OBJECTIVE To investigate the presence of parapoxvirus (PPV) in cattle without clinical signs of infection and in farm environments of PPV-infected cattle.
ANIMALS 28 calves without clinical signs of PPV infection on 2 farms and 11 clinically affected calves on 6 farms.
PROCEDURES 164 oral swab samples were collected at regular intervals from 28 calves without clinical signs of PPV infection, and 11 swab samples were collected from 11 clinically affected calves. Viral DNA load was quantified by use of a PPV-specific quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay.
RESULTS Of 28 calves without clinical signs of PPV infection, 12 had positive results for PPV DNA by use of the qRT-PCR assay. Viral DNA was detected continuously over a period of 2 to 5 months from 9 of these 12 calves, particularly from calves with dermatomycosis or respiratory tract disease. The PPV DNA loads in 32 oral swab samples from these 12 calves were significantly lower (median, 3.2 copies/mg) than those in samples collected from the 11 clinically affected calves (median, 3.2 × 104 copies/mg). Moreover, PPV DNA was detected in the residual feed and drinking water on both farms that housed the calves without clinical signs of PPV infection.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE PPV in cattle without clinical signs of infection and in the environments of these cattle may represent sources of PPV transmission to susceptible cattle.
IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE Humans should wear gloves to prevent zoonotic disease transmission when handling cattle with or without clinical signs of PPV infection.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether anti-inflammatory doses of cyclosporine activate Toxoplasma gondii in chronically infected cats or potentiate infection in cats exposed for the first time.
ANIMALS 30 T gondii–negative cats.
PROCEDURES Cats were assigned to 1 of 3 groups (10 cats/group). Group 1 (control) cats were administered a placebo for 126 days; group 2 cats were administered a placebo for 84 days, followed by cyclosporine at 7.5 mg/kg/d, PO, for 42 days; and group 3 cats were administered cyclosporine at 7.5 mg/kg/d, PO, for 126 days. Cats were orally inoculated with T gondii on day 42. Results for fecal flotations, PCR assays, and histologic examinations and IgM and IgG titers were analyzed. Cyclosporine concentrations were measured on selected days.
RESULTS All cats were infected by T gondii and developed signs of self-limiting gastrointestinal tract infection. Group 3 had the highest incidence and severity of CNS and pulmonary histopathologic findings typical of toxoplasmosis. One cat in group 3 died of systemic toxoplasmosis; that cat had a cyclosporine concentration of 1,690 ng/mL. Group 2 cats infected with T gondii before cyclosporine administration did not have repeated oocyst shedding. Group 3 cats shed fewer oocysts for a shorter time than did control cats of group 1.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Oral administration of cyclosporine in accordance with the protocol for this study did not potentiate the enteroepithelial phase of T gondii infection. Cats with high cyclosporine blood concentrations at the time of primary T gondii infection may be at risk of developing systemic toxoplasmosis.
Objective—To evaluate the effect of ambient temperature on viral replication and serum antibody titers following administration of an intranasal modified-live infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)-parainfluenza-3 (PI3) virus vaccine to beef calves housed in high– (> 32°C) and moderate– (21°C) ambient temperature environments.
Animals—28 calves (mean weight, 206.8 kg).
Procedures—Calves were randomly allocated to 4 treatment groups (housed outdoors during high ambient temperature with [HAT; n = 10] or without [HAC; 4] vaccination or housed indoors in a moderate ambient temperature with [MAT; 10] or without [MAC; 4] vaccination). Rectal and nasal mucosal temperatures were recorded every 2 hours from 8 AM to 8 PM on days 0 (vaccination) and 1. Nasal swab specimens were obtained on days 0 through 7 for virus isolation. Serum samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, and 28 for determination of antibody titers.
Results—Mean rectal temperature did not differ among the treatment groups. Mean nasal temperature for the HAT group was significantly higher than that for the MAT group at 6, 24, 30, 32, and 38 hours after vaccination. Viable IBR virus was isolated from all vaccinated calves on days 1 through 6. Two weeks after vaccination, vaccinated calves had anti-IBR antibody titers that were significantly greater than those for unvaccinated calves. Mean anti-IBR antibody titers did not differ significantly between the HAT and MAT groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that, following vaccination with an intranasal modified-live IBR-PI3 virus vaccine, IBR viral replication and serum antibody titers did not differ significantly between calves housed in high– and moderate–ambient temperature environments.
Objective—To investigate safety and efficacy of a cyprinid herpesvirus type 3 (CyHV3) modified-live virus vaccine for the prevention of koi herpesvirus disease (KHVd).
Animals—420 healthy koi (Cyprinus carpio koi).
Procedures—Fish were vaccinated with a 1× dose or 10× overdose of CyHV3 modified-live virus vaccine or a placebo through bath exposure in tanks at 22°C. Horizontal transmission of vaccine virus was evaluated by commingling unvaccinated and vaccinated fish. Efficacy was evaluated by challenge exposure of vaccinated and naïve fish to a wild-type virus. Fish that died were submitted for quantitative PCR assay for CyHV3 and histologic evaluation.
Results—The CyHV3 vaccine was safe and efficacious, even at a 10× overdose. Vaccine-associated mortality rate was inversely associated with body weight, with a cumulative mortality rate of 9.4% (18/192) in fish weighing ≤ 87 g and no deaths in fish weighing > 87 g (0/48). Horizontal transfer of vaccine virus from vaccinates to naïve fish was negligible. For efficacy, the vaccine provided a significant reduction in mortality rate after challenge exposure to a wild-type virus, with a prevented fraction of 0.83 versus the placebo control fish.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—KHVd is highly contagious and commonly leads to deaths in 80% to 100% of exposed fish, representing a major threat to koi and common carp populations throughout the world. The CyHV3 modified-live virus vaccine had a favorable safety profile and was an effective vaccine for the control of KHVd in koi weighing > 87 g.
Objective—To evaluate the long-term protective immunity of a cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV3) vaccine in naïve koi (Cyprinus carpio koi).
Procedures—Vaccinated koi (n = 36) and unvaccinated control koi (36) were challenge exposed to a wild-type CyHV3 strain (KHVp8 F98-50) 13 months after vaccination.
Results—The CyHV3 vaccine provided substantial protective immunity against challenge exposure. The proportional mortality rate was less in vaccinated koi (13/36 [36%]) than in unvaccinated koi (36/36 [100%]). For koi that died during the experiment, mean survival time was significantly greater in vaccinated than in unvaccinated fish (17 vs 10 days).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The CyHV3 vaccine provided substantial protective immunity against challenge exposure with CyHV3 13 months after vaccination. This provided evidence that koi can be vaccinated annually with the CyHV3 vaccine to significantly reduce mortality and morbidity rates associated with CyHV3 infection.
Objective—To evaluate the effects of various concentrations of l-lysine on in vitro replication of feline herpesvirus 1 (FHV-1).
Sample—Cultures of Crandell-Rees feline kidney (CRFK) cells.
Procedures—CRFK cells were inoculated with FHV-1 and maintained in media with 20 combinations of l-arginine and l-lysine concentrations. Changes in cell viability were monitored by continuous measurement of electrical impedance of cultured cells and by observation of viral cytopathic effects. Viral load was determined by use of quantitative PCR assay in supernatants obtained from infected cultures at specified time points.
Results—Increases in l-lysine concentration had no effect on the kinetics of cell death in FHV-1-infected cultures. There was also no significant effect (r 2 < 0.1) on viral DNA load for l-arginine concentrations ≥ 12 μg/mL There was a significant effect of increases in l-lysine concentration on viral DNA load in media supplemented with 6 μg of l-arginine/mL (mean ± SD slope, −4,641 ± 1,626 units; adjusted r 2 = 0.45). However, the difference between the lowest (1 × 106.28 copies/μL) and highest (1 × 106.86 copies/μL) FHV-1 DNA load in these media was < 1 logarithm.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The difference in FHV-1 DNA load was unlikely to be biologically important. Various l-lysine concentrations did not inhibit in vitro replication of FHV-1 at l-arginine concentrations sufficient to maintain cell growth. This conclusion was consistent with results of other studies in which investigators have not detected a consistently beneficial effect when l-lysine is administered to FHV-1-infected cats.
Objective—To compare cytotoxic effects and antiviral efficacy of 9 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) against FIV in feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Sample—Peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 3 specific pathogen–free cats.
Procedures—3 of the 9 NRTIs had not been previously assessed in feline cell lines. Cytotoxic effects were determined by colorimetric quantification of a formazan product resulting from bioreduction of a tetrazolium reagent by viable peripheral blood mononuclear cells; uninfected cells from 1 cat were used in these assays. Cells from all 3 cats were infected with a pathogenic clone of FIV, and in vitro antiviral efficacy of each NRTI was assessed with an FIV p24 antigen capture ELISA.
Results—Cytotoxic effects in feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed only at concentrations > 10 μM for all 9 NRTIs. Comparison of the cytotoxic effect at the highest concentration investigated (500μM) revealed that didanosine and amdoxovir were significantly less toxic than abacavir. All drugs induced a dose-dependent reduction of FIV replication. At the highest concentration investigated (10μM), there was no significant difference in antiviral efficacy among the test compounds.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The evaluated NRTIs had low cytotoxicity against feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells and appeared to be safe options for further in vivo evaluation for the treatment of FIV-infected cats. There was no evidence suggesting that the newly evaluated compounds would be superior to the existing NRTIs for reducing FIV burden of infected cats.
Objective—To determine the usefulness of retina samples for detection of disease-associated prion protein by use of a commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) intended for rapid identification of sheep and cattle with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs).
Samples—Retina, brainstem at the level of the obex, and retropharyngeal lymph node samples obtained from 15 TSE-inoculated sheep (scrapie [n = 13] or transmissible mink encephalopathy passaged through a bovid ); retina and brainstem samples obtained from 11 TSE-inoculated cattle (transmissible mink encephalopathy passaged through a bovid  or classical BSE ); and negative control tissue samples obtained from 2 sheep and 2 cattle that were not inoculated with TSEs.
Procedures—Tissue samples were homogenized and analyzed for detection of abnormally folded disease-associated prion protein with a commercially available EIA and 2 confirmatory assays (western blot analysis or immunohistochemical analysis).
Results—Retina sample EIA results were in agreement with results of brainstem sample EIA or confirmatory assay results for negative control animals and TSE-inoculated animals with clinical signs of disease. However, TSE-inoculated animals with positive confirmatory assay results that did not have clinical signs of disease had negative retina sample EIA results. Retina sample EIA results were in agreement with brainstem sample immunohistochemical results for 4 TSE-inoculated sheep with negative retropharyngeal lymph node EIA results.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that retina samples may be useful for rapid EIA screening of animals with neurologic signs to detect TSEs.
Objective—To develop a method for experimental induction of equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) infection in equids and to determine the clinical characteristics of such infection.
Animals—8 ponies (age, 8 to 12 months) seronegative for antibodies against ERAV.
Procedures—Nebulization was used to administer ERAV (strain ERAV/ON/05; n = 4 ponies) or cell culture medium (control ponies; 4) into airways of ponies; 4 previously ERAV-inoculated ponies were reinoculated 1 year later. Physical examinations and pulmonary function testing were performed at various times for 21 days after ERAV or mock inoculation. Various types of samples were obtained for virus isolation, blood samples were obtained for serologic testing, and clinical scores were determined for various variables.
Results—ERAV-inoculated ponies developed respiratory tract disease characterized by pyrexia, nasal discharge, adventitious lung sounds, and enlarged mandibular lymph nodes. Additionally, these animals had purulent mucus in lower airways up to the last evaluation time 21 days after inoculation (detected endoscopically). The virus was isolated from various samples obtained from lower and upper airways of ERAV-inoculated ponies up to 7 days after exposure; this time corresponded with an increase in serum titers of neutralizing antibodies against ERAV. None of the ponies developed clinical signs of disease after reinoculation 1 year later.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study indicated ERAV induced respiratory tract disease in seronegative ponies. However, ponies with neutralizing antibodies against ERAV did not develop clinical signs of disease when reinoculated with the virus. Therefore, immunization of ponies against ERAV could prevent respiratory tract disease attributable to that virus in such animals.
Objective—To evaluate effects of quaternary benzo(c)phenanthridine alkaloids (QBAs) against Salmonella spp and determine effects on growth performance, organism shedding, and gastrointestinal tract integrity in pigs inoculated with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.
Sample—36 Salmonella isolates and twenty 5-week-old pigs.
Procedures—Minimum inhibitory concentration of QBAs against the Salmonella isolates was determined. Pigs were allocated to 4 groups and inoculated with Salmonella organisms. Pigs received diets supplemented with 1.5 g of QBAs/1,000 kg of feed, 0.75 g of QBAs/1,000 kg of feed, or 59.4 g of chlortetracycline/1,000 kg of feed or a nonsupplemented (control) diet. Pigs were weighed on day 0 and then weekly for 40 days. Fecal samples were collected to quantify Salmonella organisms. Gastrointestinal tract integrity was evaluated by measuring transepithelial resistance.
Results—In vitro, 9 of 36 (25%) Salmonella isolates were inhibited at 90 μg of QBAs/mL; all 36 were inhibited at 179 μg of QBAs/mL. Diets containing QBAs significantly decreased Salmonella spp shedding; shedding was lower 40 days after inoculation for pigs fed diets containing QBAs or chlortetracycline than for pigs fed the control diet. Growth performance was similar for pigs fed diets containing QBA or chlortetracycline. Gastrointestinal tract integrity was improved in pigs fed the diet containing 1.5 g of QBAs/1,000 kg of feed.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—QBAs and chlortetracycline decreased Salmonella spp shedding but did not differ with regard to growth performance. Gastrointestinal tract integrity was better, albeit not significantly, in pigs fed diets containing QBAs. Further investigation into the role of QBAs and their mechanism as an immunomodulator is necessary.