OBJECTIVE To evaluate mean corpuscular volume difference (dMCV) as a marker for hypertonicity induced by water deprivation in dogs.
ANIMALS 5 healthy Greyhounds maintained in a research colony.
PROCEDURES Water was withheld for 24 hours. Blood and urine samples were collected before (time 0) and every 6 hours during water deprivation. Serum and urine osmolality were measured on the basis of freezing point depression, and dMCV was calculated from routine hematologic variables.
RESULTS Serum and urine osmolality significantly increased and body weight decreased over time in healthy Greyhounds during water deprivation, although most dogs developed only a slight increase in serum osmolality. The dMCV also increased over time, but the value at 24 hours did not differ significantly from the value at time 0. However, a significant correlation was found between serum osmolality and dMCV. A dMCV ≥ 5 fL yielded 100% specificity for predicting hypertonicity when hypertonicity was defined as serum osmolality ≥ 310 mOsM.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE dMCV may be a useful marker for detection of mild hypertonicity in dogs and may have clinical and research applications for use in screening canine populations for hypertonicity.
OBJECTIVE To characterize the expression of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) 1 and 4 and the ancillary protein CD147 in the intestinal tract of healthy equids and determine the cellular location of CD147 in the intestinal epithelium.
ANIMALS 12 healthy horses and ponies slaughtered for meat production or euthanized for reasons unrelated to gastrointestinal tract disease.
PROCEDURES The entire gastrointestinal tract was removed from each equid within 45 minutes after slaughter or euthanasia. Tissue samples were obtained from the antimesenteric side of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, middle part of the cecum, sternal flexure of the ventral colon, pelvic flexure, sternal flexure of the dorsal colon, and descending colon (small colon). Expressions of MCT1, MCT4, and the ancillary protein CD147 were examined in tissue samples from each of the 8 intestinal locations by means of quantitative PCR assay, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemical analyses.
RESULTS Expression of MCT1 was most abundant in the cecum and colonic sites, whereas expression of MCT4 was predominantly in the proximal section of the intestine (small intestinal sites and cecum). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that MCT1 and CD147 were present in the membranes of enterocytes (in crypts and villi).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The anatomic distribution of MCT1 and MCT4 in the equine intestinal tract determined in this study together with the previous knowledge of the sites of substrate absorption indicated that MCT1 might predominantly contribute to the uptake of short-chain fatty acids in the large intestine and MCT4 might predominantly contribute to the uptake of lactate in the small intestine.
OBJECTIVE To compare, in horses, estimates of insulin sensitivity obtained from minimal model analysis (MMA) of a frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT) with estimates from the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC) and to evaluate the validity of surrogate estimates of insulin sensitivity derived from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).
ANIMALS 18 mature Standardbreds (mean ± SD body weight, 428.9 ± 35.9 kg; mean ± SD body condition score, 4.4 ± 1.0 [on a scale of 1 to 9]).
PROCEDURES All horses underwent at least 2 of the 3 procedures (EHC [n = 15], insulin-modified FSIGTT , and OGTT ) within a 10-day time frame to evaluate insulin sensitivity.
RESULTS Insulin sensitivity variables derived from the EHC and FSIGTT were strongly correlated (r = 0.88). When standardized to the same units of measure, these measures were still strongly correlated (r = 0.86) but were not equivalent. Area under the curve, peak insulin concentration, insulin concentration at 120 minutes, and 2 calculated indices from glucose and insulin data from the OGTT were significantly correlated with the EHC- and FSIGTT-derived estimates of insulin sensitivity.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In healthy Standardbreds with moderate body condition score, insulin sensitivities from the EHC and FSIGTT were strongly correlated but not equivalent. Estimates derived from an OGTT also may be useful to estimate insulin sensitivity.
OBJECTIVE To determine the tonicity effects of β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and lactate in canine RBCs.
SAMPLE RBCs from approximately 40 dogs.
PROCEDURES 2 in vitro methods were used to conduct 4 experiments. The modified osmotic fragility assay was used to measure the ability of ketoacid salts added to serial sucrose dilutions to protect RBCs from osmotic hemolysis. In a second assay, a handheld cell counting device was used to measure changes in RBC diameter to assess the tonicity effect of solutions of ketoacid and lactate salts.
RESULTS For the modified osmotic fragility assay, all ketoacid salts had an osmoprotective effect, but the effect was determined to be completely attributable to the tonicity effect of added cations (sodium and lithium) and not the ketoacid moieties. However, both the sodium and lithium lactate salts provided osmoprotection attributable to both the cation and lactate anion. For the second assay, RBC diameter was significantly increased with the addition of urea (an ineffective osmole) but did not change with the addition of glucose (an effective osmole), which established the behaviors of ineffective and effective osmoles in this assay. The RBC diameter was significantly increased over that of control samples by the addition of sodium β-hydroxybutyrate, lithium acetoacetate, and lithium lactate but was decreased by the addition of sodium lactate.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For both assays, β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate acted as ineffective osmoles, whereas lactate acted as an effective osmole in 3 of 4 experiments.
Objective—To determine dose dependency of tranexamic acid–induced emesis and the time course of the antifibrinolytic potency of tranexamic acid in dogs.
Procedures—In a dose-escalating experiment, ascending doses of tranexamic acid (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg, IV) were administered at 5-minute intervals until vomiting was observed. In a separate single-dose experiment, ascending doses of tranexamic acid (20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/kg, IV) were administered at 1-week intervals until vomiting was observed. Time to onset of vomiting and number of vomiting episodes were measured in both experiments. In a coagulation experiment, a single 50 mg/kg bolus of tranexamic acid was administered, and blood was obtained 1 hour before and 20 minutes, 3 hours, and 24 hours after administration. Antifibrinolytic potency of tranexamic acid was evaluated by use of a modified rotational thromboelastography method.
Results—Tranexamic acid induced vomiting in a dose-dependent manner. Vomiting frequency was < 2 episodes, and vomiting concluded < 250 seconds after administration. Antifibrinolytic potency of tranexamic acid was significantly higher at 20 minutes following administration, but not different by 24 hours, when compared with the potency measured before administration. No adverse effects were observed in any experiment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—IV administration of tranexamic acid induced emesis in a dose-dependent manner. The antifibrinolytic potency of tranexamic acid decreased in a time-dependent manner and was resolved < 24 hours after administration. Further studies are warranted to investigate the emetic and other adverse effects of tranexamic acid in dogs of various breeds and ages.
Objective—To investigate effects of endotoxin on leukocyte activation and infiltration of the laminar tissue in isolated perfused equine limbs.
Sample—10 right forelimbs and 3 left forelimbs collected from 10 healthy adult horses after slaughter at a licensed abattoir.
Procedures—Isolated right forelimbs were randomly assigned to 2 groups (5 forelimbs/group): perfusion of the distal portion for 10 hours with 80 ng of endotoxin/L and perfusion under the same conditions without endotoxin. After perfusion, samples for immunohistochemical detection of leukocytes (by use of antibodies against calprotectin and myeloperoxidase) and transmission electron microscopy were collected from the laminar tissue of the dorsal aspect of the hooves. Additionally, control samples were collected from the 3 nonperfused left forelimbs.
Results—Samples of laminar tissue from the endotoxin perfusion group had significantly higher scores for calprotectin and myeloperoxidase staining than did control samples and samples perfused without endotoxin. Ultrastructural examination revealed endotoxin-induced damage of the epidermal basal cells with loss of cell contacts including hemidesmosomes and anchoring filaments and a resulting separation of parts of the basement membrane. Additionally, local breakdown of the basement membrane was detected at the location of leukocyte adherence.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In isolated perfused equine limbs, endotoxin at a clinically relevant concentration induced a distinct inflammatory reaction with intravascular and extravascular accumulation of leukocytes in the laminar tissue, similar to that seen during the developmental phase of laminitis. Therefore, endotoxin should be considered as a causative factor for some types of laminitis.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of clopidogrel on clinical and clinicopathologic variables in healthy horses with experimentally induced endotoxemia.
Animals—12 adult mares.
Procedures—Horses were assigned with a randomization procedure to receive clopidogrel (4 mg/kg, once, then 2 mg/kg, q 24 h; n = 6) or a placebo (6) through a nasogastric tube. After 72 hours of treatment, horses received lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 30 ng/kg, IV). Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, CBC variables, plasma fibrinogen concentration, serum tumor necrosis factor-α concentration, plasma von Willebrand factor concentration, and measures of platelet activation (including ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and closure times, thrombelastography variables, and results of flow cytometric detection of platelet membrane P-selectin, phosphatidylserine, and microparticles) were determined at various times before and after LPS administration by investigators unaware of the treatment groups. Statistical analyses were performed with repeated-measures ANOVA.
Results—4 of 6 clopidogrel-treated horses had significant decreases in ADP-induced platelet aggregation before and after LPS administration. Heart rate increased significantly after LPS administration only for the placebo group. No significant differences were detected between groups for CBC variables, closure time, and plasma concentration of fibrinogen or serum concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α, and no clinically relevant differences were detected for other hemostatic variables.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In this study, administration of LPS did not induce platelet hyperreactivity in horses on the basis of measures of platelet adhesion, aggregation, degranulation, and procoagulant activity. Administration of clopidogrel was associated with variable platelet antiaggregatory activity and attenuated some clinical signs of endotoxemia.
Objective—To compare the effects of 2 NSAIDs (phenylbutazone and meloxicam) on renal function in horses.
Animals—9 Thoroughbred or Standardbred mares (mean ± SD age, 5.22 ± 1.09 years [range, 2 to 12 years]; mean body weight, 470 ± 25 kg [range, 442 to 510 kg]).
Procedures—A randomized blinded placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted to examine the effects of treatment with phenylbutazone, meloxicam, or a placebo (control solution) on renal responses to the administration of furosemide, dobutamine, and exercise (15 minutes at 60% of maximum heart rate). Renal function was assessed by use of bilateral ureteral catheterization for simultaneous determination of creatinine clearance, sodium excretion, and urine flow rate.
Results—Both phenylbutazone and meloxicam attenuated diuresis and natriuresis and reduced glomerular filtration rate, compared with results for the control solution, when horses were treated with furosemide. Mean arterial blood pressure, urine flow rate, and glomerular filtration rate were increased during or after (or both) dobutamine infusion. Both NSAIDs reduced urine flow rate and sodium excretion associated with dobutamine infusion and exercise but had no effect on glomerular filtration rate.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Responses to meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 preferential agent, appeared comparable to those detected after phenylbutazone treatment, which suggested that COX-2 was the mediator of prostanoid-induced changes to renal function in horses and indicated that COX-2–preferential agents would be likely to have adverse renal effects similar to those for nonselective COX inhibitors in volume-depleted horses.
Objective—To investigate effects of intramammary administration of prednisolone on the immune response of mammary glands in cows.
Animals—5 lactating Red Holsteins.
Procedures—Cows received a different intramammary infusion in each mammary gland (10 mg of prednisolone, 100 μg of lipopolysaccharide [LPS], 100 μg of LPS and 10 mg of prednisolone, or saline [0.9% NaCl] solution). Milk samples were collected before (time 0) and 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 36 hours after treatment. Somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, and concentrations of serum albumin (SA) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in milk and mRNA expression of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-8, and IL-1β in milk somatic cells were analyzed.
Results—Saline solution or prednisolone did not change SCC, LDH activity, and SA and TNF-α concentrations in milk and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 in milk somatic cells. The SCC and TNF-α concentration in milk increased similarly in glands infused with LPS, independent of prednisolone administration. However, the increase of LDH activity and SA concentration in milk after LPS infusion was diminished by prednisolone administration. The mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-8, and IL-1β in milk somatic cells increased after LPS infusion and was unaffected by prednisolone.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intramammary administration of prednisolone did not induce an immune response and did not change mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-8, and L-1β during the response to intramammary administration of LPS. However, prednisolone reduced disruption of the blood-milk barrier. This could influence the severity and cure rate of mastitis.
Objective—To determine the skin temperature of the metacarpus in horses associated with the use of bandages and tendon boots, compared with the bare limb, at rest and after 20 minutes of lunging.
Animals—10 adult horses.
Procedures—Skin temperature on the bare metacarpus of both forelimbs was measured at rest and after lunging. Subsequently, a bandage was applied to the left metacarpus and a tendon boot to the right metacarpus and skin temperature was measured at rest and after lunging. Skin temperature was measured with fixed sensors and thermographically.
Results—Mean ± SD skin temperatures of the bare metacarpi were 14.1 ± 2.4°C (left) and 14.1 ± 3.4°C (right) at rest, and 14.4 ± 1.8°C (left) and 13.6 ± 2.6°C (right) after exercise. Skin temperatures under the bandage were 15.3 ± 1.6°C at rest and 24.8 ± 3.6°C after exercise. Skin temperatures under the tendon boot were 15.3 ± 2.6°C at rest and 20.6 ± 2.9°C after exercise. Skin temperatures under the bandage and tendon boot were significantly higher after exercise than at rest. Skin temperatures at rest were not significantly different with a bare limb, bandage, or tendon boot.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Skin temperature of the metacarpus in horses increased significantly during exercise but not at rest when a bandage or tendon boot was used. The authors speculate that both a bandage and a tendon boot accelerate the warmup phase of exercise. Further research should focus on the effects of warmup and maximum exercise on the temperature of other anatomic structures such as tendons.