To establish a method for evaluation of the efficacy of a classical swine fever virus (CSFV) subunit vaccine in rabbits as determined via humoral immune responses to the virus.
40 specific pathogen–free rabbits.
Rabbits were randomly assigned to 4 groups (10 rabbits/group) for SC injection of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2 mL of a CSFV subunit E2 vaccine (representing 1.15, 2.3, or 4.6 μg of E2 protein/dose, respectively) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Blood samples were collected 21 days after vaccination for measurement of the antibody response against CSFV via ELISA and virus neutralization methods. On the same day, the CSFV Chinese (C) strain was injected into an ear vein. Vaccine efficacy was determined by monitoring of rabbits for pyrexia for 4 days and measurement of viral copies in spleen lysates at the end of the study. Reproducibility of the antibody response was tested with 2 other batches of the vaccine at the minimum immunization dose identified for the initially tested batch.
The E2 protein dose of the initially tested vaccine was positively correlated with the antibody response and protection rate in rabbits. The identified minimum immunization dose per rabbit was 0.1 mL, representing an E2 protein content of approximately 2.3 μg, and reproducibility of the antibody response to vaccination with the 2 other batches at this dose was good.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
A method was established in rabbits for evaluation of the efficacy of a CSFV subunit vaccine that could help in the optimization of later large-scale vaccine production and quality control processes as well as in the clinical application of the vaccine.
OBJECTIVE To assess the immunogenicity of thermostable live-attenuated rabies virus (RABV) preserved by vaporization (PBV) and delivered to the duodenal mucosa of a wildlife species targeted for an oral vaccination program.
ANIMALS 8 gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus).
PROCEDURES Endoscopy was used to place RABV PBV (n = 3 foxes), alginate-encapsulated RABV PBV (3 foxes), or nonpreserved RABV (2 foxes) vaccine into the duodenum of foxes. Blood samples were collected weekly to monitor the immune response. Saliva samples were collected weekly and tested for virus shedding by use of a conventional reverse-transcriptase PCR assay. Foxes were euthanized 28 days after vaccine administration, and relevant tissues were collected and tested for presence of RABV.
RESULTS 2 of 3 foxes that received RABV PBV and 1 of 2 foxes that received nonpreserved RABV seroconverted by day 28. None of the 3 foxes receiving alginate-encapsulated RABV PBV seroconverted. No RABV RNA was detected in saliva at any of the time points, and RABV antigen or RNA was not detected in any of the tissues obtained on day 28. None of the foxes displayed any clinical signs of rabies.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study indicated that a live-attenuated RABV vaccine delivered to the duodenal mucosa can induce an immune response in gray foxes. A safe, potent, thermostable RABV vaccine that could be delivered orally to wildlife or domestic animals would enhance current rabies control and prevention efforts.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate changes in systemic and ocular antibody responses of steers following intranasal vaccination with precipitated or partially solubilized recombinant Moraxella bovis cytotoxin (MbxA).
ANIMALS 13 Angus steers with ages ranging from 318 to 389 days and weights ranging from 352 to 437 kg.
PROCEDURES Steers were assigned to receive 500 μg of a precipitated (MbxA-P; n = 5) or partially solubilized (MbxA-S; 5) recombinant MbxA subunit adjuvanted with polyacrylic acid. A control group (n = 3) received the adjuvant alone. Each steer received the assigned treatment (1 mL/nostril) on days 0 and 28. Serum and tear samples were collected on days 0 (before vaccination), 14, 28, 42, and 55. Changes in MbxA-neutralizing antibody titers and MbxA-specific IgG concentrations in serum and tears and changes in MbxA-specific IgA concentrations in tears were measured.
RESULTS Mean fold changes in MbxA-specific IgG concentration in serum and tears and MbxA-neutralizing antibody titer in tears for the MbxA-P group were significantly greater than those for the MbxA-S and control groups. Mean serum MbxA-neutralizing antibody titer did not differ among the 3 groups. Although the mean fold change in tear MbxA-specific IgA concentration differed significantly among the groups in the overall analysis, post hoc comparisons failed to identify any significant pairwise differences.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Systemic and ocular immune responses induced by intranasal administration of the MbxA-P vaccine were superior to those induced by the MbxA-S vaccine. Additional research is necessary to determine whether the MbxA-P vaccine can prevent naturally occurring infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of 4 commercially available multivalent modified-live virus vaccines against clinical disease, viremia, and viral shedding caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) in early-weaned beef calves.
PROCEDURES Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups and administered PBSS (group A [control]; n = 11) or 1 of 4 commercially available modified-live virus vaccines that contained antigens against BHV1, BVDV types 1 (BVDV1) and 2 (BVDV2), parainfluenza type 3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (groups B , C , D , and E ). Forty-five days after vaccination, calves were exposed simultaneously to 6 cattle persistently infected with BVDV and 8 calves acutely infected with BHV1 for 28 days (challenge exposure). For each calf, serum antibody titers against BVDV and BHV1 were determined before vaccination and before and after challenge exposure. Virus isolation was performed on nasal secretions, serum, and WBCs at predetermined times during the 28-day challenge exposure.
RESULTS None of the calves developed severe clinical disease or died. Mean serum anti-BHV1 antibody titers did not differ significantly among the treatment groups at any time and gradually declined during the study. Mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers appeared to be negatively associated with the incidence of viremia and BVDV shedding. The unvaccinated group (A) had the lowest mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers. The mean serum anti-BVDV antibody titers for group D were generally lower than those for groups B, C, and E.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated differences in vaccine efficacy for the prevention of BVDV viremia and shedding in early-weaned beef calves.
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of a commercially available multivalent killed virus vaccine on serum neutralizing (SN) and colostrum neutralizing (CN) antibodies against bovine herpesvirus (BHV) type 1 and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2 in pregnant dairy cattle.
ANIMALS 49 Holstein dairy cattle.
PROCEDURES 25 cattle were vaccinated (IM injection) at least 60 days prior to calving (ie, at the end of the lactation period or according to the expected calving date for heifers) and again 5 weeks later. The remaining 24 cattle were not vaccinated (control group). Titers of SN antibodies were measured at the 5-week time point. Titers of SN and CN antibodies were measured at parturition.
RESULTS 5 weeks after initial vaccination, titers of SN antibodies against BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2 were 1:512, 1:128, and 1:2,048, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:64, 1:128, and 1:64, respectively, in unvaccinated controls. Equivalent SN antibody titers at parturition were 1:256, 1:64, and 1:512, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:128, 1:128, and 1:64, respectively, in controls. Median titers of CN antibodies against BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2 were 1:1,280, 1:10,240, and 1:20,480, respectively, in vaccinates and 1:80, 1:1,280, and 1:2,560, respectively, in controls.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Titers of antibodies against viral respiratory pathogens were significantly enhanced in both serum (BHV-1 and BVDV type 2) and colostrum (BHV-1 and BVDV types 1 and 2) in cattle receiving a killed virus vaccine (with no adverse reactions) before parturition. To maximize protection of bovine neonates, this method of vaccination should be considered.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effectiveness of a commercially available toxoid manufactured from western diamondback (WD) rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) venom against envenomation of mice with WD, northern Pacific (NP) rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus oreganus), and southern Pacific (SP) rattlesnake (Crotalus oreganus helleri) venom.
ANIMALS 90 specific pathogen–free female mice.
PROCEDURES Mice were allocated into 3 cohorts (30 mice/cohort). Mice received SC injections of C atrox toxoid (CAT) vaccine (n = 15/group) or adjuvant (15/group) at day 0 and again at 4 weeks. At 8 weeks, mice were challenge-exposed with 1 of 3 venoms. Survival until 48 hours was evaluated by use of log-rank analysis of survival curves and the z test for proportions.
RESULTS 6 of 15 WD-challenged CAT-vaccinated mice, 3 of 15 NP-challenged CAT-vaccinated mice, and 0 of 15 SP-challenged CAT-vaccinated mice survived until 48 hours. All adjuvant-only vaccinates survived ≤ 21 hours. Mean survival time of CAT vaccinates was longer than that of adjuvant-only vaccinates for all venoms (1,311 vs 368 minutes for WD, 842 vs 284 minutes for NP, and 697 vs 585 minutes for SP). Results of the z test indicated a significantly increased survival rate for vaccinates exposed to WD rattlesnake venom but not for vaccinates exposed to NP or SP rattlesnake venom. Log-rank analysis revealed a significant difference between survival curves of vaccinated versus unvaccinated mice exposed to NP but not WD or SP venom.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CAT vaccination improved survival rate and survival time after challenge exposure with WD rattlesnake venom and may offer limited protection against NP rattlesnake venom but did not provide significant cross-protection against SP rattlesnake venom.
OBJECTIVE To compare antibody responses of horses naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) and those vaccinated against WNV, to identify whether vaccination interferes with the ability to diagnose WNV infection, and to determine the duration of antibody responses after vaccination.
SAMPLE Sera from horses naturally infected with WNV (n = 10) and adult WNV-naïve horses before and after vaccination with a live canarypox virus–vectored vaccine (7) or a killed virus vaccine (8).
PROCEDURES An established WNV IgM capture ELISA was used to measure IgM responses. Newly developed capture ELISAs were used to measure responses of 8 other WNV-specific immunoglobulin isotypes. A serum neutralization assay was used to determine anti-WNV antibody titers.
RESULTS WNV-specific IgM responses were typically detected in the sera of WNV-infected horses but not in sera of horses vaccinated against WNV. Natural infection with and vaccination against WNV induced an immunoglobulin response that was primarily composed of IgG1. West Nile virus–specific IgG1 was detected in the sera of most horses 14 days after vaccination. Serum anti-WNV IgG1 and neutralizing antibody responses induced by the killed-virus vaccines were higher and lasted longer than did those induced by the live canarypox virus–vectored vaccine.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE On the basis of these findings, we recommend that horses be vaccinated against WNV annually near the beginning of mosquito season, that both IgM and IgG1 responses against WNV be measured to distinguish between natural infection and vaccination, and that a WNV IgG1 ELISA be used to monitor anti-WNV antibodies titers in vaccinated horses.
Objective—To determine the efficacy of a multivalent modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine containing a Mannheimia haemolytica toxoid to reduce pneumonia and mortality rate when administered to calves challenge exposed with virulent Bibersteinia trehalosi.
Animals—74 Holstein calves.
Procedures—Calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups. Calves in the control group (n = 36) were vaccinated by SC administration of 2 mL of a commercial 5-way MLV vaccine, and calves in the other group (38) were vaccinated by SC administration of a 2-mL dose of a 5-way MLV vaccine containing M haemolytica toxoid (day 0). On day 21, calves were transtracheally administered B trehalosi. Serum was obtained for analysis of antibody titers against M haemolytica leukotoxin. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected from calves 1 day before vaccination (day −1) and challenge exposure (day 20) and cultured to detect bacterial respiratory pathogens. Clinical scores, rectal temperature, and death attributable to the challenge-exposure organism were recorded for 6 days after challenge exposure. Remaining calves were euthanized at the end of the study. Necropsy was performed on all calves, and lung lesion scores were recorded.
Results—Calves vaccinated with the MLV vaccine containing M haemolytica toxoid had significantly lower lung lesion scores, mortality rate, and clinical scores for respiratory disease, compared with results for control calves.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of a multivalent MLV vaccine containing M haemolytica toxoid protected calves against challenge exposure with virulent B trehalosi by reducing the mortality rate, lung lesion scores, and clinical scores for respiratory disease.
Objective—To determine whether a flexible vaccination regimen provides protection against challenge exposure with a virulent Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo isolate.
Animals—Fifty-five 4-week-old calves seronegative for antibodies against L borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo.
Procedures—Calves were assigned to 3 groups and administered 2 doses of adjuvant (control calves; n = 11), 1 dose of serovar Hardjo bacterin and 1 dose of adjuvant (22), or 2 doses of the serovar Hardjo bacterin (22); there was a 16-week interval between dose administrations. Three weeks after the second dose, all calves were challenge exposed by use of conjunctival instillation of a heterologous strain of L borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo for 3 consecutive days. Urine samples for leptospiral culture were collected for 5 weeks after challenge exposure; at that time, all calves were euthanized and kidney samples collected for leptospiral culture.
Results—Antibody titers increased in both leptospiral-vaccinated groups of calves. A significant increase in antibody titers against L borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo was detected after administration of the second dose of L borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo bacterin and challenge exposure. In 10 of 11 adjuvant-treated control calves, serovar Hardjo was isolated from both urine and kidney samples. Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo was not isolated from the urine or kidney samples obtained from any of the 21 remaining calves that received 1 dose of bacterin or the 20 remaining calves that received 2 doses of bacterin.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Protection in young calves was induced by vaccination with 1 or 2 doses of a serovar Hardjo bacterin.
Objective—To investigate effects of low dietary vitamin A content on antibody responses in feedlot calves inoculated with an inactivated bovine coronavirus (BCoV) vaccine.
Animals—40 feedlot calves.
Procedures—Calves were fed diets containing high (3,300 U/kg) or low (1,100 U/kg) amounts of vitamin A beginning on the day of arrival at a feedlot (day 0) and continuing daily until the end of the study (day 140). Serum retinol concentrations were evaluated in blood samples obtained throughout the study. Calves were inoculated IM with an inactivated BCoV vaccine on days 112 and 126. Blood samples obtained on days 112 and 140 were used for assessment of BCoV-specific serum IgG1, IgG2, IgM, and IgA titers via an ELISA.
Results—The low vitamin A diet reduced serum retinol concentrations between days 112 and 140. After the BCoV inoculation and booster injections, predominantly serum IgG1 antibodies were induced in calves fed the high vitamin A diet; however, IgG1 titers were compromised at day 140 in calves fed the low vitamin A diet. Other isotype antibodies specific for BCoV were not affected by the low vitamin A diet.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dietary vitamin A restriction increases marbling in feedlot cattle; however, its effect on antibody responses to vaccines is unknown. A low vitamin A diet compromised the serum IgG1 responses against inactivated BCoV vaccine, which suggested suppressed T-helper 2-associated antibody (IgG1) responses. Thus, low vitamin A diets may compromise the effectiveness of viral vaccines and render calves more susceptible to infectious disease.