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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Comparing the utility of the anti-human serum amyloid A (SAA)-specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies assays (LZ-SAA) with the pure monoclonal anti-human antibody assays (VET-SAA) during clinical practice in primary care hospital populations by measuring SAA measurement in healthy and diseased domestic cats.

ANIMALS

52 healthy and 185 diseased client-owned cats.

METHODS

SAA concentration was measured using different LZ-SAA and VET-SAA measurements for healthy and various diseased cats. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were calculated for each disease.

RESULTS

VET-SAA has higher sensitivity than LZ-SAA for the most common diseases presenting to primary care veterinary hospitals, including chronic kidney disease, tumors, and gingivostomatitis. Our results reveal the capability of detecting low SAA concentrations in healthy and diseased cats using VET-SAA in contrast to LZ-SAA, which found elevations of SAA concentrations only in diseased cats.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Our findings indicate that switching to the new VET-SAA instead of the conventional LZ-SAA will likely enhance the diagnostic performance in primary care veterinary hospitals.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the clinical and analytical accuracy of a new veterinary-calibrated portable blood glucose monitor (PBGM) compared to a reference laboratory analyzer.

ANIMALS

Client-owned dogs (n = 77) and cats (n = 64).

METHODS

Peripheral and paired capillary whole-blood glucose concentrations measured via PBGM were compared to plasma glucose concentrations measured via a Cobas c501 reference analyzer (Roche). Analytical accuracy was evaluated with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman difference plot analysis, and Deming regression. Clinical accuracy was evaluated with Parkes error grid analysis. Paired peripheral and capillary blood samples were compared with the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test.

RESULTS

There was a high correlation between PBGM and reference analyzer readings in dogs and cats. Human quality assurance standards (International Organization for Standardization 15197:2013 guidelines) for analytical accuracy were met for 95% of feline peripheral blood samples and 89% of canine samples. Similar veterinary standards (American Society of Veterinary Clinical Pathology guidelines) were met for 89% of canine and 92% of feline peripheral blood glucose measurements. Error grid analysis showed that all peripheral canine and 97% of feline measurements were clinically accurate (zone A). Any altered clinical decision for the remaining feline measurements was expected to minimally impact outcome (zone B). No significant difference was found between peripheral and capillary blood glucose measurements in either species.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The PBGM produced clinically accurate results and is suitable for use in veterinary and home settings to measure blood glucose.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Equine fungal keratitis represents a substantial portion of keratitis cases in horses, with fungal involvement identified in approximately half of all infectious keratitis cases. Despite its prevalence, more comprehensive retrospective analyses are needed to better understand this condition. Outcomes vary, with approximately two-thirds of cases achieving complete healing with retained vision, although enucleation is often necessary. Predominant pathogens include Aspergillus and Fusarium, with yeast reported in a minority of cases. Resistance to common antifungal agents among filamentous fungi poses a significant challenge. Advances in diagnostics, including repeat culture and antifungal susceptibility testing, as well as the incorporation of PCR technology, hold promise for improving detection and guiding treatment decisions. Newer antifungals, combination therapies, and innovative modalities such as photodynamic therapy offer hope for improved outcomes. Continued research efforts are essential to further elucidate the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and optimal management strategies for this condition.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the thickness of each layer of the gallbladder wall with different diseases in dogs.

SAMPLE

72 gallbladders.

METHODS

Retrospective study of dogs that underwent cholecystectomy. Histopathological specimens of the gallbladders were reviewed. Histopathological diagnosis was made as gallbladder mucocele or cholecystitis, and cholecystitis was further categorized into chronic cholecystitis, acute-on-chronic cholecystitis, acute cholecystitis, and necrotic cholecystitis. The thickness of each layer of the gallbladder wall was measured.

RESULTS

22 dogs were diagnosed with gallbladder mucocele without cholecystitis, 24 with gallbladder mucocele and cholecystitis, 20 with only cholecystitis, and 6 as normal. Histopathological subclassification of cholecystitis in 44 gallbladders led to diagnosis of chronic cholecystitis in 21 gallbladders, acute-on-chronic cholecystitis in 10 gallbladders, acute cholecystitis in 6 gallbladders, and necrotic cholecystitis in 7 gallbladders. The thickness of the entire wall of the gallbladder (P < .0001) and the thickness of the mucosa (P < .0001) and subserosa (P < .0001) were affected by the different disease processes.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Layers of the gallbladder wall were affected by diseases present in the gallbladder. It resulted in a difference in the thickness of the wall of the gallbladder among the gallbladder diseases in this study. Histopathological changes should be taken into consideration before surgery while deciding what technique to use to perform a cholecystectomy.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Authors and

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the detailed surgical procedure for open-chest CPR (OC-CPR) through a transdiaphragmatic (TD) approach during planned laparotomy and to evaluate the procedure time and damage to organs.

ANIMALS

7 mixed-breed canine cadavers.

METHODS

The procedure was divided into 3 stages. Durations for each of the 3 stages of the procedure and total time from diaphragmatic incision to the end of Rumel tourniquet application were recorded. Subjective assessment of ease of procedures and postprocedural physical evaluation of thoracoabdominal organs were also performed.

RESULTS

Mean time from diaphragmatic incision to pericardiotomy was 15.1 seconds (SD, 4.0). Performing 10 cardiac compressions took 12.0 seconds (SD, 1.8). Dissection of the aorta and application of a Rumel tourniquet took 130.4 seconds (SD, 52.2). The mean total time from start of first procedure to end of last procedure was 157.6 seconds (SD, 21.5). The mean length of diaphragmatic incision was 11.5 cm (SD, 2.2). Lung laceration was identified in one dog, and liver laceration was identified in another dog. The mean ease of pericardiotomy was 10, and application of a Rumel tourniquet was 4 (SD, 1.9). There was no instance of abdominal organs moving into the thoracic cavity during the procedure in any of the dogs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Resuscitation techniques during TD OC-CPR can be performed with acceptable timing and effort, except for aortic Rumel tourniquet application, which was difficult and time consuming. Avoidable damage to thoracoabdominal organs can occur.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the accuracy of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) device by comparing glucose concentrations measured over time as determined by the CGMS to those of the chemistry analyzer (reference method).

ANIMALS

7 healthy goats and 7 dairy calves.

METHODS

A randomized, crossover design with 3 treatments: control, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia. The CGMS device was applied to the neck. Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia were induced by insulin and xylazine, respectively. Glucose concentrations were measured by the chemistry analyzer CGMS, point-of-care glucometer, and intensive care unit machine at 0 (before treatment), 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours. Agreement between the CGMS and the chemistry analyzer was determined by Bland-Altman plots. The analytical and clinical accuracy of the CGMS was determined using the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2013 criteria and the Parkes error grid analysis.

RESULTS

In goats, the CGMS overestimated glucose concentrations during the hypoglycemic, normoglycemia, and hyperglycemia treatments. In calves, the CGMS underestimated glucose concentrations during the hypoglycemic treatment but overestimated glucose concentrations in normoglycemia and hyperglycemic treatments. The CGMS met the ISO clinical accuracy criteria for goats and calves, with > 99% of the glucose measurements in zones A and B of the Parkes grid. However, the CGMS did not meet the ISO 15197:2013 criteria for analytical accuracy.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The CGMS evaluated in our study only met the ISO 15197:2013 clinical accuracy criteria, not the analytical accuracy. Therefore, the device might be considered for clinical use.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To cohouse cats experimentally infected with Bartonella clarridgeiae (Bc) with naive cats in a flea-free environment or with Ctenocephalides felis, Bartonella henselae (Bh), Mycoplasma haemofelis, and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum to determine which flea could be a vector and to assess whether transmission of the infectious agents could be blocked by fipronil and (S)-methoprene.

ANIMALS

Specific pathogen-free cats (n = 34).

METHODS

In experiment 1, Bc was inoculated in 1 cat that was housed with 9 naive cats without C felis. In experiment 2, the 2 cats inoculated with Bc were housed with 6 other cats (2 inoculated with Bh, 2 inoculated with M haemofelis, and 2 inoculated with Candidatus M haemominutum) in the center (enclosure 2) of 3 housing enclosures separated by mesh walls that allow passage of fleas but precludes fighting. C felis were placed only on cats in enclosure 2 (5 times). Cats in enclosures 1 (n = 8) and 2 (8) were untreated, and cats in enclosure 3 (8) were administered fipronil and (S)-methoprene. Blood was collected from all cats for PCR assays for the pathogens.

RESULTS

None of the cats housed with the cat inoculated with Bc became PCR positive in the absence of C felis. All cats in enclosure 2 became Bc DNA positive. While 2 of 8 cats in enclosure 1 became Bc PCR positive, none of the treated cats in enclosure 3 became infected.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The study demonstrated that C felis can be a vector for Bc. The results support the recommendation that flea control products can reduce the risk of transmission of flea-borne pathogens.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To optimize and evaluate methods for the detection of the inflammatory biomarkers myeloperoxidase (MPO) and calprotectin (CP) in equine feces by ELISA.

ANIMALS

Healthy horses (n = 28) and horses with intestinal inflammation (n = 10).

METHODS

Feces were suspended in buffer to create fecal supernatant. Serum and fecal supernatant were analyzed using ELISA kits validated for the detection of MPO and CP in equine serum. Assay validation steps included intra- and interassay variability (coefficient of variation [CV]), dilution linearity, spike recovery, and sample type correlation. Variations in sample handling protocols (centrifugation speed, extraction buffer, and filtration) were evaluated.

RESULTS

17 paired fecal and serum samples were used for initial analysis (10 healthy horses, 7 colitis). Previously reported sample handling protocols resulted in detectable MPO and CP but poor CV, linearity, and spike recovery. There was a linear correlation between serum and fecal samples for CP but not MPO. There was a significant difference between the concentration and CV of alternative sample handling protocols for CP and MPO, with improved CV for CP (2.1% to 18.6%) but not MPO (14.4% to 53.4%). Processing fresh feces with a fecal extraction buffer and filtration of supernatant resulted in the best CV (0.5% to 3.8%) and recovery (45% to 64%) for CP. Detection of MPO was inconsistent regardless of method.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

There are few reliable diagnostic modalities for inflammation of the equine large colon. Findings support quantification of CP in equine feces using the described ELISA kit and protocol. With additional study to establish reference interval and clinical utility, the fecal inflammatory biomarker CP may allow for noninvasive quantification of intestinal inflammation in horses.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in American Journal of Veterinary Research