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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the prevalence of postoperative bacteriuria, clinical course of subclinical bacteriuria in the absence of antimicrobial intervention, clinical signs of bacteriuria that trigger antimicrobial treatment, and outcomes for dogs with subclinical bacteriuria following surgical decompression of acute intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH) Hansen type I.

ANIMALS

Twenty client-owned dogs undergoing hemilaminectomy for acute (≤ 6 days) IVDH Hansen type I affecting the thoracolumbar spinal cord segments between August 2018 and January 2019.

PROCEDURES

In this prospective study, dogs were serially evaluated at presentation, hospital discharge, 2 weeks postoperatively, and between 4 and 6 weeks postoperatively. Dogs were monitored for clinical signs of bacteriuria, underwent laboratory monitoring (CBC, biochemical analyses, urinalysis, urine bacterial culture), and were scored for neurologic and urinary status. In the absence of clinical signs, bacteriuria was not treated with antimicrobials.

RESULTS

Four of the 18 dogs developed bacteriuria without clinical signs 4 days to 4 to 6 weeks after surgery. In all 4 dogs, bacteriuria resulted in lower urinary tract signs 13 to 26 weeks postoperatively. No dogs had evidence of systemic illness despite delaying antimicrobial treatment until clinical signs developed. New-onset incontinence was the only clinical sign in 3 dogs. All bacterial isolates had wide antimicrobial susceptibility. Bacteriuria and clinical signs resolved with beta-lactam antimicrobial treatment.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Postoperative bacteriuria occurs in some dogs with IVDH Hansen type I and, when present, may lead to clinical signs over time. Clinical signs of bacteriuria may be limited to new-onset urinary incontinence, inappropriate urination, or both. Delaying antimicrobial treatment until clinical signs of bacteriuria developed did not result in adverse consequences or systemic illness.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To establish reference intervals for radial joint orientation angles in the frontal and sagittal planes in small-breed dogs and to compare them to those previously reported for medium- and large-breed dogs.

ANIMALS

Antebrachii of 30 skeletally mature, nonchondrodystrophic small-breed dogs were evaluated radiographically.

PROCEDURES

Orthogonal radiographs were retrospectively assessed to determine the anatomic medial proximal radial angle, anatomic lateral distal radial angle, anatomic cranial proximal radial angle (aCrPRA), and anatomic caudal distal radial angle (aCdDRA). The frontal plane angle, θ angle, and procurvatum were also calculated. The radial joint orientation angles determined were compared to those previously reported for medium- and large-breed dogs via a 1-sample t test.

RESULTS

Mean and SD values for anatomic medial proximal radial angle, anatomic lateral distal radial angle, aCrPRA, and aCdDRA were 80.86 ± 2.86°, 85.60 ± 1.74°, 87.99 ± 2.79°, and 83.08 ± 3.14°, respectively. The mean and SDs for frontal plane angle, θ angle, and procurvatum were 4.75 ± 2.46°, 11.88 ± 1.76°, and 16.79 ± 4.13°, respectively. aCrPRA and aCdDRA were significantly different when compared to previously reported radial joint angles for medium- and large-breed dogs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Reference intervals for small-breed dog radial joint orientation angles were reported. Significant differences were identified for some joint orientation angles when compared to medium- and large-breed dogs. This small-breed reference interval reported can be utilized in planning of radial angular limb deformity corrective surgery, particularly when dogs are bilaterally affected.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare spinal cord-to-vertebral canal area ratios measured with CT between the cervical and thoracolumbar regions in French Bulldogs.

ANIMALS

37 French Bulldogs presented to a referral hospital between 2016 and 2019.

PROCEDURES

The study was conducted as a retrospective observational study. Exclusion criteria were evidence of vertebral malformations or spinal cord compression at the sites where measurements were obtained and the presence of cervicothoracic or thoracolumbar transitional vertebrae or neurologic deficits. CT images were reviewed, and measurements were performed by 2 investigators. Measurements of the spinal cord and vertebral canal were made at the level of or immediately cranial to the midbodies of C5 and L1.

RESULTS

A 2-tailed, paired t test indicated that the mean spinal cord-to-vertebral canal area ratio differed significantly (P < .01) between C5 (0.726) and L1 (0.605). The ratio was lower in the thoracolumbar region, suggesting that the vertebral canal was relatively larger in this region.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The epidural space did not appear to be larger in the cervical than in the thoracolumbar region in this population of French Bulldogs, contrary to previous reports. The reason for the more severe deficits observed with thoracolumbar disk extrusion in this breed remains to be characterized.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of veterinary personnel and pet owners regarding ticks and tick-borne diseases in Alaska and to conduct a serosurvey for tick-borne disease pathogens among domestic animals visiting veterinary clinics for preventative care.

Sample

Across 8 veterinary clinics, we sampled 31 veterinary personnel, 81 pet owners, 102 client-owned dogs, and 1 client-owned cat.

Procedures

Information on KAP among veterinary staff and pet owners was collected via self-administered questionnaires. Tick and tick-borne disease prevalence were assessed via tick checks and benchtop ELISA antibody tests detecting Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Erlichia canis, Erlichia ewingii, and Borrelia burgdorferi.

Results

The veterinary personnel KAP survey showed a low average knowledge score (53.5%) but a moderate attitude score (71.7%). In contrast, owner average knowledge score was higher (67.5%) and attitude score was comparatively low (50.6%). Both veterinary personnel and owners had low average practice scores (64.5% and 56.3%, respectively). One dog was positive for anaplasmosis (unknown species) antibody, and 1 dog was positive for B burgdorferi antibody. No ticks were found during the study.

Clinical Relevance

This study was the first of its kind in the state and indicated a low prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the domestic pet population and highlighted significant knowledge gaps that could be targeted by public health efforts. Our results suggest the value of a One Health approach and of the veterinary-client relationship to address ticks and tick-borne diseases.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the prevalence of bronchial wall thickening (BWT) and collapse in brachycephalic dogs with and without brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome (BOAS) and in nonbrachycephalic dogs.

ANIMALS

85 dogs with no history of lower respiratory tract disease that underwent CT of the thorax.

PROCEDURES

Electronical medical records for March 2011 through August 2019 were reviewed to identify brachycephalic dogs with BOAS (BOAS group) and brachycephalic dogs without BOAS (BDWB group) that did not have any evidence of lower respiratory tract disease and had undergone thoracic CT. A population of nonbrachycephalic dogs of similar weight (control dogs) was also retrospectively recruited.

RESULTS

BWT was identified in 28 of 30 (93.3%; 95% CI, 80.3% to 98.6%) dogs in the BOAS group, 15 of 26 (57.7%; 95% CI, 38.7% to 75.0%) dogs in the BDWB group, and 10 of 28 (35.7%; 95% CI, 20.1% to 54.2%) control dogs. On multivariable analysis, only brachycephalic conformation (P < 0.01) and body weight (P = 0.02) were significantly associated with the presence of BWT. Bronchial collapse was identified in 17 of 30 (56.7%; 95% CI, 39.0% to 73.1%) dogs in the BOAS group, 17 of 26 (65.4%; 95% CI, 46.3% to 81.3%) dogs in the BDWB group, and 3 of 28 (10.7%; 95% CI, 3.1% to 25.9%) control dogs. On multivariable analysis, only brachycephalic conformation was significantly (P < 0.01) associated with the presence of bronchial collapse.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A relationship between brachycephalic conformation and body weight with BWT was established, with heavier dogs having thicker bronchial walls. However, further studies are required to investigate the cause. Bronchial collapse was also more common in dogs with brachycephalic conformation, which is in agreement with the previously published literature.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe veterinarians’ communication of the companion animal physical exam (CAPE) to veterinary clients and to identify factors associated with the number of physical exam components communicated by veterinarians to clients.

SAMPLE

376 video-recorded veterinarian-client-patient interactions, involving 60 veterinarians.

PROCEDURES

18 CAPE components were studied in relation to veterinarians’ use of 7 communication-related parameters. A mixed linear regression model was used to assess veterinarian, patient, and appointment factors associated with the number of components conveyed by a veterinarian.

RESULTS

Veterinarians conveyed 1,566 of 2,794 (56.1%) of the components that they examined to clients, as having been examined. Of those components that were examined and conveyed by veterinarians, the impact of the finding was communicated for 496 of 1,566 (31.7%) of the components. Visual aids and take-home literature were each used in relation to an examined component during 15 of the 376 interactions (4%). A significant association was found between number of CAPE components conveyed and gender of the veterinarian (females conveyed 1.31 more), as well as the type of appointment (2.57 more were conveyed in wellness appointments and 1.37 more in problem appointments, compared to rechecks).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Findings identify an opportunity for veterinarians to further emphasize components of the CAPE, which may in turn increase clients’ perceived value of the CAPE due to understanding the benefits for their pet. This may be accomplished with the Talking Physical Exam, in which veterinarians discuss CAPE components findings with clients in real time, and the relevance of the findings to the patient’s health.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the indications for, complications of, and surgical outcomes of dogs and cats that were treated with double limb amputations.

ANIMALS

14 dogs and 4 cats that underwent double limb amputations.

PROCEDURES

Data collected retrospectively included patient-specific (species, age, weight, breed, sex, existing comorbidities) and amputation-specific (indication for amputation, full or partial limb amputation, associated complications, need for revision surgeries) variables. Owner satisfaction scores were also collected.

RESULTS

The most common indication for double amputations was trauma (12/18) patients. Eleven patients had both amputations performed simultaneously. Nine patients had double partial limb amputations versus full limb amputations. Twelve patients underwent bilateral pelvic limb amputations, 4 underwent bilateral thoracic limb amputations, and 2 had 1 pelvic and 1 contralateral thoracic limb amputated. Five patients had reported complications over the course of the follow-up period, and complications for 3 patients were considered major. Revision surgery was reported for 2 animals. Owner satisfaction scores were reported as very satisfied/excellent (14/18), mildly satisfied (3/18), and strongly dissatisfied (1/18). Median time to follow-up was 450 days (range, 85 to 4,380 days).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Double limb amputation may be a viable alternative to advanced limb-sparing procedures or humane euthanasia based on the owner satisfaction data and the relatively low rate of major complications in this study. Future studies should clarify patient selection criteria and differences in function between surgical types.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate dogs and cats undergoing total ear canal ablation with lateral bulla osteotomy (TECA-LBO), document antimicrobial choices, and determine relationships associated with infection-related and neurologic postoperative complications.

ANIMALS

107 client-owned dogs and 13 client-owned cats that underwent TECA-LBO.

PROCEDURES

A retrospective analysis of medicals records of dogs and cats with TECA-LBO from 2 veterinary hospitals with postoperative data for at least 6 months was performed. All information associated with the TECA-LBO surgery including follow-up was recorded. Logistic regression analyses were performed and corrected using a false discovery rate to identify significance between antimicrobial administration and other perioperative variables and the outcomes of short- and long-term neurologic and infection-related complications, need for revision surgery, and euthanasia due to recurrence of infection-related signs.

RESULTS

Intraoperative cultures were performed in 111 animals, and 95 (85.5%) had bacterial growth, with Staphylococcus spp most commonly isolated. Revision surgeries due to infection-related signs occurred in 13 of 120 (10.8%) patients. If intraoperative bacterial cultures were positive and antimicrobials were administered within 1 month of surgery, patients were 85.8% less likely to exhibit infection-related complications, whereas patients not administered antimicrobials were 10.3 times as likely to require a revision surgery. Longer durations of postoperative antimicrobial administration were associated with revision surgery and euthanasia due to infection-related signs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Administration of systemic antimicrobials within the first postoperative month may be necessary to prevent complications when intraoperative cultures exhibit bacterial growth and plays a role in the successful outcome of TECA-LBO.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether a single dose of trazodone administered to dogs before a veterinary visit reduced their behavioral and physiologic signs of stress and owners’ stress during veterinary visits.

SAMPLE

20 dogs and their owners.

PROCEDURES

In this randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial, dogs with a history of anxiety during veterinary visits were scheduled for 2 veterinary visits 1 week apart and randomly assigned to receive a single oral dose of either trazodone (9 to 12 mg/kg) or a placebo 90 minutes before transport to the veterinary clinic for alternate visits between September 21 and November 3, 2019. For each visit, we collected and assessed owner-completed surveys of dog stress score (DSS) and owner stress score; various investigator-reported scores, including from video-recorded behavior analyses; and patient-related physiologic data.

RESULTS

Dogs treated with trazodone versus placebo had lower mean DSSs, assessed by owners for physical examination and assessed by video analysis for time spent in the examination room; lower mean SD of normal-to-normal intervals, root mean square of successive heartbeat interval difference, and respiratory rate; and higher mean heart rate. No meaningful differences were observed in other behavioral or physiologic outcomes, including serum cortisol concentrations.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A single dose of trazodone before transport reduced signs of stress during veterinary visits for dogs in the present study and may be useful as an anti-anxiety medication for similarly affected dogs, potentially resulting in higher-quality clinical examinations and improved patient welfare.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Doses of buffered tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) up to 1000 mg/L for 15 minutes are reported inefficient to produce euthanasia in goldfish. The goal of this study was to determine if goldfish can be euthanized by more prolonged immersion in MS-222.

ANIMALS

24 healthy goldfish (weight range: 1 to 10 g) were randomly assigned to 4 groups of 6 fish.

PROCEDURES

The first group (G1) was exposed to 500 mg/L buffered MS-222 for 15 minutes then placed in freshwater for 3 hours. The second (G2) and third groups (G3) were exposed to 1000 mg/L of buffered MS-222 for 15 minutes then placed in freshwater for 3 hours and 18 hours respectively. The fourth group (G4) was exposed to 1000 mg/L of buffered MS-222 for 60 minutes then placed in freshwater for 3 hours. Time to cessation and return of operculation were recorded. If the goldfish did not resume operculation, heart rate was evaluated by Doppler ultrasonic flow detector.

RESULTS

Median times to apnea were 35 seconds at 1000 mg/L and 65 seconds at 500 mg/L. Re-operculation occurred only in G1 in 5 out of 6 individuals. All fish from G1, 3 fish from G2, 0 fish from G3, 1 fish from G4 had remaining heartbeats at the end of the observation period.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Overall, a dose of 1000 mg/L of buffered MS-222 for 15 minutes was efficient to euthanize juvenile goldfish at 20 °C. Different fish body mass and water quality parameters might explain different results compared to previous studies.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association