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Introduction

A 17-year-old 4.59-kg castrated male domestic medium-hair cat was presented for a recheck cardiac evaluation of previously diagnosed second-degree atrioventricular (2° AV) block (atropine responsive) and idiopathic systemic hypertension (well controlled with amlodipine, 1.25 mg, PO, q 24 h). An arrhythmia was auscultated on physical examination, and echocardiography revealed mild hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with no evidence of chamber enlargement. Six-lead ECG was performed (Figure 1).

Six-lead ECG tracing obtained from a 17-year-old 4.59-kg castrated male domestic medium-hair cat with a history of second-degree atrioventricular (2° AV) block, showing an underlying sinus rhythm rate of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 26-year-old 290-g female Timneh African grey parrot (Psittacus timneh) was presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for CT as part of radiation planning for treatment of a right periocular mass, suspected to be a squamous cell carcinoma.

On initial evaluation, the bird was bright, alert, and responsive and had a body condition score of 2/9. On physical examination, there was severe periocular swelling around the right eye causing the palpebral fissure to be held shut. Thoracic auscultation was performed with a neonatal stethoscope with the diaphragm placed directly over the keel of the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 7-year-old 6.6-kg castrated male domestic shorthair cat was presented to the emergency service at a veterinary medical teaching hospital following a sudden onset of episodes of stumbling and disorientation. On physical examination, the cat was bright, alert, and responsive. The heart rate was 220 beats/min, and the heart rhythm was regular on auscultation. The remainder of the cardiac auscultation findings were variable among veterinarians, and a gallop sound and a grade 2/6 parasternal murmur were intermittently reported. Femoral pulses were strong and synchronous with the heartbeat. The lung sounds were clear bilaterally and the cat was eupneic. Results

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

An 11-year-old 20.1-kg castrated male Bulldog was referred to a veterinary medical teaching hospital because of 4 episodes of collapse in the preceding 2 months. On initial evaluation with the referring veterinarian, the results of a CBC, serum biochemical analysis, and assessment of serum total thyroxine concentration were unremarkable. Thoracic radiography raised concerns for a widened cranial mediastinum and suspected heart base mass.

At the referral evaluation, the dog was bright and alert. Its heart rate was 108 beats/min with a regular rhythm; a heart murmur was not auscultated. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a large (approx 6 X 4.5-cm), well-encapsulated

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 6-month-old 3.64-kg sexually intact female domestic shorthair cat was presented for ovariohysterectomy. On physical examination, the cat’s heart rate was 172 beats/min with no detectable murmur or arrhythmia. The cat was premedicated with hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg, IV) and acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg, IV). The cat was given oxygen for several minutes prior to the induction of anesthesia, which was achieved with isoflurane delivered by a mask. The cat was intubated, and anesthesia was maintained by inhalation of isoflurane and oxygen. Approximately 30 minutes later, an irregular rhythm was noted (Figure 1). At this time, the cat’s systolic blood

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 13-year-old 6.1-kg neutered female Lhasa Apso was referred to a veterinary teaching hospital for investigation of dyspnea and episodes of syncope over the preceding 7 days. The patient’s history included weight loss, inappetence, coughing, and fatigue of 3 months’ duration. The referring veterinarian had previously made a diagnosis of stage D myxomatous mitral valve disease, and the dog had been treated with furosemide, benazepril, spironolactone, pimobendan, and sildenafil for 1 year. Physical examination of the dog revealed a respiratory rate of 60 breaths/min, heart rate of 120 beats/min, systolic blood pressure of 110 mm Hg, pale mucous membranes,

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 10-year-old 39.3-kg sexually intact male Labrador Retriever was referred to a veterinary medical teaching hospital for investigation of pericardial ef-fusion and ascites. Seven days prior to referral, the dog was presented to a primary care practice because of reduced exercise capacity, abdominal distension, weight loss, and a dry cough. During that clinical examination, the dog had a heart rate of 120 beats/min; pulses were synchronous with the heartbeat and had a regular rhythm. Other diagnostic findings at that time were eosinophilic peritoneal effusion and mild regenerative anemia. On reexamination 24 hours prior to referral, low-volume pericardial effusion was

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 15-month-old 23-kg sexually intact male Vizsla was evaluated because of regurgitation and sialorrhea of 5 days' duration. The referring veterinarian detected a tachyarrhythmia, and 3-lead ECG was performed. The dog was then referred for further investigation; the ECG findings were forwarded to the referral hospital. At the referral evaluation, the dog was bright, alert, and responsive. Evidence of sialorrhea was noted, and the dog's mucous membranes were pink and moist with a normal capillary refill time. The dog's heart rate was 88 beats/min with a regularly irregular heart rhythm; pulses were synchronous with the heartbeat. Respiratory rate was 24

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A 7-year-old 26.8-kg (59-lb) neutered male Golden Retriever was presented for recheck assessment of left-sided congestive heart failure. The dog had undergone combined cutting and high-pressure balloon valvuloplasty for severe subvalvular stenosis (pressure gradient, 170 mm Hg) at 6 months of age and had received atenolol (0.47 mg/kg [0.21 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) since the time of diagnosis. The procedure reduced the pressure gradient to 70 mm Hg and improved the dog's exercise tolerance. The dog was reevaluated 6 years after valvuloplasty because of signs of congestive heart failure. Electrocardiography revealed atrial fibrillation (AF) with a rapid rate of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 6-week-old 252-g (0.56-lb) sexually intact male Netherland Dwarf rabbit was evaluated on an emergency basis because of sudden collapse. Earlier in the morning, the owners had found the rabbit lethargic and disoriented, although it was ambulatory and showed interest in food and water. After a period without observation during the daytime hours, the rabbit was found laterally recumbent and unresponsive but nonsubmerged in a shallow water bowl. The rabbit apparently regained consciousness and was transported to the clinic; during the car ride, it returned to normal mentation, as reported by the owners. The pet had been part of

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association