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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate associations between weather conditions and management factors with the incidence of death attributable to bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in high-risk auction-sourced beef calves.

ANIMALS

Cohorts (n = 3,339) of male beef calves (545,866) purchased by 1 large cattle feeding operation from 216 locations and transported to 1 of 89 feeding locations (backgrounding location or feedlot) with similar management protocols.

PROCEDURES

Associations between weather conditions and management factors on the day of purchase (day P) and during the first week at the feeding location and cumulative BRDC mortality incidence within the first 60 days on feed were estimated in a mixed-effects negative binomial regression model.

RESULTS

Significant factors in the final model were weaning status; degree of com-mingling; body weight; transport distance; season; precipitation, mean wind speed, and maximum environmental temperature on day P; environmental temperature range in the first week after arrival at the feeding location; and interactions between distance and wind speed and between body weight and maximum environmental temperature. Precipitation and wind speed on day P were associated with lower cumulative BRDC mortality incidence, but wind speed was associated only among calves transported long distances (≥ 1,082.4 km). Higher mean maximum temperature on day P increased the incidence of cumulative mortality among calves with low body weights (< 275.5 kg).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Several weather conditions on day P and during the first week after arrival were associated with incidence of BRDC mortality. The results may have implications for health- and economic-risk management, especially for high-risk calves and calves that are transported long distances.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify associations between microbes and host genes in cats with feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS), a debilitating inflammatory oral mucosal disease with no known cause, compared with healthy cats and cats with periodontitis (control cats).

ANIMALS

19 control cats and 23 cats with FCGS.

PROCEDURES

At least 1 caudal oral mucosal swab specimen was obtained from each cat. Each specimen underwent unbiased metatranscriptomic next-generation RNA sequencing (mNGS). Filtered mNGS reads were aligned to all known genetic sequences from all organisms and to the cat transcriptome. The relative abundances of microbial and host gene read alignments were compared between FCGS-affected cats and control cats and between FCGS-affected cats that did and did not clinically respond to primary treatment. Assembled feline calicivirus (FCV) genomes were compared with reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) primers commonly used to identify FCV.

RESULTS

The only microbe strongly associated with FCGS was FCV, which was detected in 21 of 23 FCGS-affected cats but no control cats. Problematic base pair mismatches were identified between the assembled FCV genomes and RT-PCR primers. Puma feline foamy virus was detected in 9 of 13 FCGS-affected cats that were refractory to treatment and 5 healthy cats but was not detected in FCGS-affected cats that responded to tooth extractions. The most differentially expressed genes in FCGS-affected cats were those associated with antiviral activity.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that FCGS pathogenesis has a viral component. Many FCV strains may yield false-negative results on RT-PCR-based assays. Coinfection of FCGS-affected cats with FCV and puma feline foamy virus may adversely affect response to treatment.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare pregnancy-associated glycoprotein 1 (PAG1) concentrations in maternal (jugular vein) and fetal (uterine vein) circulations and amniotic fluid samples between pregnant ewes that were and were not experimentally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV).

ANIMALS

11 healthy pregnant yearling ewes.

PROCEDURES

Before study initiation, all ewes were naïve to BVDV and confirmed pregnant by transabdominal ultrasonography at approximately 60 days of gestation. At 65 days of gestation, ewes were intranasally inoculated with a noncytopathic BVDV type 1b strain (concentration, 107 TCID50/mL; 2 mL/nostril; n = 6) or an equal volume of BVDV-free viral culture medium (control; 5). A blood sample was collected for measurement of PAG1 concentration before inoculation. At 80 days of gestation, each ewe was anesthetized and underwent an ovariohysterectomy. While sheep were anesthetized, blood samples from the jugular and uterine veins and an amniotic fluid sample were collected for measurement of PAG1 concentration. Fetal tissues underwent real-time PCR analysis for BVDV RNA, and placental specimens underwent histologic evaluation and immunohistochemical staining for BVDV antigen.

RESULTS

At 80 days of gestation, BVDV RNA in fetal tissues and mild placentitis were detected in 5 of 6 BVDV-inoculated ewes. Mean PAG1 concentrations in the maternal and fetal circulations of BVDV-inoculated ewes were significantly less than those in control ewes. Mean amniotic fluid PAG1 concentration did not differ significantly between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Concentration of PAG1 in the maternal circulation may be a useful biomarker for determining placental health in sheep after viral infection of the reproductive tract.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the performance of 5 synthetic peptide–based ELISAs with that of 3 commercially available immunofluorescent assays (IFAs) for serologic diagnosis of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in dogs.

SAMPLE

A convenience set of 109 serum samples obtained before and at various times after inoculation for 23 dogs that were experimentally infected with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, or Ehrlichia ewingii and 1 uninfected control dog in previous studies.

PROCEDURES

All serum samples were assessed with 5 synthetic peptide–based ELISAs designed to detect antibodies against A phagocytophilum, A platys, E canis, E chaffeensis, and E ewingii and 3 whole organism–based IFAs designed to detect antibodies against A phagocytophilum, E canis, and E chaffeensis. The species-specific seroreactivity, cross-reactivity with the other tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each assay and compared among assays.

RESULTS

All serum samples obtained from dogs experimentally infected with a TBP yielded positive results on a serologic assay specific for that pathogen. In general, sensitivity was comparable between ELISAs and IFAs and tended to increase with duration after inoculation. Compared with the IFAs, the corresponding ELISAs were highly specific and rarely cross-reacted with antibodies against other TBPs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that peptide-based ELISAs had enhanced specificity relative to whole organism–based IFAs for detection of antibodies against Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp, which should facilitate accurate diagnosis and may help detect dogs coinfected with multiple TBPs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether exposure to UV germicidal irradiation (UVGI) reduces concentrations of viable aerosolized microorganisms (attenuated strains of common veterinary pathogens) in a simulated heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system.

SAMPLE

42 air samples seeded with bacteriophage MS2 or attenuated strains of Bordetella bronchiseptica, feline calicivirus, feline herpesvirus-1, canine parvovirus, or canine distemper virus (6/microorganism) or with no microorganisms added (6).

PROCEDURES

A simulated HVAC unit was built that included a nebulizer to aerosolize microorganisms suspended in phosphate-buffered water, a fan to produce airflow, 2 UVGI bulb systems, and an impinger for air sampling. Ten-minute trials (3 with UVGI, 3 without UVGI, and 1 negative control) were conducted for each microorganism. Impingers collected microorganisms into phosphate-buffered water for subsequent quantification with culture-based assays. Results for samples yielding no target microorganisms were recorded as the assay's lower limit of detection. Statistical analysis was not performed.

RESULTS

The UVGI treatment resulted in subjectively lower concentrations of viable MS2, B bronchiseptica, and canine distemper virus (arithmetic mean ± SD log10 microorganism reduction, 2.57 ± 0.47, ≥ 3.45 ± 0.24, and ≥ 1.50 ± 0.25, respectively) collected from air. Feline herpesvirus-1 was detected in only 1 sample without and no samples with UVGI treatment. Feline calicivirus and canine parvovirus were not detectable in any collected samples.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results for some surrogates of veterinary pathogens suggested a potential benefit to supplementing manual disinfection practices with UVGI-based air cleaning systems in animal care environments. Further research is needed to investigate the utility of UVGI in operating HVAC systems.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine oxytetracycline concentrations in plasma and in fluid from Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (CPT)-inoculated tissue chambers (used as experimental abscess models) and uninoculated (control) tissue chambers in sheep after IM or local administration of the drug and to investigate whether CPT growth was reduced or eliminated by these treatments.

ANIMALS

10 clinically normal female sheep.

PROCEDURES

Sterile tissue chambers were surgically implanted in both paralumbar fossae of each sheep; ≥ 2 weeks later (day −6), 1 randomly selected chamber was inoculated with CPT, and the opposite chamber was injected with sterile growth medium. Sheep received oxytetracycline IM (n = 5) or by percutaneous injection into CPT-inoculated (4) or uninoculated (1) chambers on day 0. Tissue fluid from each chamber and venous blood samples for plasma collection were obtained at predetermined times over 6 days for bacterial counts (tissue chambers) and analysis of oxytetracycline concentrations (tissue chambers and plasma). Sheep were euthanized on day 6. Regional lymph nodes were collected bilaterally from each sheep for culture.

RESULTS

Measurable concentrations of oxytetracycline were present in each chamber throughout the study, regardless of administration route or presence of CPT. No CPT growth was detected after the 48-hour time point in inoculated chambers injected with oxytetracycline; however, CPT was isolated from all inoculated chambers throughout the study after IM drug administration. One regional lymph node (ipsilateral to a CPT-inoculated, oxytetracycline-injected chamber with no CPT growth after 48 hours) was culture positive for CPT.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Intralesional administration of oxytetracycline may eliminate growth of CPT locally, but complete elimination of the organism remains difficult.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the effects of orally administered raltegravir in cats with experimentally induced ocular and respiratory feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) infection.

ANIMALS

14 healthy 6-month-old unvaccinated specific pathogen–free cats.

PROCEDURES

On day 0, all cats were experimentally inoculated by topical application of 0.1 mL of a solution containing 106 plaque-forming units of FHV-1 strain FH2CS to the inferior conjunctival fornix of each eye. Cats were randomly assigned to receive either raltegravir (80 mg; n = 7) or lactose (250 mg; vehicle; 7), PO, every 12 hours for 14 days beginning on day 1. Cats were assigned clinical ocular and respiratory disease scores every other day from days 0 to 30. Conjunctival swab specimens were collected for detection of FHV-1 by virus isolation and real-time PCR assay at 3-day intervals from days 0 to 30. Confocal microscopy was performed on days 0 and 10 to assess corneal epithelial leukocyte infiltration. The assessed variables and duration of FHV-1 shedding were compared between the 2 treatment groups.

RESULTS

Cats in both groups developed moderate to severe conjunctivitis and ulcerative keratitis characteristic of FHV-1 infection. Median duration of FHV-1 shedding was shorter and signs of ocular and respiratory disease were less severe for raltegravir-treated cats than for vehicle-treated cats. However, the mean conjunctival FHV-1 titer and corneal epithelial leukocyte count did not differ between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested orally administered raltegravir might be effective for alleviation of ocular and respiratory signs of FHV-1 infection in cats. (Am J Vet Res 2019;80:490–497)

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine whether Mycobacterium bovis remains viable in ensiled forages.

SAMPLE Alfalfa, mixed mostly grass, and corn silages.

PROCEDURES For each of 10 sampling days, six 250-g replicate samples of each feedstuff were created and placed in a film pouch that could be vacuum sealed to simulate the ensiling process. Within each set of replicate samples, 4 were inoculated with 10 mL of mycobacterial liquid culture medium containing viable M bovis and 2 were inoculated with 10 mL of sterile mycobacterial liquid culture medium (controls) on day 0. Pouches were vacuum sealed and stored in the dark at room temperature. On the designated sampling day, 1 control pouch was submitted for forage analysis, and the other pouches were opened, and forage samples were obtained for M bovis culture and analysis with a PCR assay immediately and 24 hours later.

RESULTS None of the control samples had positive M bovis culture or PCR assay results. Among M bovis-inoculated samples, the organism was not cultured from alfalfa and corn silage for > 2 days but was cultured from mixed mostly grass silage for 28 days after inoculation and ensiling initiation. Mycobacterium bovis DNA was detected by PCR assay in samples of all 3 feedstuffs throughout the 112-day observation period.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that properly ensiled forages would be an unlikely source for M bovis transmission to cattle. Further research is necessary to determine whether ensiling kills M bovis or forces it to become dormant and, if the latter, elucidate the conditions that cause it to revert to an infectious state.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the extent of environmental exposure to heteroxenous coccidia from wild canid feces in southeastern Ohio.

SAMPLE 285 presumed wild canid fecal samples collected across an ecological system in southeastern Ohio.

PROCEDURES Morphological classification and molecular analysis were used to determine the canid genus for collected fecal samples. Microscopic and molecular analysis were used to detect coccidian oocysts and DNA. Several variables were analyzed for associations with coccidian DNA detection or prevalence.

RESULTS Coccidian DNA was detected in 51 of 285 (17.9%) fecal samples. Of those positive samples, 1% (95% confidence interval, 0.4% to 3%) had positive results for Hammondia heydorni and none had positive results for Neospora caninum, for an estimated environmental N caninum prevalence of 0% (95% confidence interval, 0% to 7%)/1-km2 hexagonal area evaluated. Morphological classification revealed that 78.9% (225/285) of fecal samples were from coyotes and 17.2% (49/285) were from foxes. No difference in proportions of coccidian DNA-positive fecal samples was identified among canid species. Environmental temperature and fecal freshness were associated with coccidian DNA detection. Land use type, relative canid density, and cattle density were not associated with the prevalence of coccidian DNA-positive samples.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The low prevalence of coccidia shed in wild canid feces in this study, including the estimated 0% environmental prevalence of N caninum, suggested that the role of the oocyst environmental phase in coccidia transmission to ruminants is likely minor in rural southeastern Ohio.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate colonization of Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus parasuis on pig farms in Japan and to identify sources of infections.

SAMPLE Saliva, feces, and vaginal swab samples from 84 healthy pigs of several growth stages on 4 farms and swab samples of feed troughs and water dispensers at those farms.

PROCEDURES Samples were collected from August 2015 to June 2016. Two quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays (one for S suis and the other for S parasuis) were designed for use in the study. The novel qPCR assays were used in combination with previously described qPCR assays for S suis serotype 2 or 1/2 and total bacteria. Relative abundance of bacteria in each sample was evaluated.

RESULTS Streptococcus suis was detected in all saliva samples and some of the other samples, whereas S parasuis was not detected in any of the samples, including saliva samples, which indicated a difference in colonization preference. The ratio of S suis to total bacteria in saliva appeared to increase with age of pigs. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 or 1/2 was detected in a few saliva samples and feed trough swab samples at 2 farms where S suis infections were prevalent.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Saliva, especially that of sows, appeared to be a reservoir and source of S suis infection for pigs. The qPCR assay described here may provide an effective way to monitor for S suis in live pigs, which could lead to effective disease control on pig farms.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research