During a large animal clinical rotation at the College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, veterinary students commented on observing variability in the route by which perioperative antimicrobials were being administered to prevent surgical site infections in cattle. The clinicians indicated that preoperative parenteral administration of antimicrobials was likely the preferred route, as suggested by the literature available on antimicrobial use in other veterinary species; however, such use results in drug residues that prevent immediate slaughter of the affected cattle for use in the food supply when surgical findings suggest a poor prognosis. Consequently, veterinarians are often under pressure
A 12-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog was brought to the University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation because of 2 clusters of generalized seizures. Four months previously, the dog had had 5 generalized seizures in a single day. One week before the evaluation, the dog had had a second episode of cluster seizures (6 generalized seizures in a 24 hour-period).
At the time of hospital admission, a physical examination and neurologic examination were performed, and results were unremarkable. The neurologic disturbance was localized to the prosencephalic region on the basis of the dog's history of seizure activity. A
A 5-year-old spayed female mixed-breed dog weighing 15 kg (33 lb) was brought to the University of Georgia Small Animal Veterinary Teaching Hospital for fixation of a traumatic fracture of the right femur. Physical examination and preanesthetic hematologic evaluation revealed no other abnormalities, and the dog was deemed a suitable candidate for surgery to repair the fracture. The dog was premedicated with glycopyrrolate (0.005 mg/kg [0.002 mg/lb]), hydromorphone (0.05 mg/kg [0.023 mg/lb]), and midazolam (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb]) administered SC. Anesthesia was induced via IV administration of ketamine (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb]) and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg [0.11 mg/lb]) and
A 5-year-old spayed female German Shorthair Pointer weighing 20.2 kg (44.4 lb) was referred for evaluation of a 6-month history of weight loss and polyphagia. Initially, clinical signs included infrequent vomiting and diarrhea of large bowel origin, which progressed to diarrhea indicative of small and large bowel involvement.
Diagnostic testing performed by the referring veterinarian included 2 fecal evaluations for parasites, 2 Giardia ELISAs, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, a CBC, and measurement of serum total thyroxine concentration, serum cobalamin and folate concentrations, and trypsin-like immunoreactivity. Test results were unremarkable, as were results of thoracic and abdominal radiography.
A 6-month-old sexually intact male Labrador Retriever was evaluated at the Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a 3-month history of lethargy and failure to thrive and recent onset of vomiting and generalized neurologic deficits. Historical findings included exercise intolerance, occasional circling, polyuria, and polydipsia. At evaluation, the dog was considered of small stature for its breed, had a body condition of 2 on a 5-point scale (moderately underweight), and was lethargic and poorly responsive. Physical examination revealed a grade III/VI systolic heart murmur (point of maximum intensity, right cardiac apex) and ptyalism. A neurologic examination revealed delayed conscious
A 6-year-old spayed female Newfoundland weighing 57.5 kg (126.5 lb) was evaluated at the University of Missouri Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for a 5-month history of right hind limb lameness manifested as a decrease in physical activity difficulty rising from a recumbent position, and disinterest in swimming, one of the dog's preferred activities before the lameness developed. The dog was a household pet that lived indoors and was allowed to roam freely on the owners' farm. The owners initially sought advice from their local veterinarian who had sequentially prescribed 2 types of NSAIDs; the owners reported minimal improvement with
A 13-year-old castrated male mixed-breed dog weighing 33.6 kg (73.9 lb) was evaluated for a history of bilateral, gradually progressive hind limb weakness, reluctance to climb stairs or jump, and intermittent mild left hind limb lameness. The dog had a previous history of severe left-sided hip joint osteoarthritis and dysplasia diagnosed via radiography at 7 years of age; an acute rupture of the right cranial cruciate ligament at 8 years of age, which was treated successfully with a tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO); and atopy with intermittent mild to moderate pruritus and superficial pyoderma that was well controlled with
A 9-year-old spayed female Miniature Pinscher was evaluated at the University of Illinois Small Animal Clinic because of a 1-month history of progressive weakness of all 4 limbs. At that time, physical examination revealed a body condition score of 5/9 (ideal) and the dog had nonambulatory tetraparesis. A neurologic examination revealed an absence of conscious proprioception in all 4 limbs. A pain response was elicited during flexion, extension, and lateral manipulation of the dog's neck. All other physical and neurologic findings were unremarkable. A tentative diagnosis of compressive cervical intervertebral disk disease was made. To confirm this diagnosis and
A 4-year-old male German Shepherd Dog weighing 33.2 kg (73 lb) was evaluated at the University of Missouri Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital for a 3-month history of decreased ability to perform athletically. The dog trained for and competed in agility events, and the owner had observed that the dog would refuse or not successfully complete jumps and A-frames during training and competition. According to the owner, the dog also had signs of mild, intermittent lameness of the right hind limb. When the owner first noticed the problem, the dog was evaluated by a veterinarian who diagnosed a possible hamstring
A 10-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was examined for intermittent periuria (urinating outside the litter box) of 6 months' duration and recent red discoloration of the urine. Results of physical examination were unremarkable. Analysis of a naturally voided urine specimen indicated the cat had proteinuria, hematuria, pyuria, bacteruria (cocci), and crystalluria. The urine was concentrated (specific gravity, 1.050; reference limits, 1.025 to 1.070), with a pH of 6.0. The crystals in the urine sediment had a size and shape consistent with struvite crystals (ammonium magnesium phosphate). Abdominal radiography revealed a single large, radiodense urocystolith (Figure 1).