Objective—To evaluate orally administered famciclovir for treatment of cats with experimentally induced disease attributable to feline herpesvirus type-1 (FHV-1).
Animals—16 nonvaccinated specific-pathogen-free cats.
Procedures—Cats were treated orally with famciclovir (90 mg/kg; n = 10) or a similar volume of lactose (400 mg; 6) 3 times/d for 21 days. Cats were inoculated with FHV-1 and administered the first treatment dose on day 0. Disease score; weight; results of urinalysis, serum biochemical analysis, and CBC; histologic conjunctivitis score; herpetic DNA shedding; goblet cell density; anti-FHV-1 antibody concentration; and plasma penciclovir concentration were measured.
Results—On days 4 to 18 following inoculation, disease scores were lower in famciclovir-treated cats than in lactose-treated cats. Lactose-treated cats decreased in weight during the first 7 days after inoculation, but famciclovir-treated cats increased in weight throughout the study. Percentage change in weight was greater in famciclovir-treated cats on days 7 and 14 than in lactose-treated cats. Serum globulin concentration was lower on days 3 through 9, conjunctivitis histologic score was lower on day 14, herpetic DNA was shed less frequently throughout the study, goblet cell density was greater on day 21, and circulating anti-FHV-1 antibody concentration at study end was lower in famciclovir-treated cats, compared with these measurements in lactose-treated cats. Approximate peak plasma penciclovir concentration was 2.0 μg/mL.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Famciclovir administration improved outcomes for systemic, ophthalmic, clinicopathologic, virologic, and histologic variables in cats experimentally infected with FHV-1. Adjunctive topical mucinomimetic and antimicrobial treatments may also be necessary.
Objective—To estimate the time of seroconversion to the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSNJV) in sentinel cattle of dairy herds located at high and low elevations in southern Mexico and to determine the factors associated with an increase in VSNJV transmission.
Animals—471 dairy cattle in 4 free-ranging dairy herds located at high and low elevations in southern Mexico.
Procedures—Serum samples from all cattle were screened by use of serum neutralization (SN) tests for antibodies against VSNJV. Cattle with SN titers < 1:20 were designated as sentinel cattle and tested every 10 weeks for seroconversion to VSNJV (SN titer ≥ 1:80). A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to compare the hazard for seroconversion between sentinel cattle located at high and low elevations and kept under similar management and nutritional conditions.
Results—Hazard of VSNJV seroconversion was significantly higher for sentinel cattle located at high elevations, compared with the hazard for sentinel cattle located at low elevations. Dairy cattle located at high elevations seroconverted to VSNJV more frequently during the rainy season and the beginning of the dry season.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Seroconversion to VSNJV was more likely in dairy cattle in southern Mexico located at high elevations than in dairy cattle located at low elevations. These findings should contribute to understanding the dynamics of VSNJV infection in endemic areas and should be useful in the design of effective preventive and control strategies to decrease the impact of future VSV incursions.
Objective—To characterize the L1 gene of papillomaviruses detected in epithelial lesions of cats and to determine the relationship between those L1 gene nucleotide sequences and known L1 gene sequences of human and feline papillomaviruses.
Sample Population—10 tissue samples of epithelial lesions from 8 cats.
Procedures—DNA was extracted from tissue samples. Primers were designed to amplify the L1 gene of papillomaviruses. Amplicons of DNA were sequenced; nucleotide sequences were compared with known L1 gene nucleotide sequences of papillomaviruses and used for phylogenetic analysis.
Results—Tissue samples were obtained from lesions (diagnosed as dysplasia [n = 1], squamous cell carcinoma in situ , or squamous cell carcinoma ) of the skin (9) and oral mucosa . Two amplicons had 99% homology with the L1 gene nucleotide sequence of human papillomavirus type 38b subtype FA125. Another amplicon had 84% homology with the L1 gene nucleotide sequence of human papillomavirus type 80 and was considered to be a new type of papillomavirus. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that these 3 papillomaviruses were grouped into 2 clades that were not similar to the clades of Felis domesticus papillomavirus type 1 or F domesticus papillomavirus type 2 (FdPV2). The remaining 7 amplicons had 98% to 100% homology with the L1 gene nucleotide sequence of FdPV2. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that those 7 papillomaviruses were grouped nto a single clade with FdPV2.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results support the likelihood of transmission of papillomaviruses between humans and cats.
Objective—To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a commercially available in-clinic ELISA for detection of heartworm infection and tick-borne diseases in dogs.
Sample Population—846 serum, plasma, or blood samples obtained from dogs.
Procedures—Samples were evaluated via the in-clinic ELISA to detect antibodies against Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) antigen. True infection or immunologic status of samples was assessed by use of results of necropsy, an antigen assay for D immitis, and immunofluorescence assay or western blot analysis for antibodies against B burgdorferi, E canis, and A phagocytophilum.
Results—Sensitivity and specificity of the in-clinic ELISA for detection of heartworm antigen (99.2% and 100%, respectively), antibodies against B burgdorferi (98.8% and 100%, respectively), and antibodies against E canis (96.2% and 100%, respectively) were similar to results for a similar commercial ELISA. In samples obtained from dogs in the northeast and upper Midwest of the United States, sensitivity and specificity of the in-clinic ELISA for antibodies against Anaplasma spp were 99.1% and 100%, respectively, compared with results for an immunofluorescence assay. Samples from 2 dogs experimentally infected with the NY18 strain of A phagocytophilum were tested by use of the in-clinic ELISA, and antibodies against A phagocytophilum were detected by 8 days after inoculation. Antibodies against Anaplasma platys in experimentally infected dogs cross-reacted with the A phagocytophilum analyte. Coinfections were identified in several of the canine serum samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The commercially available in-clinic ELISA could be used by veterinarians to screen dogs for heartworm infection and for exposure to tick-borne pathogens.
Objective—To evaluate seasonal patterns and risk factors for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces in a beef cattle herd and determine strain diversity and transition in E coli over time by use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Sample Population—456 samples of freshly passed feces collected over a 1-year period from cattle in a range-based cow-calf operation located in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California.
Procedures— E coli O157:H7 was recovered from feces by use of immunomagnetic separation and 2 selective media. Virulence factors were detected via reverse transcriptase-PCR assay. Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates were subtyped with MLVA and PFGE. Prevalence estimates were calculated and significant risk factors determined. A dendrogram was constructed on the basis of results of MLVA typing.
Results—Overall prevalence estimate for E coli O157:H7 was 10.5%, with the prevalence lowest during the winter. Mean temperature during the 30 days before collection of samples was significantly associated with prevalence of E coli O157:H7 in feces. Nineteen MLVA and 12 PFGE types were identified.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A seasonal pattern was detected for prevalence of E coli O157:H7 in feces collected from beef cattle in California. Subtyping via MLVA and PFGE revealed a diversity of E coli O157:H7 strains in a cow-calf operation and noteworthy turnover of predominant types. Given the importance of accurately determining sources of contamination in investigations of disease outbreaks in humans, MLVA combined with PFGE should be powerful tools for epidemiologists. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1339–1347)
Objective—To compare iatrogenic transmission of Anaplasma marginale during sham vaccination between needle and needle-free injection techniques.
Animals—26 Holstein steers confirmed negative for anaplasmosis by use of a competitive ELISA (cELISA) and an A marginale-specific reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay.
Procedures—An isolate of A marginale was propagated to a circulating parasitemia of 2.0% in a splenectomized steer. Sham vaccination was performed in the left cervical muscles of the splenectomized parasitemic steer with a hypodermic needle fitted to a multiple-dose syringe. The same needle and syringe were used to sham vaccinate a naïve steer. This 2-step procedure was repeated until 10 naïve steers (group ND) were injected. Similarly, sham vaccination of the left cervical muscles of the splenectomized parasitemic steer and another group of 10 naïve steers (group NF) was performed by use of a needle-free injection system. Five control steers were not injected. Disease status was evaluated twice weekly for 61 days by use of light microscopy, a cELISA, and an A marginale-specific RT-PCR assay.
Results—Iatrogenic transmission was detected in 6 of 10 steers in group ND. Disease status did not change in the NF or control steers. Sensitivity of light microscopy, cELISA, and RT-PCR assay was 100% on days 41, 41, and 20 after sham vaccination, respectively; however, only cELISA and RT-PCR assay sustained a sensitivity of 100% thereafter.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Needle-free injection was superior to needle injection for the control of iatrogenic transmission of A marginale. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71 1178-1188)
Objective—To assess in pigs the pathogenicity and virulence of 3 strains of Salmonella spp capable of causing atypical salmonellosis in cattle.
Animals—36 Holstein calves and 72 pigs experimentally infected with Salmonella spp
Procedures—Representative Salmonella strains associated with 3 new disease phenotypes (protozoa-mediated hypervirulence, multisystemic cytopathicity, and encephalopathy) that have been characterized in cattle during the past 10 years were orally inoculated into pigs. Clinical manifestations were compared with those observed in cattle. Samples were collected from various tissues, and the presence of Salmonella organisms was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by use of Salmonella-selective media
Results—Of the 3 unique Salmonella disease phenotypes observed in cattle, only protozoa-mediated hypervirulence was observed in pigs. Hypervirulence was related to a more rapid onset of disease and higher pathogen burden in pigs than in cattle. This phenotype was observed in pigs inoculated with multiresistant Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium or Choleraesuis bearing the Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1) integron.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Salmonella hypervirulence was identified in pigs noculated with SGI1-bearing strains exposed to free-living protozoa. Additionally, an SGI1-bearing strain of Salmonella Choleraesuis was detected that resulted in augmented virulence in pigs. Therefore, it appeared that protozoa-associated salmonellosis was analogous in pigs and cattle. Salmonella-mediated encephalopathy and multisystemic cytopathicity did not appear to be relevant diseases in pigs. (Am J Vet Res 2010;71:1170-1177)
Objective—To investigate the pathogenesis and transmission of elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV1) by analyzing various elephant fluid samples with a novel EEHV1-specific real-time PCR assay.
Animals—5 apparently healthy captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) from the same herd.
Procedures—A real-time PCR assay was developed that specifically detects EEHV1. The assay was used to evaluate paired whole blood and trunk-wash samples obtained from the 5 elephants during a 15-week period. Deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing and viral gene subtyping analysis were performed on trunk-wash DNA preparations that had positive results for EEHV1. Viral gene subtypes were compared with those associated with past fatal cases of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd.
Results—The PCR assay detected viral DNA to a level of 1,200 copies/mL of whole blood. It was used to detect EEHV1 in trunk secretions of 3 of the 5 elephants surveyed during the 15-week period. Viral gene subtyping analysis identified 2 distinct elephant herpesviruses, 1 of which was identical to the virus associated with a previous fatal case of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—EEHV1 was shed in the trunk secretions of healthy Asian elephants. Trunk secretions may provide a mode of transmission for this virus. Results of this study may be useful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of EEHV1-associated disease and the overall management of captive elephant populations.
Objective—To evaluate the ability of 5 small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) targeting mRNA of the feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) DNA polymerase gene to reduce in vitro viral replication and gene expression of FHV-1, to evaluate combinations of these siRNAs with siRNAs that target the glycoprotein D gene of FHV-1, and to determine the combination or combinations of siRNAs that yield the greatest inhibition of in vitro viral replication.
Sample Population—Cultured Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cells.
Procedures—CRFK cells were transfected with siRNAs designed to target mRNA of the FHV-1 DNA polymerase gene. Effective treatment was determined by quantification of the inhibition of mRNA available for DNA polymerase translation, viral protein production, and viral replication. Combinations of 2 siRNAs that target mRNA of the FHV-1 DNA polymerase gene and 2 siRNAs that target the mRNA of the essential FHV-1 glycoprotein D gene were evaluated for the ability to inhibit viral replication.
Results—Verified by a reduction in viral gene expression, 2 of the 5 siRNAs designed to target mRNA of the FHV-1 DNA polymerase gene significantly suppressed viral replication. Two combinations of siRNAs that target mRNA of the FHV-1 DNA polymerase gene, the FHV-1 glycoprotein D gene, or both also significantly suppressed viral replication.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Combinations of siRNAs that target mRNA of the FHV-1 DNA polymerase gene, FHV-1 glycoprotein D gene, or both could potentially be used as a treatment for the prevention of clinical disease associated with FHV-1 infection.
Objective—To determine whether Tritrichomonas foetus infection resides in reproductive tract tissues from cats housed for breeding and for which a high prevalence of colonic T foetus infection has been reported.
Animals—61 purebred cats in 36 catteries undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy or castration and for which reproductive tract tissues, feces, and a reproductive history were obtained.
Procedures—Reproductive tract tissues were examined for T foetus via light microscopy, immunohistochemical analysis, and PCR assay. History of reproductive tract disease was examined to detect statistical associations with identified or reported exposure to colonic T foetus infection.
Results—15 of 61 (25%) cats and 22 of 33 (67%) catteries were identified with active or reported T foetus infection. Light microscopic, immunohistochemical, or molecular evidence of T foetus infection of the reproductive tract was not detected in any cats, including 15 cats with colonic T foetus infection, 29 cats residing in a cattery in which T foetus–infected cats were identified, and 8 cats for which gross or light microscopic evidence of reproductive tract disease was identified. There were no differences in total number of litters, number of litters per breeding, kitten mortality rate, or birth defects between cats or catteries infected with T foetus and those for which T foetus infection was not identified.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—No evidence of reproductive tract colonization by T foetus was detected in this study. Accordingly, it is unlikely that reproductive tract infection with T foetus plays an important role in overall disease transmission.