Objectives—To establish reference values for the range of the number of eosinophils found in equine gastrointestinal mucosa and to describe the distribution of this cell within the equine gastrointestinal mucosa.
Sample Population—Gastrointestinal mucosal specimens from 14 adult horses euthanatized for reasons other than gastrointestinal disease.
Procedures—Gastrointestinal mucosal specimens were collected and grouped according to their anatomic regions. For histologic examination slides were stained with Luna's eosinophil stain to determine eosinophil accumulation and distribution. The mucosa was divided into 5 sections for each anatomic location, and the percentage of eosinophils in each of the 5 sections relative to the total eosinophil count in all sections was determined. Additionally, the number of eosinophils per square millimeter of mucosa was calculated as a measure of the degree of eosinophil accumulation.
Results—Lowest numbers of eosinophils were found in the stomach, and numbers increased from there to the cecum, then decreased from the ascending colon (right ventral colon, left ventral colon, pelvic flexure, left dorsal colon, and right dorsal colon) to small colon. In all gastrointestinal sections, most eosinophils were located near the muscularis mucosae and were rarely found near or on the luminal surface of the mucosa.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The distribution of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal tract of horses followed a pattern within the mucosa and between different sections of the gastrointestinal tract. The derived reference values and distribution data could be used to detect changes in eosinophil response in the equine gastrointestinal mucosa caused by diseases states.
Objective—To determine the effects of SC administration of filgrastim on cell counts in venous blood and bone marrow of healthy adult alpacas.
Animals—10 healthy alpacas.
Procedures—Alpacas were randomly assigned to receive treatment with filgrastim (5 μg/ kg, SC; n = 5) or an equivalent volume of physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (5) once a day for 3 days. Blood samples were obtained via jugular venipuncture 1 day prior to treatment and once a day for 5 days commencing 24 hours after the first dose was administered. Complete blood counts were performed for each blood sample. Bone marrow aspirates were obtained from the sternum of each alpaca 48 hours before the first treatment was administered and 72 hours after the third treatment was administered. Myeloid-to-erythroid cell (M:E) ratio was determined via cytologic evaluation of bone marrow aspirates.
Results—In filgrastim-treated alpacas, substantial increases in counts of WBCs and neutrophils were detected within 24 hours after the first dose was administered. Band cell count and percentage significantly increased 24 hours after the second dose. Counts of WBCs, neutrophils, and band cells remained high 48 hours after the third dose. Red blood cell counts and PCV were unaffected. The M:E ratio also increased significantly after treatment with filgrastim.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Filgrastim induced rapid and substantial increases in numbers of circulating neutrophils and M:E ratios of bone marrow in healthy alpacas. Therefore, filgrastim may be useful in the treatment of camelids with impaired bone marrow function.
Objective—To establish reference intervals of plasma biochemical values in healthy adult domestic shorthair (DSH) cats by use of controlled conditions.
Animals—95 healthy client-owned cats.
Procedures—Food was withheld from the cats overnight. All blood samples were obtained on the same day, at the same location, and by the same investigator. Blood samples were collected from a cephalic vein into lithium heparin tubes. After centrifugation of blood samples, plasma supernatants were harvested and stored at −20°C until assayed for total proteins, albumin, creatinine, urea, glucose, calcium, phosphates, sodium, chloride, potassium, and CO2 concentrations and alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase activities.
Results—Reference intervals in healthy adult DSH cats were 65 to 85 g/L for total proteins, 27 to 39 g/L for albumin, 89 to 207 μmol/L for creatinine, 6.6 to 11.3 mmol/L for urea, 4.1 to 8.2 mmol/L for glucose, 2.4 to 2.9 mmol/L for calcium, 1.1 to 2.1 mmol/L for phosphates, 153 to 161 mmol/L for sodium, 120 to 127 mmol/L for chloride, 3.3 to 4.2 mmol/L for potassium, 15 to 21 mmol/L for CO2, 32 to 147 U/L for alkaline phosphatase, and 34 to 123 U/L for alanine aminotransferase.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—This study provided reference intervals for plasma analytes in adult DSH cats. The influence of potential confounding factors was minimized through use of controlled preanalytic and analytic conditions. However, these results cannot be extrapolated to other feline breeds or used to interpret results from other biochemical analyzers.
Objective—To evaluate the analytical agreement between blood lactate concentrations determined by use of an enzymatic-amperometric bedside system in capillary blood samples from the pinna and in jugular venous blood samples from dogs.
Procedures—For each dog, venous and capillary blood samples were obtained from a jugular vein and from the ear pinna (by use of a lancing device), respectively, following a randomized sequence of collection. Lactate concentrations in both types of samples were analyzed by use of an enzymatic-amperometric bedside system intended for lactate detection in capillary blood samples from humans that was previously validated in dogs. The Passing-Bablock regression analysis was used to compare venous and capillary blood lactate concentrations; the level of agreement was calculated by use of the Bland-Altman method.
Results—Jugular venous blood samples were collected without difficulty from all 53 dogs. A capillary blood sample was obtained from only 47 dogs. The correlation coefficient between lactate concentrations measured in venous and capillary blood samples was 0.58 (slope, 2.0 [95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 3.0]; intercept, −1.2 [95% confidence interval, −3.1 to 0.4]). The mean difference between methods was 0.72 mmol/L (95% confidence interval, 0.38 to 1.06) with limits of agreement of −1.55 to 2.99 mmol/L.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Because of the lack of agreement between lactate concentrations determined in capillary and jugular venous blood samples, measurement of capillary blood lactate concentration in dogs performed with the technique used in the study does not appear to be a reliable alternative to jugular venous blood measurements.
Objective—To evaluate a bench-top coagulation analyzer for determination of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and fibrinogen concentration in healthy dogs.
Animals—55 healthy adult dogs.
Procedures—PT, APTT, and fibrinogen concentration were determined by use of the coagulation analyzer. Values were compared with results obtained independently by a conventional laboratory.
Results—Correlations (with 95% confidence intervals) between the coagulation analyzer and conventional laboratory values were 0.760 (0.610 to 0.857), 0.700 (0.448 to 0.721), and 0.896 (0.878 to 0.918) for PT, APTT, and fibrinogen concentration, respectively. Using linear regression, comparison of data from the coagulation analyzer and the conventional laboratory provided equations relating the coagulation analyzer values with values from the conventional laboratory and suggested that APTT and fibrinogen values from the coagulation analyzer and conventional laboratory were approximately the same within expected random variation. Prothrombin time values for the coagulation analyzer were significantly offset from the PT values for the conventional laboratory but still were correlated reasonably well with the conventional laboratory values.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—By use of the mechanical method of analysis, fibrinogen concentrations obtained with a bench-top coagulation analyzer correlated well with results for a conventional laboratory, indicating that the coagulation analyzer is a reliable instrument for determination of this coagulation variable. Coagulation analyzer results for PT and APTT correlated less strongly with those for the conventional laboratory, but they would still be considered clinically reliable.
Objective—To investigate the diuretic effects, tolerability, and adverse effects of furosemide and torsemide after short- and long-term administration in healthy dogs.
Animals—8 mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—In a crossover study, furosemide (2 mg/kg), torsemide (0.2 mg/kg), or placebo (bifidobacterium [1 mg/kg]) was administered orally to each dog every 12 hours for 14 days. Blood and urine samples were collected before the study (baseline data) and at intervals on the 1st (short-term administration) and 14th day (long-term administration) of treatment for assessment of urine volume and specific gravity and selected clinicopathologic variables including BUN, creatinine, and aldosterone concentrations, and creatinine clearance.
Results—Compared with the baseline value, short-term administration of furosemide or torsemide immediately increased urine volume significantly; after long-term administration of either drug, urine specific gravity decreased significantly. Compared with the effect of placebo, the 24-hour urine volume was significantly increased after short-term administration of furosemide or torsemide. In addition, it was significantly increased after long-term administration of torsemide, compared with that of short-term administration. Long-term administration of furosemide or torsemide increased the BUN and plasma creatinine con-centrations, compared with the baseline value. Compared with the baseline value, plasma aldosterone concentration was significantly increased after long-term administration of either drug and was significantly higher after torsemide treatment than after furosemide treatment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, diuretic resistance developed after 14 days of furosemide, but not torsemide, administration; however, both loop diuretics were associated with increased BUN and plasma creatinine concentrations, compared with values before treatment.
Objective—To determine concentrations of electrolytes, total bilirubin, urea, creatinine, and hemoglobin; activities of some enzymes; and Hct and number of leukocytes and erythrocytes of newborn calves in relation to the degree of acidosis and treatment with a hypertonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) solution.
Animals—20 acidotic newborn calves with a blood pH < 7.2 and 22 newborn control calves with a blood pH ≥ 7.2.
Procedures—Approximately 10 minutes after birth, acidotic calves were treated by IV administration of 5% NaHCO3 solution. The amount of hypertonic solution infused was dependent on the severity of the acidosis.
Results—Treatment resulted in a significant increase in the mean ± SEM base excess from −8.4 ± 1.2 mmol/L immediately after birth to 0.3 ± 1.1 mmol/L 120 minutes later. During the same period, sodium concentration significantly increased from 145.3 ± 0.8 mmol/L to 147.8 ± 0.7 mmol/L. Mean chloride concentration before NaHCO3 administration was significantly lower in the acidotic calves (99.6 ± 1.1 mmol/L) than in the control calves (104.1 ± 0.9 mmol/L). Calcium concentration in acidotic calves decreased significantly from before to after treatment. Concentrations of potassium, magnesium, and inorganic phosphorus were not affected by treatment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of hypertonic NaHCO3 solution to acidotic neonatal calves did not have any adverse effects on plasma concentrations of several commonly measured electrolytes or enzyme activities. The treatment volume used was smaller, compared with that for an isotonic solution, which makes it more practical for use in field settings.
Objective—To evaluate the effect of 2 hydroxyethyl starch (HES) preparations (ie, HES solution with a molecular weight of 600 kd and a degree of substitution of 0.7 [HES 600/0.7] and a calcium-containing polyionic HES solution with a molecular weight of 670 kd and a degree of substitution of 0.75 [HES 670/0.75]) on canine platelet function.
Sample Population—Blood samples from 10 healthy adult dogs.
Procedures—Dilution of citrated whole blood was performed with saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, HES 600/0.7, and HES 670/0.75 at ratios of 1:9 (ie, 1 part saline solution or colloid to 9 parts whole blood) and 1:3. Measurements of time to platelet plug formation in a capillary tube (ie, closure time) were made by use of a bench-top platelet function analyzer with collagen and ADP platelet agonists.
Results—Mean baseline closure time was 68.0 ± 15.3 seconds. A 1:3 dilution of whole blood with saline solution, HES 600/0.7, and HES 670/0.75 resulted in mean closure times of 85.8 ± 15.7 seconds, 100.6 ± 18.6 seconds, and 101.6 ± 16.2 seconds, respectively. Closure time following 1:3 dilution of whole blood with saline solution was significantly different from baseline and from 1:9 dilution with saline solution. Closure time following 1:3 dilution of whole blood with HES 670/0.75 was significantly different from baseline, 1:3 and 1:9 dilutions with saline solution, and 1:9 dilutions with HES 600/0.7 or HES 670/0.75.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Saline solution, HES 600/0.7, and HES 670/0.75 affect canine platelet function by prolonging closure times; HES solutions prolonged closure time to a greater extent than saline solution.
Objective—To assess the effects of various doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administered IV on plasma microminerals, magnesium, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations and serum cortisol concentrations in lactating goats.
Animals—6 lactating goats.
Procedures—Goats were allotted to 3 LPS-treatment groups: control (0 μg/kg), low LPS (10 μg/kg), and high LPS (50 μg/kg). Rectal temperatures and behaviors of goats were recorded immediately before a 10-minute IV infusion of LPS and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after infusion. Blood samples were obtained before IV infusion and at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after infusion. Plasma zinc, copper, iron, and magnesium concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry; plasma TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations were measured by use of an ELISA; and serum cortisol concentrations were determined by use of a radioimmunoassay.
Results—A monophasic fever developed in low-LPS and high-LPS groups. In the low-LPS and high-LPS group, plasma zinc concentrations decreased at 6 hours after infusion; compared with control groups. Plasma iron concentrations were lower at 24 hours after infusion in low-LPS and high-LPS groups than in the control group. Plasma TNF-α and IL-6 concentrations were higher in low-LPS and high-LPS groups than in the control group at 1, 2, and 4 hours after infusion. In low-LPS and high-LPS groups, serum cortisol concentrations increased from 0.5 hours onward and peaked at 1 (high-LPS group) and 2 (low-LPS group) hours after infusion.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Following IV infusion of LPS, the immune system is activated, which might affect micromineral homeostatic regulation and, subsequently, the metabolic health of lactating goats.
Objective—To evaluate differences in Hct between 2 venipuncture sites in captive and free-ranging sharks.
Animals—32 healthy adult captive sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus, Carcharhinus plumbeus, Stegastoma fasciatum, Orectolobus japonicus, and Triaenodon obesus) and 15 captured free-ranging adult sharks (Carcharhinus limbatus and Carcharhinus acronotus).
Procedures—Blood samples were collected from the caudal tail artery followed by collection from the sinus located immediately caudal to the cranial dorsal fin. The Hct was determined for each sample and results were compared. Additionally, results for sharks that were highly active and used aerobic metabolism were compared with results for sharks that were less active and tolerant of anaerobic conditions.
Results—Mean Hct for all sharks was significantly less (8% less) in blood samples obtained from the cranial dorsal fin sinus, compared with the Hct for samples obtained from the caudal tail artery. When compared on the basis of metabolic class, sharks that were more tolerant of anaerobic conditions had lower Hct values and smaller differences between the 2 venipuncture sites.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hct values were significantly lower in blood samples collected from the cranial dorsal fin sinus compared with values for samples collected from the caudal tail artery. It is important to recognize this difference when evaluating hematologic variables in sharks and when establishing reference ranges for Hcts for shark populations. Sharks that were more active and relied on aerobic metabolism had higher Hct values than did anaerobic-tolerant sharks, and the difference in Hct values between venipuncture sites was more pronounced.