Objective—To assess changes in muscle glycogen (MG) and triglyceride (MT) concentrations in aerobically conditioned sled dogs during prolonged exercise.
Animals—54 Alaskan sled dogs fed a high-fat diet.
Procedures—48 dogs ran 140-km distances on 4 consecutive days (cumulative distance, up to 560 km); 6 dogs remained as nonexercising control animals. Muscle biopsies were performed immediately after running 140, 420, or 560 km (6 dogs each) and subsequently after feeding and 7 hours of rest. Single muscle biopsies were performed during recovery at 28 hours in 7 dogs that completed 560 km and at 50 and 98 hours in 7 and 6 dogs that completed 510 km, respectively. Tissue samples were analyzed for MG and MT concentrations.
Results—In control dogs, mean ± SD MG and MT concentrations were 375 ± 37 mmol/kg of dry weight (kgDW) and 25.9 ± 10.3 mmol/kgDW, respectively. Compared with control values, MG concentration was lower after dogs completed 140 and 420 km (137 ± 36 mmol/kgDW and 203 ± 30 mmol/kgDW, respectively); MT concentration was lower after dogs completed 140, 420, and 560 km (7.4 ± 5.4 mmol/kgDW; 9.6 ± 6.9 mmol/kgDW, and 6.3 ± 4.9 mmol/kgDW, respectively). Depletion rates during the first run exceeded rates during the final run. Replenishment rates during recovery periods were not different, regardless of distance; only MG concentration at 50 hours was significantly greater than the control value.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Concentration of MG progressively increased in sled dogs undergoing prolonged exercise as a result of attenuated depletion.
Objective—To detect monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) in canine RBC membranes and to determine the distribution of lactate between plasma and RBCs.
Sample population—Blood samples obtained from 6 purpose-bred Beagles.
Procedures—Monocarboxylate transporter isoforms 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8 and CD147 were evaluated in canine RBCs by use of western blot analysis. Lactate influx into RBCs was measured as incorporation of radioactive lactate.
Results—2 MCT isoforms, MCT1 and MCT7, were detected in canine RBC membranes on western blot analysis, whereas anti-MCT2, anti-MCT4, anti-MCT6, and anti-MCT8 antibodies resulted in no signal. No correlation was found between the amount of MCT1 or MCT7 and lactate transport activity, but the ancillary protein CD147 that is needed for the activity of MCT1 had a positive linear correlation with the rate of lactate influx. The apparent Michaelis constant for the lactate influx in canine RBCs was 8.8 ± 0.9mM. Results of in vitro incubation studies revealed that at lactate concentrations of 5 to 15mM, equilibrium of lactate was rapidly obtained between plasma and RBCs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—These results indicated that at least half of the lactate transport in canine RBCs occurs via MCT1, whereas MCT7 may be responsible for the rest, although an additional transporter was not ruled out. For practical purposes, the rapid equilibration of lactate between plasma and RBCs indicated that blood lactate concentrations may be estimated from plasma lactate concentrations.
Objectives—To compare abomasal emptying rates in calves after suckling milk replacer or 3 common orally administered electrolyte solution components.
Animals—5 male calves < 35 days of age.
Procedures—Calves with a cannula fitted in the abomasal body were fed 2 L of milk replacer with or without parenteral administration of atropine (0.01 mg/kg, IV, then 0.02 mg/ kg, SC, q 30 min) or isotonic (150mM) solutions of sodium acetate, NaHCO3, or NaCl in a randomized crossover design. Abomasal emptying rates were determined via scintigraphy, acetaminophen absorption, ultrasonography, and change in abomasal luminal pH.
Results—Scintigraphic half-emptying time, time of maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration, ultrasonographic half-emptying time, and pH return time indicated similar abomasal emptying rates following suckling of isotonic sodium acetate, NaHCO3, and NaCl solutions, whereas the emptying rate of milk replacer was significantly slower. Mean maximal abomasal luminal pH was highest following suckling of NaHCO3 (pHmax = 7.85) and lowest following suckling of NaCl (pHmax = 4.52); sodium acetate (pHmax = 6.59) and milk replacer (pHmax = 5.84) yielded intermediate pH values.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Isotonic solutions of sodium acetate, NaHCO3, and NaCl were rapidly emptied from the abomasum but varied markedly in their ability to alkalinize the abomasum. Sodium bicarbonate–containing orally administered electrolyte solution might increase the frequency of infection or severity of clinical disease in diarrheic calves treated for dehydration by causing prolonged abomasal alkalinization.
Objective—To determine the phase and quantitate the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the genioglossus, geniohyoideus, hyoepiglotticus, omohyoideus, sternohyoideus, sternothyroideus, and thyrohyoideus muscles of clinically normal horses during strenuous exercise.
Animals—7 clinically normal adult horses (2 Thoroughbreds and 5 Standardbreds).
Procedures—Bipolar electrodes were surgically implanted in the aforementioned muscles, and horses were subjected to an incremental exercise test on a high-speed treadmill. The EMG, heart rate, respiratory rate, and static pharyngeal airway pressures were measured during exercise. The EMG was measured as mean electrical activity (MEA). The MEA values for maximal exercise intensity (13 or 14 m/s) were expressed as a percentage of the MEA measured at an exercise intensity of 6 m/s.
Results—MEA was detected during expiration in the genioglossus, geniohyoideus, sternohyoideus, and thyrohyoideus muscles and during inspiration in the hyoepiglotticus and sternothyroideus muscles. Intensity of the MEA increased significantly with exercise intensity in the genioglossus, geniohyoideus, and hyoepiglotticus muscles. Intensity of the MEA increased significantly in relation to expiratory pharyngeal pressure in the geniohyoideus and hyoepiglotticus muscles.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Once exercise intensity reached 6 m/s, no quantifiable additional increase in muscular activity was detected in the omohyoideus, sternohyoideus, sternothyroideus, and thyrohyoideus muscles. However, muscles that may affect the diameter of the oropharynx (genioglossus and geniohyoideus muscles) or rima glottis (hyoepiglotticus muscle) had activity correlated with the intensity of exercise or expiratory pharyngeal pressures. Activity of the muscles affecting the geometry of the oropharynx may be important in the pathophysiologic processes associated with nasopharyngeal patency.
Objective—To determine whether warm-up exercise at different intensities alters kinetics and total contribution of aerobic power to total metabolic power in subsequent supramaximal exercise in horses.
Procedures—Horses ran at a sprint until fatigued at 115% of maximal oxygen consumption rate ( O 2max), beginning at 10 minutes following each of 3 warm-up protocols: no warmup (NoWU), 1 minute at 70% O 2max (moderate-intensity warm-up [MoWU]), or 1 minute at 115% O 2max (high-intensity warm-up [HiWU]). Cardiopulmonary and blood gas variables were measured during exercise.
Results—The O 2 was significantly higher in HiWU and MoWU than in NoWU throughout the sprint exercise period. Blood lactate accumulation rate in the first 60 seconds was significantly lower in MoWU and HiWU than in NoWU. Specific cardiac output after 60 seconds of sprint exercise was not significantly different among the 3 protocols; however, the arterial mixed-venous oxygen concentration difference was significantly higher in HiWU than in NoWU primarily because of decreased mixed-venous saturation and tension. Run time to fatigue following MoWU was significantly greater than that with NoWU, and there was no difference in time to fatigue between MoWU and HiWU.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—HiWU and MoWU increased peak values for O 2 and decreased blood lactate accumulation rate during the first minute of intense exercise, suggesting a greater use of aerobic than net anaerobic power during this period.
Objective—To determine whether corn snakes exposed to UVB radiation have increased plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations, compared with control snakes.
Animals—12 corn snakes (Elaphe guttata).
Procedures—After an acclimation period in individual enclosures, a blood sample was collected from each snake for assessment of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration. Six snakes were provided with no supplemental lighting, and 6 snakes were exposed to light from 2 full-spectrum coil bulbs. By use of a radiometer-photometer, the UVA and UVB radiation generated by the bulbs were measured in each light-treated enclosure at 3 positions at the basking surface and at 2.54 cm (1 inch) below each bulb surface; the arithmetic mean values for the 3 positions at the basking surface and each individual bulb surface were calculated immediately after the start of the study and at weekly intervals thereafter. At the end of the study (day 28), another blood sample was collected from each snake to determine plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration.
Results—Mean ± SD plasma concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in snakes that were provided with supplemental lighting (196 ± 16.73 nmol/L) differed significantly from the value in control snakes (57.17 ± 15.28 nmol/L). Mean exposure to UVA or UVB did not alter during the 4-week study period, although the amount of UVA recorded near the bulb surfaces did change significantly.
Clinical Relevance—These findings have provided important insight into the appropriate UV radiation requirements for corn snakes. Further investigation will be needed before exact husbandry requirements can be determined.
Objective—To determine the metabolic phenotype of a group of laminitis-prone ponies when at pasture in summer, compared with when at pasture in winter.
Animals—40 ponies of various breeds predisposed to recurrent pasture-associated laminitis and 40 unaffected control ponies.
Procedures—Body condition score and size of the crest of the neck were assessed, blood samples obtained, and blood pressure measured by use of an indirect oscillometric technique, while ponies were kept on winter pasture (last week of November or beginning of December) and again on summer pasture (June). Serum insulin concentration and plasma glucose, triglyceride, uric acid, and ACTH concentrations were measured. Insulin sensitivity was calculated with proxies derived from basal serum insulin and plasma glucose concentrations.
Results—No significant differences were apparent between ponies predisposed to laminitis and control ponies during winter. However, in June, laminitis-prone ponies had increased serum insulin concentration and plasma triglyceride and uric acid concentrations, compared with control ponies. Also, laminitis-prone ponies were relatively insulin resistant, compared with control ponies. Mean blood pressure was significantly higher during summer in laminitis-prone ponies (median [interquartile range], 89.6 mm Hg [78.3 to 96.9 mm Hg]), compared with control ponies (76.8 mm Hg [69.4 to 85.2 mm Hg]).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Summer pastures appear to induce metabolic responses in some ponies, leading to expression of the prelaminitic phenotype, which includes hypertension as well as insulin resistance. Signs of this metabolic syndrome may not be apparent in affected ponies during periods of grazing winter pasture. Understanding this syndrome may enable improved countermeasures to be devised to prevent laminitis.
Objective—To determine the effect of parenteral administration of erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin on abomasal emptying rate in suckling calves.
Animals—8 male Holstein-Friesian calves < 35 days old.
Procedures—Calves received each of 4 treatments in random order (2 mL of saline [0.9% NaCl] solution, IM [control treatment]; erythromycin, 8.8 mg/kg, IM; tilmicosin, 10 mg/kg, SC; and tylosin, 17.6 mg/kg, IM). Calves were fed 2 L of milk replacer containing acetaminophen (50 mg/kg) 30 minutes later. Jugular venous blood samples and transabdominal ultrasonographic abomasal dimensions were obtained periodically after suckling. Abomasal emptying rate was assessed on the basis of the time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration and ultrasonographic determination of the halftime of abomasal emptying. One-tailed Dunnett post tests were conducted whenever the F value for group was significant.
Results—Emptying rate was faster for erythromycin, tilimicosin, and tylosin than for the control treatment, as determined on the basis of time to maximal plasma acetaminophen concentration. Ultrasonography indicated that the half-time of abomasal emptying was significantly shorter for erythromycin than for the control treatment. Tylosin and tilmicosin accelerated the abomasal emptying rate, but not significantly, relative to the emptying rate for the control treatment.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of erythromycin, tilmicosin, and tylosin at the label dosage increased abomasal emptying rate in calves. The clinical importance of an increase in abomasal emptying rate in cattle remains to be determined.
Objective—To determine the effects of inhibition of Rho-kinase or Src-family protein tyrosine kinases (srcPTK) on agonist-induced contractile responses in equine laminar arteries and veins.
Sample Population—Laminar arteries and veins obtained from 13 adult mixed-breed horses.
Procedures—Laminar vessels were mounted on myographs and exposed to phenylephrine (PE), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) with or without the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 (10μM), srcPTK inhibitor PP2 (10μM), or a negative control analogue for PP2 (PP3; 10μM).
Results—Responses to PE were reduced by use of Y-27632 in laminar vessels (approx inhibition, 55%). However, Y-27632 reduced responses to 5-HT to a greater degree in veins than in arteries (approx inhibition of 55% and 35%, respectively). The Y-27632 also reduced responses of laminar veins to ET-1 by approximately 40% but had no effect on maximum responses of laminar arteries to ET-1, although a rightward shift in the concentration response curve was evident. Addition of PP2 reduced responses to PE, 5-HT, and PGF2α in laminar veins by approximately 40%, 60%, and 65%, respectively, compared with responses after the addition of PP3; PP2 had no effect on responses to ET-1. In laminar arteries, PP2 reduced 5-HT–induced contractions by approximately 50% but did not affect responses to PE or ET-1.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of the study were consistent with activation of Rho-kinase being important during agonist-induced constriction in laminar vessels, activation of srcPTK being an agonist-dependent event, and more prominent roles for Rhokinase and srcPTK in veins than in arteries.
Objective—To investigate the facilitation of the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) by repeated electrical stimuli and the associated behavioral response scores in conscious, nonmedicated dogs as a measure of temporal summation and analyze the influence of stimulus intensity and frequency on temporal summation responses.
Animals—8 adult Beagles.
Procedures—Surface electromyographic responses evoked by transcutaneous constant-current electrical stimulation of ulnaris and digital plantar nerves were recorded from the deltoideus, cleidobrachialis, biceps femoris, and cranial tibial muscles. A repeated stimulus was given at 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0, and 1.1 × It (the individual NWR threshold intensity) at 2, 5, and 20 Hz. Threshold intensity and relative amplitude and latency of the reflex were analyzed for each stimulus configuration. Behavioral reactions were subjectively scored.
Results—Repeated sub-It stimuli summated and facilitated the NWR. To elicit temporal summation, significantly lower intensities were needed for the hind limb, compared with the forelimb. Stimulus frequency did not influence temporal summation, whereas increasing intensity resulted in significantly stronger electromyographic responses and nociception (determined via behavioral response scoring) among the dogs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, it is possible to elicit nociceptive temporal summation that correlates with behavioral reactions. These data suggest that this experimental technique can be used to evaluate nociceptive system excitability and efficacy of analgesics in canids.