Objective—To determine associations between serum concentrations of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, and insulin in healthy cats.
Animals—56 healthy adult client-owned cats.
Procedures—Body condition score (BCS) was determined, and blood samples were collected after food was withheld for 12 hours. Serum was harvested for fatty acid analysis and measurement of serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol.
Results—1 cat was removed because of hyperglycemia. Significant interaction effects between BCS and serum concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were detected for the analyses of associations between EPA and serum concentrations of adiponectin, insulin, and triglyceride. Cats were categorized into nonobese (BCS, 4 to 6 [n = 34 cats]) and obese (BCS, 7 to 8 ) groups; serum concentrations of EPA were directly associated with concentrations of adiponectin and inversely associated with concentrations of insulin and triglyceride in obese cats and were directly associated with concentrations of leptin and inversely associated with concentrations of adiponectin in nonobese cats. Additionally, serum concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid were directly associated with concentrations of adiponectin in obese cats. No significant associations between serum concentrations of docosahexaenoic acid or α-linolenic acid were detected in the analyses for all cats. Female cats had higher serum concentrations of adiponectin and lower concentrations of glucose than did male cats. Increased age was associated with a small increase in serum concentrations of leptin.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—EPA may ameliorate the decrease in adiponectin and the increase in insulin and triglyceride concentrations in obese cats.
Objective—To determine the effectiveness of preinduction hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) in ameliorating signs of experimentally induced endotoxemia in horses.
Animals—18 healthy adult horses.
Procedures—Horses were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 equal-sized treatment groups to receive normobaric ambient air and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), HBOT and LPS, or HBOT and physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Horses were physically examined, and blood was obtained for a CBC and to determine concentration or activity of plasma tissue necrosis factor-α, blood lactate, and blood glucose before the horses were treated with HBOT and then intermittently for 6 hours after administration of LPS or physiologic saline solution.
Results—All LPS-treated horses developed signs and biochemical and hematologic changes consistent with endotoxemia. Treatment with HBOT significantly ameliorated the effect of LPS on clinical endotoxemia score but did not significantly improve other abnormalities associated with endotoxemia.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The protective effect of HBOT was minimal, and results did not support its use as a treatment for horses prior to development of endotoxemia.
Procedures—The heart of each anaconda was echocardiographically evaluated after food was withheld for 28 days as well as 3 and 10 days after feeding. Physical measurements included body length, weight, and circumference at the level of the heart. Echocardiographic measurements included heart rate and 2-D total and internal ventricular area. From these measurements, total ventricular volume as well as the myocardial area as a surrogate of myocardial mass was calculated.
Results—No significant changes in body length, weight, and circumference were found. Significant increases in heart rate (from 45 to 58 beats/min), total ventricular volume (from 4.63 to 5.54 mL), and myocardial area (from 0.7 to 0.81 cm2) were detected 10 days after feeding, compared with results obtained prior to feeding after food had been withheld for 28 days. No pericardial effusion was detected at any time point.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Echocardiographic evaluation of the heart of anacondas was performed, and feeding resulted in concentric cardiac hypertrophy. Physiologic fluctuation of cardiac dimensions should be considered when cardiac imaging is performed in snakes.
Objective—To examine the changes in monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 1 and MCT4 content and in indicators of energy metabolism in the gluteus medius muscle (GMM) of Thoroughbreds during growth.
Animals—6 Thoroughbreds (3 males and 3 females).
Procedures—Samples of GMM were obtained when horses were 2, 6, 12, and 24 months old. Muscle proteins were separated via SDS-PAGE; amounts of MCT1 and MCT4 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α content were determined by use of western blotting. Muscle activities of phosphofructokinase and citrate synthase were measured biochemically; lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and quantified.
Results—Compared with findings when horses were 2 months old, MCT1 protein content in GMM samples obtained when the horses were 24 months old was significantly higher; however, MCT4 protein content remained unchanged throughout the study period. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α content was significantly increased at 24 months of age and citrate synthase activity was increased at 6 and 24 months of age, compared with findings at 2 months. Phosphofructokinase activity remained unaltered during growth. The percentage contributions of lactate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 isoenzymes to the total amount of all 5 isoenzymes at 12 and 24 months of age were significantly higher than those at 2 months of age.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Changes in protein contents of MCTs and the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme profile in GMM samples suggested that lactate usage capacity increases with growth and is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative capacity in Thoroughbreds.
Objective—To compare responses of equine digital arteries (EDAs) and veins (EDVs) to human-acalcitonin gene-related peptide (hαCGRP), evaluate effect of the endothelium, and characterize receptors and sources of endogenous CGRP.
Sample—Palmar digital vessels (5 to 9/experiment) from healthy adult horses killed at an abattoir.
Procedures—Vessel rings were mounted under tension in organ baths containing Krebs-Henseleit solution at 30°C, with relaxation responses examined in vessels preconstricted with a thromboxane-mimetic (3 × 10−8M). Responses of endothelium-intact (+e) and -denuded (−e) EDAs and EDVs to hαCGRP C10−10 to 3 × 10−7M) were compared. Following incubation with an hαCGRP receptor antagonist (hαCGRP8–37; 1μM), responses of EDA(−e) and EDV(−e) to hαCGRP (10−7M) were obtained. Responses of endothelium-intact and -denuded arteries and veins to hαCGRP (3 × 10−7M) or capsaicin (10−5M) were evaluated as well as responses of endothelium-intact and -denuded EDA and EDV to hαCGRP (10−10 to 10−6M) after incubation with endothelin-1 (ET-1; 10−12M).
Results—hαCGRP resulted in nonendothelium, concentration-dependent relaxation in EDAs and EDVs, with greater responses in EDAs. Treatment with hαCGRP8–37 had minimal effect on responses to hαCGRP in either vessel type. Capsaicin induced relaxation in both vessel types. There were no differences between responses to hαCGRP for vessels pretreated with ET-1 or vehicle.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Both hαCGRP and capsaicin induced digital vasodilation unaffected by a functional endothelium. This suggested that endogenous CGRP likely emanates from sensory-motor nerves and may contribute to digital vasodilation.
Objective—To induce ischemia and reperfusion injury in the large colon mucosa of horses in vivo and evaluate the recovery and effects of components of an organ transplant solution on mucosal recovery in vitro.
Animals—6 healthy horses.
Procedures—Horses were anesthetized, and ischemia was induced for 60 minutes in the pelvic flexure, which was followed by reperfusion for 240 minutes. Ischemic (n = 4 horses), reperfused (6), and adjacent control (6) colonic mucosae were isolated for in vitro testing and histologic examinations. Tissues were mounted in Ussing chambers with plain Krebs Ringer bicarbonate (KRB), KRB with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), or KRB with a modified organ transplant solution (MOTS). Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and mannitol flux were used to assess mucosal integrity. Data were analyzed by use of ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests.
Results—The TER in reperfused tissues was similar to the TER in control tissues and greater than the TER in ischemic tissues, which was consistent with morphological evidence of recovery in reperfused tissues. Mannitol flux was greater in ischemic tissues than in reperfused tissues. The TER and mannitol flux were not significantly affected by incubation of mucosa with NAC or MOTS.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ischemia induced during the brief period allowed rapid mucosal repair and complete recovery of tissue barrier properties during reperfusion. Therefore, reperfusion injury was not observed for this method of ischemic damage in equine colonic mucosa.
Objective—To investigate effects of IV administration of dextrose on coagulation in healthy dogs.
Procedures—Thromboelastography and coagulation panel analysis were used to assess coagulation. Samples (S1 through S9) were collected during the study phases: phase 0 (S1 [baseline]); phase 1 (S2 and S3), infusion of crystalloid fluid without dextrose; phase 2 (S4 and S5), high-rate dextrose infusion; phase 3 (S6, S7, and S8), moderate-rate dextrose infusion; and phase 4 (S9), discontinuation of fluids for 24 hours. In phase 3, dogs were allocated to 2 groups; 1 was administered dextrose at a rate comparable to total parental nutrition (40% of resting energy requirement; group A), and 1 was administered dextrose at rates equaling 70% to 90% of resting energy requirement (group B). Blood glucose concentration was measured every 2 hours.
Results—No dogs had clinically relevant sustained hyperglycemia. Maximum amplitude and elastic shear modulus were significantly lower at S6 than at S1 through S4. Concentration of D-dimer was significantly higher at S6 than at S1, S3, and S4 and significantly higher at S5 than at S3. Prothrombin time was significantly prolonged at S3, S5, S7, S8, and S9, compared with the value at S1. Activated partial thromboplastin time was significantly prolonged at S5 and S6, compared with values at S1, S2, S3, S4, and S9.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of dextrose to healthy dogs at rates comparable to or higher than those for conventional parenteral nutrition resulted in mild but clinically unimportant interference with coagulation.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of carprofen and meloxicam on conductance and permeability to mannitol and on the histologic appearance of sections of canine gastric mucosa.
Sample—Gastric mucosa from 6 mature mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Sections of gastric mucosa were mounted in Ussing chambers, and carprofen (40 or 400μg/mL [CAR40 and CAR400, respectively]), meloxicam (8 or 80μg/mL [MEL8 and MEL80, respectively]), or no drug (controls) was added to the bathing solution. For all sections, conductance was calculated every 15 minutes for 240 minutes and flux of mannitol was calculated for 3 consecutive 1-hour periods; histologic examination was performed after the experiment. The area under the conductance-time curve for each chamber was calculated. Values of conductance × time, flux of mannitol, and the frequency distribution of histologic findings were analyzed for treatment effects.
Results—For CAR400- and MEL80-treated sections, conductance X time was significantly higher than that for control and MEL8-treated sections. The effect of CAR40 treatment was not different from that of any other treatment. Over the three 1-hour periods, mannitol flux increased significantly in MEL80-, CAR40-, and CAR400-treated sections but not in MEL8- treated or control sections. Major histologic changes including epithelial cell sloughing were limited to the CAR400-treated sections.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In the gastric mucosa of dogs, carprofen and meloxicam increased in vitro conductance and permeability to mannitol. At a concentration of 400 μg/mL, carprofen caused sloughing of epithelial cells. Carprofen and meloxicam appear to compromise gastric mucosal integrity and barrier function in dogs.
Objective—To compare secretory responses to prostaglandin (PG) E2 in mucosa obtained from the proximal and distal portions of the colon of dogs.
Sample—Colonic mucosa from cadavers of 18 clinically normal adult dogs.
Procedures—Short-circuit current (ISC) and maximum change in ISC (ΔIsc) in response to administration of 1μM PGE2 were measured across mucosa obtained from the proximal and distal portions of the colon. Responses were evaluated in mucosa (n = 6 dogs) incubated in Ussing chambers with or without 1 mM amiloride or without chloride in the Ringer's bathing solution. Responses were also evaluated in mucosa (n = 9 dogs) incubated with or without pretreatment with 1 μM indomethacin, with or without amiloride in the subsequent bathing solution. Histologic changes in mucosa from 3 dogs were assessed over time.
Results—ISC and ΔISC were significantly reduced when chloride was removed from, but not when amiloride was added to, the bathing solution and were significantly reduced after pretreatment with indomethacin. The ΔISC was significantly greater in mucosa from the distal portion of the colon than in the proximal portion of the colon. Histologic changes after incubation for 3 hours were minimal.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—ISC and ΔISC resulted from electrogenic chloride secretion. Chloride secretion was reduced when release of PGs was prevented by indomethacin and was induced by administration of PGE2. Chloride secretion in response to PGE2 was greater in mucosa from the distal portion of the colon than in mucosa from the proximal portion of the colon.
Objective—To test the hypotheses that preparation method, exposure to shear force, and exposure to collagen affect the release of growth factors from equine platelet-rich plasma (PRP).
Sample Population—PRP obtained from 6 horses.
Procedures—PRP was prepared via 2 preparation methods (tube and automated) and subjected to 6 treatment conditions (resting, detergent, exposure to shear via 21- and 25-gauge needles, and exposure to collagen [10 and 20 μg/mL]). Concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor, isoform BB (PDGF-BB); transforming growth factor β, isoform 1 (TGFβ1); and insulin-like growth factor, isoform 1 (IGF-1) were quantified by use of ELISAs. Statistical analysis was conducted via repeated-measures ANOVA.
Results—Platelet numbers were significantly higher in tube-prepared PRP than in automated-prepared PRP Growth factor concentrations did not differ significantly between preparation methods. Mean PDGF-BB concentration ranged from 134 to 7,157 pg/mL, mean TGFβ1 concentration ranged from 1,153 to 22,677 pg/mL, and mean IGF-1 concentration ranged from 150 to 280 ng/mL. Shear force did not affect growth factor concentrations. Dose-dependent increases in PDGF-BB and TGFβ1 were detected in response to collagen, but equalled only 10% of the estimated total platelet content. Concentrations of IGF-1 were not significantly different among treatments and negative or positive control treatments. Serum concentrations of PDGF-BB and TGFβ1 exceeded concentrations in PRP for most treatment conditions.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Release of growth factors from equine PRP was negligible as a result of the injection process alone. Investigation of platelet-activation protocols is warranted to potentially enhance PRP treatment efficacy in horses.