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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 9-year-old 37-kg sexually intact male snow leopard (Panthera uncia) with no history of lameness but radiographic evidence of right femoral subluxation and flattening of both femoral heads, 2 juvenile (< 1 year old) 25-kg sexually intact male cheetahs (Acinoynx jubatus) with unilateral hind limb lameness resulting from trauma, and an 11-year-old 110-kg sexually intact female Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) with a 2-year history of left hip joint osteoarthritis were examined.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

No clinically relevant clinical findings other than hip joint problems were identified. All 4 felids underwent staged bilateral (snow leopard) or unilateral (cheetahs and tiger [Panthera tigris]) total hip arthroplasty (THA).

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

In the snow leopard, both femoral THA components were found to be luxated 1 year after surgery. Treatment consisted of autogenous corticocancellous rib graft augmentation of the dorsal acetabular rims and synthetic suture capsulorrhaphies. The snow leopard lived for an additional 4 years with no additional THA-related complications. In the other 3 animals, catastrophic complications (luxation in the cheetahs and femoral fracture in the tiger) occurred shortly after THA. The THA implants were removed, and excision arthroplasty was performed. Long-term outcomes were good in all 3.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings underscore the challenges associated with THA in large nondomestic felids. Given the high risk for early catastrophic failure as a result of luxation or fracture, plans must be made and resources must be available in case revision surgery or implant removal with excision arthroplasty becomes necessary.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe an ultrasound-guided technique for central venous catheter placement via the external jugular vein (EJV) in pigs.

ANIMALS

96 healthy Landrace–Poland China barrows (approx 16 weeks old with a mean weight of 70 kg).

PROCEDURES

Pigs were anesthetized. With ultrasound guidance, a needle was inserted into the EJV without a large incision or cutdown procedure. A guidewire was inserted through the needle into the vein. A modified Seldinger technique was used to advance a catheter into the vessel until the tip was in the cranial vena cava near the right atrium. A trocar was used to create a tunnel through the subcutaneous tissues from the catheter insertion site to between the dorsal borders of the scapulae. The free end of the catheter was passed through that tunnel. An extension was attached to the catheter and secured to the skin. Pigs were euthanized and underwent necropsy at completion of the study for which they were catheterized.

RESULTS

Central venous catheters were successfully placed in all 96 pigs and facilitated collection of serial blood samples with minimal stress. Catheters remained in place for a mean of 6 days (range, 4 to 10 days). Necropsy revealed abscesses along the subcutaneous catheter tract in 9 pigs. Twenty pigs had histologic evidence of phlebitis and fibroplasia in the cranial vena cava.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The described technique, in combination with extensive socialization, allowed serial collection of blood samples with minimal stress and restraint and is an alternative to surgical cutdown procedures for catheter placement. (Am J Vet Res 2021;82:760–769)

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effect of a mobile UV-C disinfection device on the environmental bacterial bioburden in veterinary facilities.

SAMPLES

40 swab samples of surfaces from the operating theaters of 3 veterinary hospitals and 1 necropsy laboratory.

PROCEDURES

Various surfaces were swabbed, and collected material was eluted from the swabs in PBSS. Then, an aliquot of the sample fluid was processed with a bacteria-specific rapid metabolic assay to quantify bacterial bioburden. Each site was then treated with UV-C light with an automated disinfection device for approximately 45 minutes. The same surfaces were swabbed following UV-C treatment, and bioburden was quantified. The bioburden at additional time points, including after a second UV-C treatment, was determined for the small animal operating theater.

RESULTS

All surfaces at all sites had a persistent viable bacterial population following manual cleaning. Disinfection with UV-C achieved a mean bioburden reduction of 94% (SD, 5.2%; range, 91% to 95%) for all surfaces, compared with manual disinfection alone. Repeated UV-C treatment of the small animal operating theater reduced mean bioburden by 99% (SD, 0.8%), including no detectable bacteria on 4 of 10 surfaces.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Disinfection with UV-C light may be a beneficial adjunct method for terminal disinfection of veterinary operating theaters to reduce environmental bioburden.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effect of epitendinous suture (ES) caliber on the tensile strength of flexor tendon repairs in cadaveric specimens from dogs.

SAMPLE

60 cadaveric superficial digital flexor tendons (SDFTs) from 30 skeletally mature dogs.

PROCEDURES

Specimens were randomly assigned to 5 suture caliber groups (n = 12 SDFTs/group). After sharp transection, SDFTs were repaired by placement of a simple continuous circumferential ES created with size-0, 2-0, 3-0, 4-0, or 5-0 polypropylene suture. Constructs were preloaded to 2 N and load tested to failure. Loads at yield, peak, and failure and mode of failure were compared among groups by statistical methods.

RESULTS

Yield, peak, and failure loads for SDFT repair constructs were positively correlated with ES caliber and did not differ between the size-0 and 2-0 groups on pairwise comparisons. Yield load was significantly greater for size-0, 2-0, and 3-0 groups than for the 4-0 and 5-0 groups. Peak and failure loads were significantly greater for the size-0 and 2-0 groups than for the remaining groups. Most size-0 (12/12), 2-0 (12/12), and 3-0 (10/12) group constructs failed because of ES pull-through; several constructs in the 4-0 group (5/12) and most in the 5-0 group (11/12) failed because of ES breakage.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested size-0 and 2-0 sutures should be considered when placing an ES for flexor tendon repairs in dogs. However, in vivo studies are needed determine the effects of increasing ES caliber on clinical outcomes for dogs undergoing these procedures.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the feasibility of a novel technique involving a vessel and tissue–sealing device (VTSD) for ovariectomy in chickens to evaluate the potential application of the procedure to other avian species.

ANIMALS

20 domestic laying hens (Gallus domesticus), of which 10 were immature (< 4 months old) and 10 were adults (> 18 months old).

PROCEDURES

Ovariectomy was performed with a VTSD through a left lateral celiotomy. Birds were allowed to recover for 14 days after the procedure and then were euthanized for necropsy. A board-certified veterinary pathologist performed complete necropsies, with particular attention to identifying any remaining ovarian tissue.

RESULTS

All birds survived the procedure. For the mature and juvenile birds, the mean ± SD durations of anesthesia (interval from intubation to extubation) were 67.2 ± 7.6 minutes and 50.5 ± 5.1 minutes, respectively, and mean durations of surgery were 45.3 ± 8.5 minutes and 31.6 ± 5.1 minutes, respectively. Three birds had severe hemorrhage during ovariectomy. At necropsy, ovarian tissue was present grossly in 2 mature birds and histologically in 6 additional birds (2 mature and 4 juvenile birds), indicating incomplete excision in 8 (40%) birds.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that the evaluated VTSD can be used to successfully perform ovariectomies in both juvenile and mature chickens, although the procedure was associated with major hemorrhage and incomplete excision of ovarian tissue in some cases. Use of this VTSD for ovariectomy in birds of other species, particularly birds with reproductive tract disease, should be investigated.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effect of a continuous locking novel epitendinous suture (nES) pattern with and without a core locking-loop (LL) suture on the biomechanical properties of ex vivo canine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) tenorrhaphy constructs.

SAMPLE

54 cadaveric forelimb SDFTs from 27 musculoskeletally normal adult dogs.

PROCEDURES

Tendons were assigned to 3 groups (18 SDFTs/group): sharply transected and repaired with a core LL suture alone (group 1), an nES pattern alone (group 2), or a combination of a core LL suture and nES pattern (group 3). All constructs underwent a single load-to-failure test. Yield, peak, and failure loads; gap formation incidence; and mode of failure were compared among the 3 groups.

RESULTS

Mean yield, peak, and failure loads differed significantly among the 3 groups and were greatest for group 3 and lowest for group 1. Mean yield, peak, and failure loads for group 3 constructs were greater than those for group 1 constructs by 50%, 47%, and 44%, respectively. None of the group 3 constructs developed 3-mm gaps. The most common mode of failure was suture pulling through the tendon for groups 1 (12/18) and 2 (12/18) and suture breakage for group 3 (13/18).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested augmentation of a core LL suture with an nES pattern significantly increased the strength of and prevented 3-mm gap formation at the tenorrhaphy site in ex vivo canine SDFTs. In vivo studies are necessary to assess the effectiveness and practicality of the nES pattern for SDFT repair in dogs.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare intraoperative and short-term postoperative variables pertaining to laparoscopic ovariectomy (LapOVE) and open ovariectomy (OVE) in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

ANIMALS

Twelve 4− to 5-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits.

PROCEDURES

Rabbits were randomly assigned to undergo LapOVE (n = 6) or OVE (6), with a vessel-sealing device used to seal and transect the ovarian pedicles. Laparoscopic ovariectomy was performed with a 3-port approach. Variables were measured during surgery (surgery and anesthesia times and incision lengths) and for up to 7 days after surgery (food consumption, feces production, body weight, vital parameters, blood glucose and cortisol concentrations, abdominal palpation findings, facial grimace scale scores, and ethograms).

RESULTS

Mean surgery (43.2 vs 21.7 minutes) and anesthesia (76.2 vs 48.8 minutes) times were longer and mean incision length was shorter (24.0 vs 41.5 mm) for LapOVE versus OVE. No significant differences in postoperative variables were identified between groups. During LapOVE, small intestinal perforation occurred in 1 rabbit, which was then euthanized. Postoperative complications for the remaining rabbits included superficial incisional dehiscence (LapOVE, 1/5; OVE, 2/6), subcutaneous emphysema (LapOVE, 1/5; OVE, 0/6), and seroma formation (LapOVE, 1/5; OVE, 0/6).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Surgery time for LapOVE was twice that of OVE, and LapOVE resulted in unique complications in rabbits. No evidence of a reduction in pain or faster return to baseline physiologic status was found for LapOVE. Further evaluation of LapOVE in rabbits is warranted, with modification to techniques used in this study or a larger sample size.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether jejunal serosal patches could securely seal large, open defects in duodenal segments harvested from canine cadavers and to compare intraluminal pressures at which leakage first occurred and maximal intraluminal pressures for repaired duodenal segments between 2 suture patterns.

SAMPLE

Duodenal and jejunal segments from 9 canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES

20 constructs were created through repair of large, open duodenal defects with circumferential suturing of an intact jejunal segment (jejunal serosal patch). Constructs were randomly assigned to have the serosal patch anastomosed to the duodenal segment by a simple continuous or simple interrupted suture pattern. The pressure at which the first leakage was observed and the maximum pressure obtained during testing were recorded and compared between suture patterns.

RESULTS

Initial leakage pressure was significantly higher with the simple interrupted pattern (mean ± SD, 68.89 ± 5.62 mm Hg), compared with the simple continuous pattern (59.8 ± 20.03 mm Hg). Maximum intraluminal pressures did not significantly differ between the simple interrupted (91 ± 8.27 mm Hg) and simple continuous patterns (90.7 ± 16.91 mm Hg). All constructs, regardless of suture pattern, withstood supraphysiologic pressures.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Jejunal serosal patches adequately sealed large, open duodenal defects and prevented leakage in these constructs. Constructs with simple continuous or simple interrupted suture patterns withstood physiologic and supraphysiologic intraluminal pressures, although constructs with a simple interrupted suture pattern initially leaked at higher pressures. (Am J Vet Res 2020;81:985–991)

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the degree of histomorphometric damage in dorsal colon and pelvic flexure biopsy specimens (DCBSs and PFBSs, respectively) obtained from horses with large colon volvulus (LCV) and assess the accuracy of predicting short-term outcome for those horses on the basis of DCBS or PFBS characteristics.

ANIMALS

18 horses with ≥ 360° LCV that underwent large colon resection.

PROCEDURES

During surgery, biopsy specimens from the dorsal colon resection site and the pelvic flexure (when available) were collected from each horse. Interstitial-to-crypt (I:C) ratio (ratio of the lamina propria space occupied by the interstitium to that occupied by crypts), hemorrhage within the lamina propria (mucosal hemorrhage score [MHS] from 0 to 4), and percentage losses of glandular and luminal epithelium were determined in paired biopsy specimens and compared to determine optimal cutoff values for calculating the accuracy of DCBS and PFBS characteristics to predict short-term outcome (survival or nonsurvival after recovery from surgery).

RESULTS

Paired biopsy specimens were obtained from 17 of the 18 horses. The I:C ratio and percentage glandular epithelial loss differed between DCBSs and PFBSs. For DCBSs, an I:C ratio ≥ 0.9 and MHS ≥ 3 each predicted patient nonsurvival with 77.8% accuracy. For PFBSs, an I:C ratio ≥ I and MHS ≥ 3 predicted patient nonsurvival with 70.6% and 82.4% accuracy, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although different, histomorphometric measurements for either DCBSs or PFBSs could be used to accurately predict short-term outcome for horses with LCV that underwent large colon resection, and arguably PFBSs are easier to collect.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare initial leak pressure (ILP) between cadaveric canine and synthetic small intestinal segments that did and did not undergo enterotomy.

SAMPLE

Eight 8-cm grossly normal jejunal segments from 1 canine cadaver and eight 8-cm synthetic small intestinal segments.

PROCEDURES

Intestinal segments were randomly assigned to undergo enterotomy (6 cadaveric and 6 synthetic segments) or serve as untreated controls (2 cadaveric and 2 synthetic segments). For segments designated for enterotomy, a 2-cm full-thickness incision was created along the antimesenteric border. The incision was closed in a single layer with 4-0 suture in a simple continuous pattern. Leak testing was performed with intestinal segments occluded at both ends and infused with dilute dye solution (999 mL/h) until the solution was observed leaking from the suture line or serosal tearing occurred. Intraluminal pressure was continuously monitored. The ILP at construct failure was compared between cadaveric and synthetic control segments and between cadaveric and synthetic enterotomy segments.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD ILP did not differ significantly between cadaveric (345.11 ± 2.15 mm Hg) and synthetic (329.04 ± 24.69 mm Hg) control segments but was significantly greater for cadaveric enterotomy segments (60.77 ± 15.81 mm Hg), compared with synthetic enterotomy segments (15.03 ± 6.41 mm Hg).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Leak testing should not be used to assess the accuracy or security of enterotomy suture lines in synthetic intestinal tissue. Synthetic intestinal tissue is best used for students to gain confidence and proficiency in performing enterotomies before performing the procedure on live animals.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research