Objective—To determine the prevalence and temporal onset of lung lesions in lambs and the impact of lung lesions on growth of affected lambs.
Animals—259 crossbred wether lambs from a single flock in the upper Midwestern United States.
Procedure—An observational study was conducted. Lambs born in the spring and fall were slaughtered at finished weight or at a predetermined time point. Lungs of each lamb were examined and classified as normal, moderate lesions (consolidation > 5% but ≤ 50% of any lobe), or severe lesions (consolidation > 50% of any lobe). Data were examined to detect effects of prevalence or severity of lung lesions on growth and carcass traits.
Results—57 of 89 (64%) spring-born lambs had lung lesions characterized by consolidation of lung tissue. A small number of lambs had pulmonary adhesions or active abscesses. In contrast, only 31 of 108 (29%) fall-born lambs had lung lesions. Severe lung lesions were associated with a significant reduction in average daily gain. Severe lung lesions were not detected until the middle of the finishing period and were associated with culture of Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Analysis of results indicates that the prevalence of severe lung lesions can be quite high in lambs. Severe lung lesions can lead to greatly decreased growth performance of lambs.
Objective—To investigate the feasibility of evoking the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) from foreand hind limbs in conscious dogs, score stimulusassociated behavioral responses, and assess the canine NWR response to suprathreshold stimulations.
Animals—8 adult Beagles.
Procedure—Surface electromyograms evoked by transcutaneous electrical stimulation of ulnaris and digital plantar nerves were recorded from the deltoideus, cleidobrachialis, biceps femoris, and tibialis cranialis muscles. Train-of-five pulses (stimulustrain) were used; reflex threshold (It train) was determined, and recruitment curves were obtained at 1.2, 1.5, and 2 × It train. Additionally, a single pulse (stimulussingle) was given at 1, 1.2, 1.5, 2, and 3 × It train. Latency and amplitude of NWRs were analyzed. Severity of behavioral reactions was subjectively scored.
Results—Fore- and hind limb It train values (median; 25% to 75% interquartile range) were 2.5 mA (2.0 to 3.6 mA) and 2.1 mA (1.7 to 2.9 mA), respectively. At It train, NWR latencies in the deltoideus, cleidobrachialis, biceps femoris, and cranial tibialis muscles were not significantly different (19.6 milliseconds [17.1 to 20.5 milliseconds], 19.5 milliseconds [18.1 to 20.7 milliseconds], 20.5 milliseconds [14.7 to 26.4 milliseconds], and 24.4 milliseconds [17.1 to 40.5 milliseconds], respectively). Latencies obtained with stimulustrain and stimulussingle were similar. With increasing stimulation intensities, NWR amplitude increased and correlated positively with behavioral scores.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, the NWR can be evoked from limbs and correlates with behavioral reactions. Results suggest that NWR evaluation may enable quantification of nociceptive system excitability and efficacy of analgesics in individual dogs.
Objective—To describe the microanatomic features of pancreatic islets and the immunohistochemical distribution of glucose transporter (GLUT) molecules in the pancreas and other tissues of New World camelids.
Animals—7 healthy adult New World camelids, 2 neonatal camelids with developmental skeletal abnormalities, and 2 BALB/c mice.
Procedure—Samples of pancreas, liver, skeletal muscle, mammary gland, brain, and adipose tissue were collected postmortem from camelids and mice. Pancreatic tissue sections from camelids were assessed microscopically. Sections of all tissues from camelids and mice (positive control specimens) were examined after staining with antibodies against GLUT-1, -2, -3, and -4 molecules.
Results—In camelids, pancreatic islets were prominent and lacked connective tissue capsules. Numerous individual endocrine-type cells were visible distant from the islets. Findings in neonatal and adult tissues were similar; however, the former appeared to have more non–islet-associated endocrine cells. Via immunostaining, GLUT-2 molecules were detected on pancreatic endocrine cells and hepatocytes in camelids, GLUT-1 molecules were detected on the capillary endothelium of the CNS, GLUT-3 molecules were detected throughout the gray matter, and GLUT-4 molecules were not detected in any camelid tissues. Staining characteristics of neonatal and adult tissues were similar.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In New World camelids, microanatomic features of pancreatic islets are similar to those of other mammals. Data suggest that the poor glucose clearance and poor insulin response to hyperglycemia in adult camelids cannot be attributed to a lack of islet cells or lack of GLUT molecules on the outer membrane of those cells.
Objective—To compare blood lipid concentrations and lipoprotein patterns for captive and wild American black bears (Ursus americanus).
Animals—7 captive and 9 wild adult (≥ 4 years old) black bears.
Procedure—Blood was collected from 2 groups of captive black bears (groups A and B) and 1 group of wild black bears (group C). Blood triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol concentrations were compared among groups. Plasma lipoproteins were isolated by use of a self-generating gradient of iodixanol, and lipoprotein patterns were compared between groups A and B.
Results—Captive bears (mean ± SD, 187.8 ± 44.4 kg) weighed significantly more than wild bears (mean, 104.8 ± 41.4 kg), but mean body weight did not differ between groups A and B. Mean blood TG concentrations for groups B (216.8 ± 16.0 mg/dL) and C (190.7 ± 34.0 mg/dL) were significantly higher than that of group A (103.9 ± 25.3 mg/dL). Mean blood cholesterol concentration was also significantly higher for group B (227.8 ± 8.2 mg/dL) than for groups A (171.7 ± 35.5 mg/dL) or C (190.8 ± 26.8 mg/dL). Mean very-low-density lipoprotein TG and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations were 2- and 3-fold higher, respectively, for group B, compared with concentrations for group A.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Blood lipid concentrations vary significantly among populations of black bears. Plasma lipoprotein patterns of captive bears differed significantly between colonies and may have reflected differences in diet or management practices.
Objective—To compare large intestinal transit time (LITT) in dogs of various body sizes and determine whether fecal quality was correlated with LITT.
Animals—6 Miniature Poodles, 6 Standard Schnauzers, 6 Giant Schnauzers, and 6 Great Danes.
Procedure—LITT was calculated as the difference between total (TTT) and orocecal transit time (OCTT). Minimum and mean OCTTs were determined by use of the sulfasalazine-sulfapyridine method. Minimum TTT was estimated by use of chromium and ferric oxide as color markers, and mean TTT was calculated from the recovery from feces of ingested colored plastic beads. Fecal moisture content was determined and fecal consistency was scored during the same period.
Results—Large-breed dogs had higher fecal moisture content and more watery fecal consistency. No association between body size and OCTT was detected, but there was a positive correlation between body size and mean TTT. Mean LITT increased significantly with body size, from 9.1 ± 1.1 hours in Miniature Poodles to 39.4 ± 1.6 hours for Giant Schnauzers. Significant correlations were detected among mean LITT, mean TTT, and fecal scores, whereas no correlation was observed between fecal moisture content and TTT or LITT.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—LITT was correlated with fecal consistency in dogs of various body sizes. Mean LITT can be predicted from values for mean TTT in healthy dogs.
Objective—To evaluate pulmonary and cardiovascular effects of a recruitment maneuver (RM) combined with positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) during total intravenous anesthesia in ponies.
Animals—6 healthy adult Shetland ponies.
Procedure—After premedication with detomidine (10 μg/kg, IV), anesthesia was induced with climazolam (0.06 mg/kg, IV) and ketamine (2.2 mg/kg, IV) and maintained with a constant rate infusion of detomidine (0.024 mg/kg/h), climazolam (0.036 mg/kg/h), and ketamine (2.4 mg/kg/h). The RM was preceded by an incremental PEEP titration and followed by a decremental PEEP titration, both at a constant airway pressure difference ([.Delta]P) of 20 cm H2O. The RM consisted of a stepwise increase in [.Delta]P by 25, 30, and 35 cm H2O obtained by increasing peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) to 45, 50, and 55 cm H2O, while maintaining PEEP at 20 cm H2O. Hemodynamic and pulmonary variables were analyzed at every step of the PEEP titration–RM.
Results—During the PEEP titration–RM, there was a significant increase in PaO 2 (+12%), dynamic compliance (+ 62%), and heart rate (+17%) and a decrease in shunt (-19%) and mean arterial blood pressure (-21%) was recorded. Cardiac output remained stable.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although baseline oxygenation was high, PaO 2 and dynamic compliance further increased during the RM. Despite the use of high PIP and PEEP and a high tidal volume, limited cardiovascular compromise was detected. A PEEP titration–RM may be used to improve oxygenation in anesthetized ponies. During stable hemodynamic conditions, PEEP titration–RM can be performed with acceptable adverse cardiovascular effects.