Objective—To evaluate intraday and interday variations in glucose concentrations in cats and to test the utility of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS).
Animals—6 lean and 8 long-term (> 5 years) obese cats.
Procedures—Blood glucose concentrations were measured during the course of 156 hours by use of a laboratory hexokinase-based reference method and a handheld glucometer. Interstitial glucose concentrations were evaluated with a CGMS.
Results—Paired measures of glucose concentrations obtained with the CGMS typically were marginally higher than concentrations for the reference method and less biased than concentrations obtained with the glucometer. This was partially confirmed by the concordance correlation coefficients of the concentration for the CGMS or glucometer versus the concentration for the reference method, although the correlation coefficients were not significantly different. Mean ± SD area under the curve for the glucose concentration (AUCG) did not differ significantly between lean (14.0 ± 0.5 g/dL•h) and obese (15.2 + 0.5 g/dL•h) cats during the 156-hour period, but one of the obese cats had a much higher AUCG. Within-day glucose variability was small in both lean and obese cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Glucose homeostasis was maintained, even in long-term obese cats, and intraday glucose fluctuations were small. One obese cat might have been classified as prediabetic on the basis of the AUCG, which was approximately 25% higher than that of the other obese and lean cats. The CGMS can be useful in the evaluation of long-term effects of drugs or diet on glucose homeostasis in cats.
Objective—To determine cardiopulmonary effects of incremental doses of dopamine and phenylephrine during isoflurane-induced hypotension in cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).
Animals—6 adult cats with severe naturally occurring HCM.
Procedures—Each cat was anesthetized twice (once for dopamine treatment and once for phenylephrine treatment; treatment order was randomized). Hypotension was induced by increasing isoflurane concentration. Cardiopulmonary data, including measurement of plasma concentration of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), were obtained before anesthesia, 20 minutes after onset of hypotension, and 20 minutes after each incremental infusion of dopamine (2.5, 5, and 10 μg/kg/min) or phenylephrine (0.25, 0.5, and 1 μg/kg/min).
Results—Mean ± SD end-tidal isoflurane concentration for dopamine and phenylephrine was 2.44 ± 0.05% and 2.48 ± 0.04%, respectively. Cardiac index and tissue oxygen delivery were significantly increased after administration of dopamine, compared with results after administration of phenylephrine. Systemic vascular resistance index was significantly increased after administration of phenylephrine, compared with results after administration of dopamine. Oxygen consumption remained unchanged for both treatments. Systemic and pulmonary arterial blood pressures were increased after administration of both dopamine and phenylephrine. Acid-base status and blood lactate concentration did not change and were not different between treatments. The cTnI concentration increased during anesthesia and infusion of dopamine and phenylephrine but did not differ significantly between treatments.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dopamine and phenylephrine induced dose-dependent increases in systemic and pulmonary blood pressure, but only dopamine resulted in increased cardiac output. Hypotension and infusions of dopamine and phenylephrine caused significant increases in cTnI concentrations.
Objective—To measure coronary band temperature (CBT) in healthy horses fed high-fructan or low-carbohydrate diets and to analyze the association of CBT with diet, time of day, and ambient temperature.
Animals—6 healthy horses.
Procedures—Horses were fed 3 diets (treatment 1, 1 g of fructan/kg fed daily in the morning; treatment 2, 1 g of fructan/kg fed daily in the afternoon; and treatment 3, a low-carbohydrate [7.2%] diet) in a 3 × 3 Latin square study design. For each horse, the CBT of all 4 limbs as well as rectal and ambient temperatures were recorded by use of infrared thermometry and standard thermometers hourly from 8 am to 10 pm for 4 consecutive days after the initiation of each diet. Each horse received each diet, and there was a 10-day washout period between each diet change. Data were analyzed by use of a mixed linear model.
Results—4,320 CBTs were obtained from the 6 horses. The CBT ranged from 9.6° to 35.5°C. Coronary band temperature followed a diurnal pattern and was positively associated with ambient temperature but was not associated with diet.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—CBT of healthy horses varied significantly during the day and among limbs. These results should be considered whenever increased CBT is used as an indication of incipient laminitis or in other clinical investigations.
Objective—To determine the effect of various environmental conditions on the degree of hydration in hoof wall horn tissue from feral horses and investigate the effect of short-term foot soaking on moisture content in hoof wall and sole tissue in domestic horses.
Animals—40 feral horses from 3 environments (wet and boggy [n = 10], partially flooded , and constantly dry desert ) and 6 nonferal Quarter Horses.
Procedures—The percentage of moisture content of hoof wall samples from feral horses was measured in vitro. In a separate evaluation, the percentage of moisture content of hoof wall and sole tissue was measured in the dry and soaked forefeet of Quarter Horses.
Results—Mean ± SD percentage of moisture content was 29.6 ± 5.1%, 29.5 ± 5.8%, and 29.5 ± 2.9% for feral horses from the wet and boggy, partially flooded, and constantly dry desert environments, respectively. Moisture content did not differ among the 3 groups, nor did it differ between dry and soaked hoof wall samples from nonferal horses. However, soaking in water for 2 hours resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of moisture content of the sole.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Environmental conditions do not appear to affect moisture content in the hoof wall horn. Soaking horses' feet regularly in water would be unlikely to change the degree of hydration in the hoof wall horn but may further hydrate the sole.
Objective—To determine and compare the ratio of uracil (U) to dihydrouracil (UH2) concentrations in plasma as an indicator of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity in clinically normal dogs and dogs with neoplasia or renal insufficiency.
Animals—101 client-and shelter-owned dogs.
Procedures—Study dogs included 74 clinically normal dogs, 17 dogs with neoplasia, and 10 dogs with renal insufficiency. For each dog, a blood sample was collected into an EDTA-containing tube; plasma U and UH2 concentrations were determined via UV high-performance liquid chromatography, and the U:UH2 concentration ratio was calculated. Data were compared among dogs grouped on the basis of sex, clinical group assignment, reproductive status (sexually intact, spayed, or castrated), and age.
Results—Mean ± SEM U:UH2 concentration ratio for all dogs was 1.55 ± 0.08 (median, 1.38; range, 0.4 to 7.14). In 14 (13.9%) dogs, the U:UH2 concentration ratio was considered abnormal (ie, > 2). Overall, mean ratio for sexually intact dogs was significantly higher than that for neutered dogs; a similar difference was apparent among males but not females. Dogs with ratios > 2 and dogs with ratios ≤ 2 did not differ significantly with regard to sex, clinical group, reproductive status, or age.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Determination of the U:UH2 concentration ratio was easy to perform. Ratios were variable among dogs, possibly suggesting differences in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity. However, studies correlating U:UH2 concentration ratio and fluoropyrimidine antimetabolite drug tolerability are required to further evaluate the test's validity and its appropriate use in dogs.
Objective—To investigate whether submaximal aerobic exercise in dogs is followed by activation of all phases of coagulation as has been reported for humans.
Animals—9 healthy Beagles.
Procedures—30 minutes before dogs were exercised, a 16-gauge central venous catheter was placed in a jugular vein of each dog by use of the catheter-through-the-needle technique. Samples were collected before exercise, after running on a treadmill (6 km/h for 13 minutes), and at 60 minutes. Platelet activation was evaluated with platelet morphology indices (mean platelet component, mean platelet volume, and number of large platelets) provided by a laser-based hematology system. Platelet function was assessed in hirudin-anticoagulated whole blood with an impedance-based aggregometer with collagen as the agonist (final concentrations, 0, 1.6, 3.2, 5, and 10 μg/mL). Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and concentrations of fibrinogen, factor VIII, antithrombin, protein C, protein S, and fibrin D-dimer were determined automatically. Kaolin-activated thromboelastography variables R (reaction time), K (clot formation time), angle α, maximal amplitude, and G (clot stability) were measured in recalcified citrated whole blood.
Results—Exercise resulted in a significant decrease in mean platelet volume and the number of large platelets but did not change the mean platelet component, which reflected platelet activation as well as platelet function. Secondary and tertiary coagulation did not change significantly, nor did thromboelastography variables.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Aerobic exercise resulted in a decrease in the number of large and thus most likely activated platelets but otherwise had no major impact on coagulation in dogs.
Objective—To evaluate the effect of administration of the labeled dosage of pimobendan to dogs with furosemide-induced activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS).
Animals—12 healthy hound-type dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were allocated into 2 groups (6 dogs/group). One group received furosemide (2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 10 days (days 1 to 10). The second group received a combination of furosemide (2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) and pimobendan (0.25 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) for 10 days (days 1 to 10). To determine the effect of the medications on the RAAS, 2 urine samples/d were obtained for determination of the urinary aldosterone-to-creatinine ratio (A:C) on days 0 (baseline), 5, and 10.
Results—Mean ± SD urinary A:C increased significantly after administration of furosemide (baseline, 0.37 ± 0.14 μg/g; day 5, 0.89 ± 0.23 μg/g) or the combination of furosemide and pimobendan (baseline, 0.36 ± 0.22 μg/g; day 5, 0.88 ± 0.55 μg/g). Mean urinary A:C on day 10 was 0.95 ± 0.63 μg/g for furosemide alone and 0.85 ± 0.21 μg/g for the combination of furosemide and pimobendan.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Furosemide-induced RAAS activation appeared to plateau by day 5. Administration of pimobendan at a standard dosage did not enhance or suppress furosemide-induced RAAS activation. These results in clinically normal dogs suggested that furosemide, administered with or without pimobendan, should be accompanied by RAAS-suppressive treatment.
Objective—To develop a formula for correcting slope-intercept plasma iohexol clearance in cats and to compare clearance of total iohexol (TIox), endo-iohexol (EnIox), and exo-iohexol (ExIox).
Animals—20 client-owned, healthy adult and geriatric cats.
Procedures—Plasma clearance of TIox was determined via multisample and slope-intercept methods. A multisample method was used to determine clearance for EnIox and ExIox. A second-order polynomial correction factor was derived by performing regression analysis of the multisample data with the slope-intercept data and forcing the regression line though the origin. Clearance corrected by use of the derived formula was compared with clearance corrected by use of Brochner-Mortensen human and Heiene canine formulae. Statistical testing was applied, and Bland-Altman plots were created to assess the degree of agreement between TIox, EnIox, and ExIox clearance.
Results—Mean ± SD iohexol clearance estimated via multisample and corrected slope-intercept methods was 2.16 ± 0.35 mL/min/kg and 2.14 ± 0.34 mL/min/kg, respectively. The derived feline correction formula was Clcorrected = (1.036 × Cluncorrected) – (0.062 × Cluncorrected2), in which Cl represents clearance. Results obtained by use of the 2 methods were in excellent agreement. Clearance corrected by use of the Heiene formula had a linear relationship with clearance corrected by use of the feline formula; however, the relationship of the feline formula with the Brochner-Mortensen formula was nonlinear. Agreement between TIox, EnIox, and ExIox clearance was excellent.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The derived feline correction formula applied to slope-intercept plasma iohexol clearance accurately predicted multisample clearance in cats. Use of this technique offers an important advantage by reducing stress to cats associated with repeated blood sample collection and decreasing the costs of analysis.
Objective—To determine selected cardiopulmonary values and baroreceptor response in conscious green iguanas (Iguana iguana) and to evaluate the use of blood gas analysis and pulse oximetry in this species.
Animals—15 healthy juvenile green iguanas.
Procedures—Baseline cardiopulmonary values were determined in 15 conscious iguanas breathing room air. Effects of 100% O2 inspiration were also measured (n = 6), and the baroreceptor reflex was characterized by exponential sigmoidal curve fitting analysis.
Results—Conscious iguanas had a mean ± SD resting heart rate of 52 ± 8 beats/min, respiratory rate of 28 ± 6 breaths/min, and systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures of 69 ± 10 mm Hg, 62 ± 12 mm Hg, and 56 ± 13 mm Hg, respectively. Mean arterial pH at 37°C was 7.29 ± 0.11, Pao2 was 81 ± 10 mm Hg, and Paco2 was 42 ± 9 mm Hg; corrected for a body temperature of 30°C, mean arterial pH at 37°C was 7.382 ±0.12, Pao2 was 54 ± 15 mm Hg, and Paco2 was 32 ± 7 mm Hg. Inspiration of 100% O2 did not change heart and respiratory rates but increased Pao2 to 486 ± 105 mm Hg (corrected value, 437 ± 96 mm Hg). A baroreceptor reflex was evident, with mean heart rates ranging from 30 ± 3 beats/min to 63 ± 5 beats/min and mean arterial blood pressures ranging from 42 ± 3 mm Hg to 58 ± 3 mm Hg.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study provided needed information on cardiopulmonary values in healthy green iguanas, the application and limitation of arterial and venous blood gas analysis, and the accuracy of pulse oximetry.
Objective—To determine values for total body water (TBW), extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), intracellular fluid volume (ICFV), and plasma volume (PV) in healthy neonatal (< 24 hours old) foals and to create a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) model for use in neonatal foals.
Animals—7 healthy neonatal foals.
Procedures—Deuterium oxide (0.4 g/kg, IV), sodium bromide (30 mg/kg, IV), and Evans blue dye (1 mg/kg, IV) were administered to each foal. Plasma samples were obtained following an equilibration period, and the TBW, ECFV, ICFV, and PV were calculated for each foal. An MF-BIA model was created by use of morphometric measurements from each foal.
Results—Mean ± SD values were obtained for TBW (0.744 ± 0.024 L/kg), ICFV (0.381 ± 0.018 L/kg), ECFV (0.363 ± 0.014 L/kg), and PV (0.096 ± 0.015 L/kg). The 95% limits of agreement between the MF-BIA and indicator dilution techniques were within ± 2 L for TBW and ECFV.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Fluid volumes in neonatal foals were found to be substantially larger than fluid volumes in adult horses. Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis may be a useful technique for predicting TBW, ICFV, and ECFV in neonatal foals.