendons were randomly assigned to 4 repair groups (2-, 4-, 6- or 8-strand suture technique; n = 14/group). Following tenotomy, repairs were performed with the assigned number of strands of 2-0 polypropylene suture in a simple interrupted pattern. Biomechanical testing was performed. Yield, peak, and failure loads, the incidence of 1- and 3-mm gap formation, forces associated with gap formation, and failure modes were compared among groups.

RESULTS

Yield, peak, and failure forces differed significantly among groups, with significantly greater force required as the number of suture strands used for tendon repair increased. The force required to create a 1- or 3-mm gap between tendon ends also differed among groups and increased significantly with number of strands used. All constructs failed by mode of suture pull-through.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that increasing the number of suture strands crossing the repair site significantly increases the tensile strength of canine gastrocnemius tendon repair constructs and their resistance to gap formation. Future studies are needed to assess the effects of multistrand suture patterns on tendon glide function, blood supply, healing, and long-term clinical function in dogs to inform clinical decision-making.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the effect of an excessive tibial plateau angle (TPA) and change in compressive load on tensile forces experienced by the cranial cruciate, medial collateral, and lateral collateral ligaments (CCL, MCL, and LCL, respectively) of canine stifle joints.

SAMPLE

16 cadaveric stifle joints from 16 orthopedically normal Beagles.

PROCEDURES

Stifle joints were categorized into unchanged (mean TPA, 30.4°) and excessive (mean TPA before and after modification, 31.2° and 41.1°, respectively) TPA groups. The excessive TPA group underwent a TPA-increasing procedure (curvilinear osteotomy of the proximal aspect of the tibia) to achieve the desired TPA. A robotic system was used to apply a 30- and 60-N compressive load to specimens. The craniomedial band of the CCL, caudolateral band of the CCL, MCL, and LCL were sequentially transected; load application was repeated after each transection. Orthogonal force components were measured in situ. Forces on ligaments were calculated after repeated output force measurements as the contribution of each component was eliminated.

RESULTS

Increasing the compressive load increased tensile forces on the craniomedial and caudolateral bands of the CCL, but not on the MCL or LCL, in specimens of both groups. At the 60-N load, tensile force on the craniomedial band, but not other ligaments, was greater for the excessive TPA group than for the unchanged TPA group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that stress on the CCL may increase when the compressive load increases. The TPA-increasing procedure resulted in increased tensile force on the CCL at a 60-N compressive load without affecting forces on the MCL or LCL.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the motion of the proximal sesamoid bones (PSBs) relative to the third metacarpal bone (MC3) of equine forelimbs during physiologic midstance loads.

SAMPLE

8 musculoskeletally normal forelimbs (7 right and 1 left) from 8 adult equine cadavers.

PROCEDURES

Each forelimb was harvested at the mid-radius level and mounted in a material testing system so the hoof could be moved in a dorsal direction while the radius and MC3 remained vertical. The PSBs were instrumented with 2 linear variable differential transformers to record movement between the 2 bones. The limb was sequentially loaded at a displacement rate of 5 mm/s from 500 N to each of 4 loads (1.8 [standing], 3.6 [walking], 4.5 [trotting], and 10.5 [galloping] kN), held at the designated load for 30 seconds while lateromedial radiographs were obtained, and then unloaded back to 500 N. The position of the PSBs relative to the transverse ridge of the MC3 condyle and angle of the metacarpophalangeal (fetlock) joint were measured on each radiograph.

RESULTS

The distal edge of the PSBs moved distal to the transverse ridge of the MC3 condyle at 10.5 kN (gallop) but not at lower loads. The palmar surfaces of the PSBs rotated away from each other during fetlock joint extension, and the amount of rotation increased with load.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

At loads consistent with a high-speed gallop, PSB translations may create an articular incongruity and abnormal bone stress distribution that contribute to focal subchondral bone lesions and PSB fracture in racehorses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the ability of novel legwear designed to limit extension of the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) to redirect loading forces from the flexor apparatus during walk, trot, and canter on a treadmill and during unrestrained and restrained activity in a stall.

ANIMALS

6 adult horses without musculoskeletal disease.

PROCEDURES

Legwear-derived force data were recorded under 4 conditions: inactive state (unlimited legwear extension) and 3 active (restrictive) states (mild, 30° extension; moderate, 20° extension; or maximum, 10° extension). Associations between peak legwear loads and torques among legwear states and treadmill gaits and stall activities were assessed. The hair coat and skin of the forelimbs were examined for any legwear-induced adverse effects after testing.

RESULTS

During the treadmill exercises, moderate restriction of legwear extension resulted in significantly higher peak load and torque than mild restriction, and faster speeds (canter vs walk or trot and trot vs walk) yielded significantly higher peak load and torque. During in-stall activity, maximum restriction of legwear extension yielded significantly higher peak load and torque than moderate restriction. Unrestrained in-stall activity resulted in significantly higher peak load and torque than restrained activity. The legwear caused minimal adverse effects on the hair coat and skin of the forelimbs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings suggested that the legwear variably reduced peak loads on the flexor apparatus. Extension of the MCPJ may be incrementally adjusted through the legwear such that return to activity may be controlled, and controlled return to activity is crucial for rehabilitating flexor apparatus injuries.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the effects of novel legwear designed to limit metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) extension and redirect loading forces from the flexor apparatus through analyses of 2-D kinematic and kinetic data.

ANIMALS

6 adult horses without musculoskeletal disease.

PROCEDURES

Horses were subjected to 4 treatments: control (no legwear), inactive legwear (unlimited legwear extension), and active legwear with mild (30°) and moderate (20°) legwear extension limitation. Two-dimensional kinematic data were collected for the right forelimb (FL) during walk and trot and from leading and trailing FLs during canter on a treadmill. Ground reaction force (GRF) data were collected from FLs during overground walk and trot. Peak MCPJ angle and angular velocity were calculated from kinematic data, and peak force and average loading rate were calculated from vertical GRF data during the stance phase of the gait. Interactions between gait and treatment were determined via ANOVA.

RESULTS

Interactions between gait and treatment for peak MCPJ angle were significant. Significant reductions in MCPJ angle were noted between the control treatment and legwear with moderate extension limitation for trot and canter (leading and trailing FL) and between inactive legwear and legwear with moderate extension limitation for trot and leading FL during canter. Interactions among peak MCPJ angular velocity, peak vertical GRF, and average loading rate of the vertical GRF showed nonsignificance.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Significant reductions in MCPJ extension without significant alterations to peak vertical GRF suggested the legwear's ability to redistribute internal forces. Findings suggested that the legwear may be beneficial for horses rehabilitating from flexor apparatus injuries.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether a customized unilateral intervertebral anchored fusion device combined with (vs without) an intervertebral spacer would increase the stability of the L1-L2 motion segment following complete intervertebral diskectomy in canine cadaveric specimens.

SAMPLE

Vertebral columns from T13 through L3 harvested from 16 skeletally mature Beagles without thoracolumbar disease.

PROCEDURES

Complete diskectomy of the L1-2 disk was performed in each specimen. Unilateral stabilization of the L1-L2 motion segment was performed with the first of 2 implants: a unilateral intervertebral anchored fusion device that consisted of a locking compression plate with or without an intervertebral spacer. The resulting construct was biomechanically tested; then, the first implant was removed, and the second implant was applied to the contralateral side and tested. Range of motion in flexion and extension, lateral bending, and torsion was compared among intact specimens (prior to diskectomy) and constructs.

RESULTS

Compared with intact specimens, constructs stabilized with either implant were as stable in flexion and extension, significantly more stable in lateral bending, and significantly less stable in axial rotation. Constructs stabilized with the fusion device plus intervertebral spacer were significantly stiffer in lateral bending than those stabilized with the fusion device alone. No significant differences in flexion and extension and rotation were noted between implants.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings did not support the use of this customized unilateral intervertebral anchored fusion device with an intervertebral spacer to improve unilateral stabilization of the L1-L2 motion segment after complete L1-2 diskectomy in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research