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Introduction

A 12-year-old 21-kg castrated male Border Collie was examined because of acute-onset blindness, 2 episodes of collapse, and nonambulatory tetraparesis. The first episode of collapse had occurred 8 days prior to presentation and lasted 20 minutes. The dog acutely collapsed into lateral recumbency with tonic extension of all limbs and subsequently recovered fully. Blindness was noticed 2 days later. Five days later, a similar collapsing episode occurred that lasted 45 minutes. The dog was ataxic with intermittent circling in both directions thereafter. The dog’s condition deteriorated over the next day, with ambulatory paraparesis progressing to nonambulatory tetraparesis on presentation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 12-year-old 5.66-kg male green iguana (Iguana iguana) was referred with a history of left hind limb monoparesis and recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the right hind limb femoral pores. A right hind limb mass had been first noticed 11 months earlier, and the referring veterinarian had surgically removed it twice, with the most recent surgery having been performed 1.5 months earlier. For both procedures, anesthesia had been induced with alfaxalone (10 mg/kg, IM) and maintained with isoflurane, and enrofloxacin (11 mg/kg, SC) had been administered. Histologic examination of removed tissues indicated that the mass was a

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 1-year-old sexually intact female Brazilian Shorthair cat was evaluated because of bilateral third eyelid protrusion and tremor episodes that had started 4 days earlier. According to the owner, the cat had had 1 episode of diarrhea that had resolved spontaneously. The 4 other cats that lived with the patient were healthy.

During physical and neurologic examinations, a low body condition score (3/9), dehydration (7%), moderate bilateral third eyelid protrusion, and neurologic deficits consistent with lumbosacral myelopathy were observed. According to the owner, signs of paraplegia and urinary incontinence had been present since the cat had been adopted.

Neurologic examination
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 10-year-old 21.5-kg spayed female Staffordshire Terrier was evaluated because of pain and unwillingness to ambulate. The owners reported that they had tripped over the dog several days earlier and the dog had seemed to be in pain ever since. The dog had a history of multiple mass excisions (mast cell tumors, melanocytomas, and several benign masses) and was routinely rechecked by a board-certified veterinary oncologist. On presentation through the emergency service the day after being tripped over, the dog had signs of pain during palpation of the lumbosacral region and was reactive to tail-jacking. Survey thoracolumbar spinal radiographs

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 6-year-old 7.72-kg neutered male domestic shorthair cat was examined because of a 1.5-month history of left head tilt and ataxia. The cat had initially been presented to an emergency clinic, and empiric treatment with clindamycin for suspected otitis media–otitis interna had resulted in a minimal response. A routine CBC and serum biochemical analyses were performed and revealed a slightly high symmetric dimethylarginine concentration (18 µg/dL; reference range, 0 to 14 µg/dL) in the absence of azotemia and slightly low alanine aminotransferase (18 U/L; reference range, 27 to 158 U/L) and alkaline phosphatase (9 U/L; reference range, 12 to

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 7-year-old 2.7-kg neutered female Yorkshire Terrier was referred for evaluation of a 3-month history of progressive cervical pain, intermittent right-sided head tilt, and episodic right-sided cervical pruritus. Topical treatment with fusidic acid and betamethasone for suspected bilateral ear disease and oral administration of gabapentin were started by the primary veterinarian. Short courses of tramadol, omeprazole, and potentiated amoxicillin were also instigated. No improvement of the clinical signs was documented. Results of a physical examination were normal.

Assessment Anatomic diagnosis

The dog had a mild, intermittent, right-sided head tilt with alert mentation, normal cranial nerve function, a normal gait,

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 7-month-old 20.4-kg sexually intact male Hungarian Vizsla was referred for evaluation because of a 1-month history of nonprogressive ataxia affecting all 4 limbs with no signs of pain or discomfort. General physical examination findings were unremarkable apart from marked scuffing of the claws of all 4 limbs.

Assessment Anatomic diagnosis

For the proprioceptive ataxia of all 4 limbs and ambulatory tetraparesis, a C1-C5 or C6-T2 myelopathy could be considered on the basis of gait evaluation findings. Given the normal muscle tone and segmental spinal reflexes, a C6-T2 lesion was excluded. A brainstem lesion was deemed unlikely because of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 4-month-old 17.5-kg neutered male Boxer was referred to the neurology department of a referral veterinary hospital for evaluation of a 3-day history of acute-onset progressive reluctance to walk, right pelvic limb lameness progressing to non–weight-bearing lameness, and spontaneous yelping when standing up and walking, with no history of trauma. Radiographic findings for the lumbosacral region, pelvis, and hip and knee joints were unremarkable (Figure 1). Prior to referral, the dog received meloxicam, which lead to mild improvement; however, on the day before referral, the dog’s condition deteriorated.

Ventrodorsal (A) and lateral (B)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 10.7-year-old castrated male Labrador Retriever was referred to our veterinary teaching hospital following a peracute onset of static, nonprogressive ambulatory vestibular tetra-ataxia with a left-sided head tilt. Hematologic and biochemical testing performed by the referring veterinarian revealed a high C-reactive protein concentration (34.1 mg/L; reference interval, 0 to 10 mg/L), but results were otherwise unremarkable. A single tonic-clonic seizure occurred during assessment by the referring veterinary surgeon and reportedly responded to diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, IV). Results of a general physical examination and serial blood pressure measurements were unremarkable.

Assessment Anatomic diagnosis

The bilateral positional nystagmus and strabismus, vestibular

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 1.5-year-old 16-kg spayed female Australian Cattle Dog was evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital because of sudden-onset paraparesis that had progressed to paraplegia over the past 3 days. The dog had difficulty urinating on the day of presentation. The dog’s history was otherwise unremarkable, and its vaccination status was current. The dog had outdoor access, and trauma could not be ruled out. A physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analyses, and abdominal radiography were performed by the referring veterinarian; there were no abnormal findings. The dog was referred to the veterinary neurology service. On admission, the dog was assessed by

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association