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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To report the clinical outcomes of the use of acellular fish skin grafts (FSGs) for the management of complex soft tissue wounds of various etiologies in dogs and cats.

ANIMALS

13 dogs and 4 cats with complex wounds treated with FSGs between February 2019 and March 2021.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed for information regarding cause, location, size of the wound, management techniques, complications, and clinical outcomes.

RESULTS

In dogs, the number of FSG applications ranged from 1 to 4 (median, 2 graft applications). The time between each application ranged from 4 to 21 days (median, 9.5 days). Time to application of the first FSG ranged from 9 to 210 days (median, 19 days). Wounds closed by second-intention healing following the first fish skin application between 26 and 145 days (median, 71 days; n = 12). In cats, 1 or 2 FSGs were used, and the wounds of 3 of 4 cats healed completely by secondary intention. The wounds of 1 dog and 1 cat did not heal. There were no adverse events attributed to the use of the FSGs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

For dogs and cats of the present study, complete healing of most wounds occurred with the use of FSGs, the application of which did not require special training, instruments, or bandage materials.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Interarcuate branch (IAB) is a vascular structure, particularly developed in C2-3 intervertebral space, forming a dorsal bridge that connects ventral venous plexi in the vertebral canal. While precisely described in the human, the precise anatomical features of IABs have not been reported in the veterinary literature. The purpose of this study is to describe the features and relations of IABs in the C2-3 vertebral canal.

ANIMALS

10 dogs were enrolled; 5 dogs for necropsy and 5 dogs for histology.

PROCEDURES

The ventral venous plexi in the cervical spine of 5 dogs were injected with latex and underwent vertebral canal dissection for visual assessment of the IAB. Two out of 5 dogs were injected with the addition of barium sulfate and underwent a CT scan. The C2-3 regions of 5 small-breed dogs were harvested for histological examinations.

RESULTS

IABs arose from the ventral venous plexus at the level of the intervertebral vein; they originated from 2 separate branches located caudally and cranially to the intervertebral foramen, forming a ventrodorsal triangle surrounding the spinal nerve root. No dorsal anastomosis was observed on the CT scan nor at dissection but were observed histologically. A cervical fibrous sheath was observed all around the vertebral canal.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

IABs are voluminous venous structures at the C2-3 intervertebral space in dogs and found within a split of the cervical fibrous sheath, which is adherent to the interarcuate ligament and the ligamentum flavum. This anatomical description is paramount when planning an approach to the C2-3 intervertebral space.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the chondroprotective effects of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP), ampicillin-sulbactam (AmpS), or PRP combined with AmpS (PRP+AmpS) in an in vitro chondrocyte explant model of bovine Staphylococcus aureus–induced septic arthritis.

SAMPLE

Autologous PRP and cartilage explants obtained from 6 healthy, adult, nonlactating Jersey-crossbred cows.

ProcedureS

Autologous PRP was prepared prior to euthanasia using an optimized double centrifugation protocol. Cartilage explants collected from grossly normal stifle joints were incubated in synovial fluid (SF) alone, S aureus–inoculated SF (SA), or SA supplemented with PRP (25% culture medium volume), AmpS (2 mg/mL), or both PRP (25% culture medium volume) and AmpS (2 mg/mL; PRP+AmpS) for 24 hours. The metabolic activity, percentage of dead cells, and glycosaminoglycan content of cartilage explants were measured with a resazurin-based assay, live-dead cell staining, and dimethylmethylene blue assay, respectively. Treatment effects were assessed relative to the findings for cartilage explants incubated in SF alone.

RESULTS

Application of PRP, AmpS, and PRP+AmpS treatments significantly reduced S aureus–induced chondrocyte death (ie, increased metabolic activity and cell viability staining) in cartilage explants, compared with untreated controls. There were no significant differences in chondrocyte death among explants treated with PRP, AmpS, or PRP+AmpS.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In this in vitro explant model of S aureus–induced septic arthritis, PRP, AmpS, and PRP+AmpS treatments mitigated chondrocyte death. Additional work to confirm the efficacy of PRP with bacteria commonly associated with clinical septic arthritis in cattle as well as in vivo evaluation is warranted.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 14-month-old female alpaca presented with a 3-week history of acute left hind limb lameness and swelling of the left tarsal region.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Radiography revealed intermittent dorsal rotation of the talus with tibiotarsal, talocalcaneal, and proximal intertarsal joint subluxation.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

In an attempt to stabilize the talus, screws were placed in the distomedial aspect of the talus and the plantaromedial aspect of the central tarsal bone, and a stainless-steel wire was placed around the screws in a figure-eight pattern. The screw head of the proximal screw broke within 4 weeks after surgery, but subluxation did not recur, and the lameness resolved. Seven months later, the same condition was diagnosed in the opposite hind limb and was treated similarly. Implants remained intact on this side, but the animal started to show signs of pain and inability to flex the tarsal joint, prompting removal of the distal screw. Subsequently, the animal became sound and produced 2 healthy crias, but was euthanatized 4 years after the second surgery because of coccidiosis.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Dorsal rotation of the talus with tibiotarsal, talocalcaneal, and proximal intertarsal joint subluxation is a sporadic condition in New World camelids. This report provides the first account of successful treatment by surgical stabilization of the medial aspect of the proximal intertarsal joint.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 9-year-old 37-kg sexually intact male snow leopard (Panthera uncia) with no history of lameness but radiographic evidence of right femoral subluxation and flattening of both femoral heads, 2 juvenile (< 1 year old) 25-kg sexually intact male cheetahs (Acinoynx jubatus) with unilateral hind limb lameness resulting from trauma, and an 11-year-old 110-kg sexually intact female Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) with a 2-year history of left hip joint osteoarthritis were examined.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

No clinically relevant clinical findings other than hip joint problems were identified. All 4 felids underwent staged bilateral (snow leopard) or unilateral (cheetahs and tiger [Panthera tigris]) total hip arthroplasty (THA).

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

In the snow leopard, both femoral THA components were found to be luxated 1 year after surgery. Treatment consisted of autogenous corticocancellous rib graft augmentation of the dorsal acetabular rims and synthetic suture capsulorrhaphies. The snow leopard lived for an additional 4 years with no additional THA-related complications. In the other 3 animals, catastrophic complications (luxation in the cheetahs and femoral fracture in the tiger) occurred shortly after THA. The THA implants were removed, and excision arthroplasty was performed. Long-term outcomes were good in all 3.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings underscore the challenges associated with THA in large nondomestic felids. Given the high risk for early catastrophic failure as a result of luxation or fracture, plans must be made and resources must be available in case revision surgery or implant removal with excision arthroplasty becomes necessary.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the feasibility of CT lymphangiography via intrametatarsal pad injection in cats with chylothorax.

ANIMALS

7 client-owned cats.

PROCEDURES

This was a multicenter, retrospective, descriptive study. Medical records and imaging data from 4 veterinary hospitals were reviewed to identify cats with chylothorax that had undergone intrametatarsal pad injection via CT lymphangiography. In total, 7 client-owned cats were included in the study. Signalment, history, image findings, and follow-up data were recorded. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the success rate of thoracic duct (TD) enhancement and describe relevant clinical findings.

RESULTS

Enhancement of TDs was successful in 6 of the 7 cats within 5 to 15 minutes after initiating intrametatarsal pad injection under general anesthesia. Successful migration of contrast medium into the lymphatic vessels cranial to the popliteal lymph nodes was observed in all cats within 5 minutes after injection. The recommended dose of contrast medium to achieve TD enhancement was 1 mL/kg (0.5 mL/kg/pad; concentration, 350 mg of iodine/kg). Only 1 cat had mild swelling of the paws after the procedure, and it recovered quickly without pain medication; no cats experienced lameness. Similar to dogs and unlike in previously published reports, 72% of TD branches were located in the right hemithorax.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

CT lymphangiography via intrametatarsal pad injection is a feasible and safe procedure for cats with chylothorax. This technique provides detailed information regarding the unique TD anatomy and cisterna chyli location. It also contributes to surgical planning.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 5-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was evaluated because of an acute onset of dyspnea and open-mouthed breathing.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Thoracic radiography revealed pleural effusion and signs consistent with restrictive pleuritis, and results of preoperative CT were consistent with diffuse, severe restrictive pleuritis, bilateral pleural effusion, and pulmonary atelectasis. Thoracocentesis yielded a red, turbid fluid that was identified as chylous effusion with chronic inflammation.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Exploratory thoracotomy revealed diffuse, severe fibrous adhesions between the mediastinum, heart, lung lobes, and thoracic wall, with a thick fibrous capsule enveloping all lung lobes. Surgical treatment consisted of complete pleural decortication, pericardiectomy, and thoracic omentalization. The cat remained hospitalized for 6 days, receiving oxygen supplementation, multimodal analgesia, and supportive care. Long-term home care consisted of prednisolone administration, rutin supplementation, and provision of a low-fat diet. At recheck examinations 3-, 7-, and 20-weeks postoperatively, the cat remained tachypneic, but was otherwise clinically normal without dyspnea or respiratory distress. Follow-up thoracic radiography revealed improved pulmonary expansion, decreased pleural effusion, and resolved pneumothorax.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Surgical management of fibrosing pleuritis secondary to idiopathic chylothorax in cats has historically resulted in poor outcomes. This report details the first successful use of complete decortication in the surgical management of severe fibrosing pleuritis in a cat.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To develop a method based on CT angiography and the maximum slope model (MSM) to measure regional lung perfusion in anesthetized ponies.

ANIMALS

6 ponies.

PROCEDURES

Anesthetized ponies were positioned in dorsal recumbency in the CT gantry. Contrast was injected, and the lungs were imaged while ponies were breathing spontaneously and while they were mechanically ventilated. Two observers delineated regions of interest in aerated and atelectatic lung, and perfusion in those regions was calculated with the MSM. Measurements obtained with a computerized method were compared with manual measurements, and computerized measurements were compared with previously reported measurements obtained with microspheres.

RESULTS

Perfusion measurements obtained with the MSM were similar to previously reported values obtained with the microsphere method. While ponies were spontaneously breathing, mean ± SD perfusion for aerated and atelectatic lung regions were 4.0 ± 1.9 and 5.0 ± 1.2 mL/min/g of lung tissue, respectively. During mechanical ventilation, values were 4.6 ± 1.2 and 2.7 ± 0.7 mL/min/g of lung tissue at end expiration and 4.1 ± 0.5 and 2.7 ± 0.6 mL/min/g of lung tissue at peak inspiration. Intraobserver agreement was acceptable, but interobserver agreement was lower. Computerized measurements compared well with manual measurements.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings showed that CT angiography and the MSM could be used to measure regional lung perfusion in dorsally recumbent anesthetized ponies. Measurements are repeatable, suggesting that the method could be used to determine efficacy of therapeutic interventions to improve ventilation-perfusion matching and for other studies for which measurement of regional lung perfusion is necessary.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether palmar digital nerve (PDN) blockade in horses with a combination of dexmedetomidine and mepivacaine would block the response to mechanical force applied to the digit longer than would anesthetizing these nerves with mepivacaine alone or dexmedetomidine alone.

ANIMALS

8 mares with no signs of lameness.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized, crossover, blinded, experimental study, both PDNs of the same forelimb of each horse were anesthetized by perineural injection with either 30 mg mepivacaine alone, 250 µg of dexmedetomidine alone, or 30 mg mepivacaine combined with 250 µg of dexmedetomidine. Each horse received each treatment, and treatments were administered ≥ 2 weeks apart. The mechanical nociceptive threshold was measured at a region between the heel bulbs with the use of a digital force gauge before (baseline) and at 15-minute intervals after treatment.

RESULTS

The mean duration of sensory blockade of the digit was 2-fold longer when a combination of mepivacaine and dexmedetomidine was administered (371 minutes), compared with when mepivacaine alone was administered (186 minutes). Treatment with dexmedetomidine alone did not change the mechanical nociceptive threshold substantially from baseline and resulted in no clinical signs of sedation.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that relief from digital pain provided by perineural treatment with mepivacaine for PDN blockade can be extended by adding dexmedetomidine to the injectate.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research