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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the effectiveness of preoperative bupivacaine inferotemporal retrobulbar blocks to postoperative liposome-encapsulated bupivacaine (Nocita) line blocks for analgesia following enucleation.

ANIMALS

39 client-owned dogs (40 eyes) presenting to the Ophthalmology Service for enucleation.

METHODS

Dogs were randomly assigned to receive either a preoperative inferotemporal retrobulbar block with 0.5% bupivacaine or a peri-incisional line block with liposome-encapsulated bupivacaine (Nocita) at closure. Patients underwent unilateral enucleation and were hospitalized for 24 hours after surgery. Pain scores were performed by a masked observer with the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale and the University of Wisconsin Ocular Pain Scale at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours following surgery. Intraoperative use of blood pressure and anesthetic support mediations as well as need for rescue pain control were recorded and compared between groups.

RESULTS

There was no significant difference in rescue rates between treatment groups. When comparing the use of medical intraoperative heart rate, blood pressure, or anesthetic plane support, there were no significant differences in use between groups.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Use of preoperative bupivacaine retrobulbar blocks and postoperative Nocita line blocks were equally effective at postoperative pain control with similarly low complication rates.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the relationship in equine practice between the time delay for charge entry (time between when work was performed and when the invoice charges were entered) and the total amount of the invoice.

SAMPLE

A total of 67,597 invoices from 3 hospitals were included for analysis.

METHODS

Analysis of 67,597 invoices from 49 doctors working out of 3 hospitals was performed. Variables collected included invoice total, date of work, date of invoice entry, month of work, invoice category (A = ambulatory daytime, E = after-hours, I = hospital), and veterinarian. Time delay to invoice entry was the difference between the day of work and the day of charge entry. A generalized additive model was used to describe the relationship between the time delay for invoice entry and the invoice type, month of work, and invoice category. The best model was selected using the Akaike information criterion.

RESULTS

In the selected model, total invoice amount was associated with time delay for charge entry and invoice category. Invoices entered on the same day of work were 299 ± $345, as compared to those entered the next day (255 ± $271) and those entered > 1 day after the work was performed (193 ± $196; P < .0001).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

If the observed relationship between time delay (time between work performed and invoice entry) and total invoice amount is causal, equine practitioners may have significant opportunity to improve revenues by simply entering charges on the same day the work is performed.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising avenues in regenerative medicine, offering unique immunomodulatory and regenerative properties with lower immunogenicity. This study delves into the distinctive features of EVs extracted from feline adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) and placenta-derived MSCs (PMSCs). The tissues were collected from 11 female cats aged between 4 and 7 years old.

SAMPLE

EVs extracted from MSCs from discarded fetal membranes from 7 female cats and SC adipose tissue from 11 cats.

METHODS

We comprehensively explored morphological characteristics, mitochondrial density, surface markers, and pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, uncovering notable differences between ASCs and PMSCs.

RESULTS

Morphologically, ASCs exhibit a spindle-shaped form in contrast to the spherical morphology of PMSCs. Proliferation and clonogenic potential assessments reveal the faster proliferation and robust clonogenic nature of ASCs, suggesting their potential vital role in regenerative processes. Surface marker expression analysis indicates a significantly higher expression of multipotency-associated markers in ASCs, suggesting their superior proregenerative potential. Phenotyping of EVs demonstrates distinctive features, with CD9 expression suggesting varied EV secretion patterns. Notably, PMSCs exhibit superior CD81 expression, indicating their potential as preferred donors of mitochondria. Pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators analyzed at mRNA and microRNA levels reveal higher RNA content in EVs compared to source cells, emphasizing the potential of EVs in directing regenerative processes. Differential microRNA expression in EVs derived from ASCs hints at their regulatory roles in anti-inflammatory and immunometabolic processes.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study lays a foundation for understanding the nuances between ASCs and PMSCs, which is crucial for harnessing the full therapeutic potential of MSCs and their EVs in tissue repair and regeneration.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a biotherapeutic for osteoarthritis; however, manufacturing large quantities is not practical using traditional monolayer (2-D) culture. We aimed to examine the effects of 3-D and 2-D culture 2 types of media: Dulbecco modified Eagle medium and a commercially available medium (CM) on EV yield.

ANIMALS

Banked bone marrow–derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) from 6 healthy, young horses were used.

METHODS

4 microcarriers (collagen-coated polystyrene, uncoated polystyrene, collagen-coated dextran, and uncoated dextran) were tested in static and bioreactor cultures, and the optimal microcarrier was chosen. The BM-MSCs were inoculated into a bioreactor with collagen-coated dextran microcarriers at 5,000 cells/cm2 or onto culture dishes at 4,000 cells/cm2 in either Dulbecco modified Eagle medium or CM media. Supernatants were obtained for metabolite and pH analysis. The BM-MSCs were expanded until confluent (2-D) or for 7 days (3-D) when the 48-hour EV collection period commenced using EV-depleted media. Extracellular vesicles were isolated and characterized via nanoparticle tracking analysis, Western blot, transmission electron microscopy, and protein quantification. The BM-MSCs were harvested, quantified, and immunophenotyped.

RESULTS

The number of EVs isolated was not improved by 3-D culture or CM media, however, the CM 3-D condition improved the number of EVs produced per BM-MSC over the CM 2-D condition (mean ± SD: 306 ± 99 vs 37 ± 22, respectively). Glucose decreased and lactate and ammonium accumulated in 3-D culture. Surface markers of stemness exhibited reduced expression in 3-D culture.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Optimization of our 3-D culture methods could improve BM-MSC expansion and thus EV yield.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of a gene transfer approach to IL-1β inhibition in an equine osteochondral chip fragment model of joint injury using a self-complementary adeno-associated virus with interleukin receptor antagonist transgene cassette (scAAVIL-1ra), as posttraumatic osteoarthritis in horses, similar to people, is a significant clinical problem.

ANIMALS

16 horses were utilized for the study.

METHODS

All horses had an osteochondral chip fragment induced arthroscopically in one middle carpal joint while the contralateral joint was sham operated. Eight horses received either scAAVIL-1ra or saline in the osteoarthritis joint. Horses were evaluated over 70 days clinically (lameness, imaging, and biomarker analysis) and euthanized at 70 days and evaluated grossly, with imaging and histopathology.

RESULTS

The following findings were statistically significant. Injection of scAAVIL-1ra resulted in high synovial fluid levels of IL-1ra (0.5 to 9 μg/mL) throughout the duration of the experiment (70 days). Over the duration, we observed scAAVIL-1ra to improve lameness (lameness score relative improvement of 1.2 on a scale of 0 to 5), cause suppression of prostaglandin E2 (a relative decline of 30 pg/mL), and result in histological improvement in articular cartilage (decreased chondrocyte loss and chondrone formation) and subchondral bone (less osteochondral splitting and osteochondral lesions). Within the synovial membrane of scAAVIL-1ra–treated joints, we also observed perivascular infiltration with CD3-positive WBCs, suggesting lymphocytic T-cell perivascular infiltration commonly observed with viral transduction.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

These data provide support for further evaluation and optimization of scAAVIL-1ra gene therapy to treat equine osteoarthritis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The study objectives were to 1) determine the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) surface expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and transcriptome-wide gene expression changes following IL-1β + TGF-β2 dual licensing and 2) evaluate if IL-1β + TGF-β2 dual-licensed MSCs had a greater ability to positively modulate tenocyte function compared to naive MSCs.

SAMPLE

Equine bone marrow–derived MSCs from 6 donors and equine superficial digital flexor tenocytes from 3 donors.

METHODS

Experiments were performed in vitro. Flow cytometry and bulk RNA sequencing were utilized to determine naive and dual-licensed MSC phenotype and transcriptome-wide changes in gene expression. Conditioned media were generated from MSCs and utilized in tenocyte cell culture assays as a method to determine the effect of MSC paracrine factors on tenocyte function.

RESULTS

Dual-licensed MSCs have a reduced expression of MHC class I and exhibit enrichment in functional pathways associated with the extracellular matrix, cell signaling, and tissue development. Additionally, dual-licensed MSC-conditioned media significantly improved in vitro tenocyte migration and metabolism to a greater degree than naive MSC-conditioned media. In tenocytes exposed to IL-1β, dual-licensed conditioned media also positively modulated tenocyte gene expression.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Our data indicate that conditioned media containing paracrine factors secreted from dual-licensed MSCs significantly modulates in vitro tenocyte function, which may confer benefits in vivo to healing tendons following injury. Additionally, due to reduced MHC class I expression in dual-licensed MSCs, this technique may also provide an avenue to provide an effective “off-the-shelf” allogenic source of MSCs.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine dog owner preferences for information communicated during veterinarian-client obesity-related conversations within companion animal practice.

SAMPLE

Dog owners recruited using snowball sampling.

METHODS

A cross-sectional online questionnaire was distributed to dog owners. A discrete choice experiment was used to determine the relative importance, to participating dog owners, of information about selected weight-related attributes that would encourage them to pursue weight management for a dog when diagnosed as overweight by a veterinarian.

RESULTS

A total of 1,108 surveys were analyzed, with most participating dog owners residing in Canada. The most important weight-related attribute was life expectancy (relative importance, 28.56%), followed by the timeline for developing arthritis (19.24%), future quality of life (18.91%), change to cost of food (18.90%), and future mobility (14.34%).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggest that dog owners may consider information relating to an extension of their dog's life as the most important aspect of an obesity-related veterinary recommendation. By integrating dog owner preferences into discussions between clients and veterinary professionals about obesity, there is the potential to encourage more clients to engage in weight management efforts for their overweight or obese dog.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the relative importance of information communicated to cat owners during veterinarian-client obesity-related conversations.

SAMPLE

Cat owner participants recruited via snowball sampling.

METHODS

A cross-sectional online questionnaire was distributed to cat owners who owned cats of any weight status. A discrete choice experiment design was used to determine the relative importance of obesity-related attributes to cat owners when receiving information from a veterinarian.

RESULTS

A total of 1,095 questionnaires were analyzed. Participating cat owners resided primarily in Canada and the US. Impact on life expectancy was the most important attribute that would encourage participants to pursue weight management for a cat with obesity (relative importance, 32.66%), followed by change to cost of food (20.40%), future quality of life (20.38%), future mobility (14.40%), and risk of developing diabetes (12.15%).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings suggest that cat owners consider the impact on life expectancy to be most important when considering whether to follow a veterinarian's recommendation for their cat to lose weight. When veterinary professionals are communicating about obesity in practice, there is the potential to increase owner engagement in weight management efforts for cats by emphasizing the obesity-related information owners prefer to receive.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association