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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To assess the in vitro and in vivo platelet function of healthy dogs during administration of a low-dose aspirin regimen.

ANIMALS 16 dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs received aspirin (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) for 7 days. Blood and urine samples were collected before (day 1; baseline) and on days 3 and 7 of the low-dose aspirin regimen. Platelet function was evaluated by use of turbidimetric and conventional impedance aggregometry, multiple-electrode impedance aggregometry, a platelet function analyzer (PFA), and determination of urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 concentration. Turbidimetric aggregometry results were compared with the results obtained by the other 4 methods. Fourteen days after cessation of aspirin, platelet-rich plasma was incubated with acetylsalicylic acid and platelet function was assessed by turbidimetric aggregometry to determine whether this technique could accurately identify dogs that responded to the low-dose aspirin regimen.

RESULTS Of the 16 dogs, 13 had turbidimetric and conventional impedance aggregometry results that were decreased by > 25% from baseline on days 3 and 7, and 4 and 7 dogs had PFA closure times > 300 seconds on days 3 and 7, respectively. The median urine 11-dehydro-thromboxane B2 concentration–to–creatinine concentration ratio decreased by 49% between days 1 and 7. Turbidimetric aggregometry results were correlated with conventional impedance aggregometry results. There was poor agreement between the turbidimetric aggregometry and PFA results. The multiple-electrode impedance aggregometry protocol failed to reliably detect aspirin-induced platelet dysfunction. In vitro incubation of platelet-rich plasma with acetylsalicylic acid followed by turbidimetric aggregometry did not predict whether dogs responded to the low-dose aspirin regimen.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the response to a low-dose aspirin regimen varied among healthy dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2016;77:174–185)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine effects of IV transfusion with fresh (3-day-old) or stored (35-day-old) autologous erythrocyte concentrate on serum labile iron concentration, iron-binding capacity, and protein interaction with iron in dogs.

ANIMALS 10 random-source healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive autologous erythrocyte concentrate stored for 3 days (n = 5) or 35 days (5). One unit of whole blood was collected from each dog, and erythrocyte concentrates were prepared and stored as assigned. After erythrocyte storage, IV transfusion was performed, with dogs receiving their own erythrocyte concentrate. Blood samples were collected from each dog before and 5, 9, 24, 48, and 72 hours after transfusion. Serum was harvested for measurement of total iron, labile iron, transferrin, ferritin, hemoglobin, and haptoglobin concentrations.

RESULTS For dogs that received fresh erythrocytes, serum concentrations of the various analytes largely remained unchanged after transfusion. For dogs that received stored erythrocytes, serum concentrations of total iron, labile iron, hemoglobin, and ferritin increased markedly and serum concentrations of transferrin and haptoglobin decreased after transfusion.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Transfusion with autologous erythrocyte concentrate stored for 35 days resulted in evidence of intravascular hemolysis in healthy dogs. The associated marked increases in circulating concentrations of free iron and hemoglobin have the potential to adversely affect transfusion recipients.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare the attenuation of the angiotensin I–induced blood pressure response by once-daily oral administration of various doses of angiotensin receptor blockers (irbesartan, telmisartan, and losartan), benazepril hydrochloride, or lactose monohydrate (placebo) for 8 days in clinically normal cats.

ANIMALS 6 healthy cats (approx 17 months old) with surgically implanted arterial telemetric blood pressure–measuring catheters.

PROCEDURES Cats were administered orally the placebo or each of the drug treatments (benazepril [2.5 mg/cat], irbesartan [6 and 10 mg/kg], telmisartan [0.5, 1, and 3 mg/kg], and losartan [2.5 mg/kg]) once daily for 8 days in a crossover study. Approximately 90 minutes after capsule administration on day 8, each cat was anesthetized and arterial blood pressure measurements were recorded before and after IV administration of each of 4 boluses of angiotensin I (20, 100, 500, and 1,000 ng/kg). This protocol was repeated 24 hours after benazepril treatment and telmisartan (3 mg/kg) treatment. Differences in the angiotensin I–induced change in systolic arterial blood pressure (ΔSBP) among treatments were determined.

RESULTS At 90 minutes after capsule administration, only losartan did not significantly reduce ΔSBP in response to the 3 higher angiotensin doses, compared with placebo. Among drug treatments, telmisartan (3 mg/kg dosage) attenuated ΔSBP to a significantly greater degree than benazepril and all other treatments. At 24 hours, telmisartan was more effective than benazepril (mean ± SEM ΔSBP, 15.7 ± 1.9 mm Hg vs 55.9 ± 12.42 mm Hg, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that telmisartan administration may have advantages over benazepril administration for cats with renal or cardiovascular disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To test a unique electronic ear tag designed to collect movement data to determine whether physical activity of sick steers differed from that of healthy steers.

ANIMALS 206 steers.

PROCEDURES Physical activity in 2 groups of steers during November and December of 2010 (101 steers; the tag of 1 steer failed, and thus that steer was removed from the study, which resulted in data for 100 steers) and 2011 (105 steers) was monitored with an electronic ear tag device with an on-board triple-axis accelerometer. The accelerometer recorded motion in all 3 axes in the form of counts per minute. A radio-frequency transmitter on the ear tag delivered serial packets of motion data to a local server. An algorithm was developed to analyze the activity data to determine whether this technique could be used to assess health status with high accuracy.

RESULTS Steers that became sick had significantly fewer activity counts (approx 25% fewer), compared with the activity counts of steers that remained healthy the entire time.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, automated detection of health status in growing cattle was feasible through remote monitoring of animal activity. Early identification of sick animals should lead to improved health outcomes, increased marketability, and improved animal well-being and help to minimize the use of antimicrobials that could contribute to resistant bacteria.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To compare axillary and rectal temperature measurements obtained with a digital thermometer for Beagles in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment.

ANIMALS 26 healthy Beagles (17 sexually intact males and 9 sexually intact females).

PROCEDURES Dogs were maintained in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment for 56 days before rectal and axillary temperatures were measured. Axillary and rectal temperatures were obtained in triplicate for each dog by use of a single commercially available manufacturer-calibrated digital thermometer.

RESULTS Mean rectal and axillary temperatures of Beagles maintained in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment were significantly different, with a median ± SD difference of 1.4° ± 0.15°C (range, 0.7° to 2.1°C). Mean rectal and axillary temperatures were 38.7°C (range, 37.6° to 39.5°C) and 37.2°C (range, 36.6° to 38.3°C), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study indicated that the historical reference of a 0.55°C gradient between rectal and axillary temperatures that has been clinically used for veterinary patients was inaccurate for healthy Beagles in a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment. Rectal and axillary temperatures can be measured in veterinary patients. Reliable interpretation of axillary temperatures may accommodate patient comfort and reduce patient anxiety when serial measurement of temperatures is necessary. Further clinical studies will be needed.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To investigate effects of exercise on hematologic and biochemical values (especially markers of inflammation and muscle damage) in Spanish Greyhounds used for hunting without previous training.

ANIMALS 32 Spanish Greyhounds and 31 dogs of other breeds.

PROCEDURES Hematologic variables and concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP) and other biochemical markers were compared in samples obtained from Spanish Greyhounds 24 hours after exercise (eg, a hunting race) and 2 months after exercise (ie, at rest) and from non–Spanish Greyhounds at rest. All dogs were healthy. Hematologic and biochemical analyses were performed within 24 hours after samples were obtained, and results were compared by means of a Student t test.

RESULTS CRP concentration and muscle enzyme (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase) activities were significantly higher and serum iron concentration was significantly lower for Spanish Greyhounds after exercise than at rest. The WBC and neutrophil counts were significantly higher after exercise then at rest. Plasma alanine transaminase activity and total protein, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations were significantly higher after exercise than at rest. Spanish Greyhounds at rest had higher RBC counts, PCVs, and hemoglobin concentrations and lower WBC, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts, compared with values for non–Spanish Greyhounds at rest.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Exercise of Spanish Greyhounds without prior training activated an acute-phase response represented by an increase in serum CRP concentration and decrease in serum albumin and iron concentrations. These changes, along with leukocytosis and neutrophilia, were indicative of a subclinical inflammatory state in Spanish Greyhounds.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To develop equations for prediction of total body water (TBW) content in unsedated dogs by combining impedance (resistance and reactance) and morphological variables and to compare the results of those equations with TBW content determined by deuterium dilution (TBWd).

ANIMALS 26 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES TBW content was determined directly by deuterium dilution and indirectly with equations developed from measurements obtained by use of a portable bioelectric impedance device and morphological variables including body length, height, weight, and thoracic and abdominal circumferences.

RESULTS Impedance and morphological data from 16 of the 26 dogs were used to determine coefficients for the following 2 equations: TBW1 = −0.019 (BL2/R) + −0.199 (RC + AC) + 0.996W + 0.081H + 12.31; and TBW2 = 0.048 (BL2/R) + −0.144 (RC + AC) + 0.777W + 0.066H + 0.031X + 7.47, where AC is abdominal circumference, H is height, BL is body length, R is resistance, RC is rib cage circumference, W is body weight, and × is reactance. Results for TBW1 (R 2 1 = 0.843) and TBW2 (R 2 2 = 0.816) were highly correlated with the TBWd. When the equations were validated with data from the remaining 10 dogs, the respective mean differences between TBWd and TBW1 and TBW2 were 0.17 and 0.11 L, which equated to a nonsignificant underestimation of TBW content by 2.4% and 1.6%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that impedance and morphological data can be used to accurately estimate TBW content in adult Beagles. This method of estimating TBW content is less expensive and easier to perform than is measurement of TBWd, making it appealing for daily use in veterinary practice.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether thioredoxin (TRX)-1 can be used as a valid biomarker for oxidative stress in dogs.

ANIMALS AND SAMPLES 10 Beagles and Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.

PROCEDURES Madin-Darby canine kidney cells were used to verify antigen cross-reactivity between human and canine anti–TRX-antibodies. Dogs were assigned to receive 21% or 100% O2 (5 dogs/group) via an artificial respirator during a 3-hour period of isoflurane anesthesia (starting at 0 hours). Blood and urine samples were collected before (baseline) and at 6, 12, 24, and 48 hours after commencement of inhalation anesthesia. Concentrations of TRX-1 and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in plasma and urine samples were analyzed; urine concentrations were reported as ratios against urine creatinine concentration.

RESULTS Canine TRX-1 was recognized by monoclonal human anti-TRX-1 antibodies (clones of adult T-cell leukemia-derived factor [ADF]-11 and ADF21) by western blot analysis. Results of an ELISA indicated that plasma TRX-1 concentration and urine TRX-1-to-creatinine concentration ratio increased rapidly after the 3-hour period of hyperoxia with maximal peaks at 12 and 6 hours, respectively. Urine 8-OHdG-to-creatinine concentration ratio also increased significantly after hyperoxia induction. However, unlike the rapid increase in urine TRX-1-to-creatinine concentration ratio, maximal urine 8-OHdG-to-creatinine concentration ratio was attained at 48 hours after hyperoxia induction. These variables remained unchanged from baseline in the control group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that human anti-TRX monoclonal antibodies cross-reacted with canine TRX, and plasma TRX-1 concentrations were rapidly increased in dogs following an oxidative stress challenge. Thus, TRX may be a valuable clinical biomarker for detecting oxidative stress more rapidly than 8-OHdG in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the anabolic and lipolytic effects of a low dosage of clenbuterol administered orally in working and nonworking equids.

ANIMALS 8 nonworking horses and 47 polo ponies in active training.

PROCEDURES Each polo pony continued training and received either clenbuterol (0.8 μg/kg) or an equal volume of corn syrup (placebo) orally twice daily for 21 days, and then was evaluated for another 21-day period. Nonworking horses received clenbuterol or placebo at the same dosage for 21 days in a crossover trial (2 treatments/horse). For working and nonworking horses, percentage body fat (PBF) was estimated before treatment and then 2 and 3 times/wk, respectively. Body weight was measured at intervals.

RESULTS Full data sets were not available for 8 working horses. For working horses, a significant treatment effect of clenbuterol was detected by day 3 and continued through the last day of treatment; at day 21, the mean change in PBF from baseline following clenbuterol or placebo treatment was −0.80% (representing a 12% decrease in PBF) and −0.32%, respectively. By day 32 through 42 (without treatment), PBF change did not differ between groups. When treated with clenbuterol, the nonworking horses had a similar mean change in PBF from baseline from day 6 onward, which peaked at −0.75% on day 18 (an 8% decrease in PBF). Time and treatment had no significant effect on body weight in either experiment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Among the study equids, long-term low-dose clenbuterol administration resulted in significant decreases in body fat with no loss in body weight.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether directly measured arterial blood pressure differs among anatomic locations and whether arterial blood pressure is influenced by body position.

ANIMALS 33 client-owned dogs undergoing anesthesia.

PROCEDURES Dogs undergoing anesthetic procedures had 20-gauge catheters placed in both the superficial palmar arch and the contralateral dorsal pedal artery (group 1 [n = 20]) or the superficial palmar arch and median sacral artery (group 2 [13]). Dogs were positioned in dorsal recumbency, and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), and diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAP) were recorded for both arteries 4 times (2-minute interval between successive measurements). Dogs were positioned in right lateral recumbency, and blood pressure measurements were repeated.

RESULTS Differences were detected between pressures measured at the 2 arterial sites in both groups. This was especially true for SAP measurements in group 1, in which hind limb measurements were a mean of 16.12 mm Hg higher than carpus measurements when dogs were in dorsal recumbency and 14.70 mm Hg higher than carpus measurements when dogs were in lateral recumbency. Also, there was significant dispersion about the mean for all SAP, DAP, and MAP measurements.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that arterial blood pressures may be dependent on anatomic location and body position. Because this may affect outcomes of studies conducted to validate indirect blood pressure measurement systems, care must be used when developing future studies or interpreting previous results.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research