Objective—To characterize the response of skin of nonallergic horses following ID injection of polyclonal rabbit anti-canine IgE (anti-IgE) and rabbit IgG.
Animals—6 healthy horses.
Procedures—Skin in the cervical area was injected ID with anti-IgE and IgG. Wheal measurements and skin biopsy specimens were obtained before and 20 minutes and 6, 24, and 48 hours after injection. Tissue sections were evaluated for inflammatory cells at 4 dermal depths. Immunohistochemical analysis for CD3, CD4, and CD8 was performed, and cell counts were evaluated.
Results—Anti-IgE wheals were significantly larger than IgG wheals at 20 minutes and 6 and 24 hours after injection. There were significantly more degranulated mast cells after anti-IgE injection than after IgG injection. There were significantly more eosinophils at 6, 24, and 48 hours and neutrophils at 6 hours after anti-IgE injection, compared with cell numbers at those same times after IgG injection. There were significantly more eosinophils in the deeper dermis of anti-IgE samples, compared with results for IgG samples. No significant differences between treatments were detected for CD3+, CD4+, or CD8+ cells.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Injection of anti-IgE antibodies was associated with the development of gross and microscopic inflammation characterized by mast cell degranulation and accumulation of inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils and neutrophils. This pattern appeared to be similar to that of horses with naturally developing allergic skin disease, although lymphocytes were not increased; thus, ID injection of anti-IgE in horses may be of use for evaluating allergic skin diseases of horses.
Objective—To characterize the effects of pentoxifylline on the gross and microscopic variables associated with immediate and late-phase inflammation following injection of IgE-specific antibodies in the skin of clinically normal dogs.
Animals—6 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Intradermal injections (0.1 mL each) of PBS solution, histamine phosphate, and cross-linking rabbit-origin anti-canine IgE antibodies (3 injections/dog) were administered at 0 hours on day 0; wheal sizes were evaluated at 20 minutes, 6 hours, and 24 hours. Biopsy specimens of injected and noninjected skin were collected 24 hours after injection. On day 2, treatment with pentoxifylline (20 mg/kg, PO, q 8 h) was initiated and continued until day 30. For each dog, injection, measurement, and biopsy procedures were repeated on days 30 to 31 and on days 37 to 38 (ie, after discontinuation of pentoxifylline administration).
Results—Pentoxifylline administration was associated with a significant decrease in wheal size at 6 and 24 hours (but not at 20 minutes) after injection of anti-canine IgE. Repeated injections performed 1 week after drug discontinuation revealed partial recovery of the 6-hour cutaneous reaction and complete recovery of the 24-hour cutaneous reaction. Pentoxifylline administration was also associated with inhibition of mast cell degranulation and significant decreases in the total numbers of cutaneous inflammatory cells and eosinophils, compared with pretreatment findings.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In clinically normal dogs, pentoxifylline effectively impaired late-phase reactions but not immediate reactions at sites of intradermal injection of IgE-specific antibodies by inhibiting mast cell degranulation and recruitment of cutaneous inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils.
Objective—To determine the distribution of cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) in skin (including hair follicles and sweat and sebaceous glands) of clinically normal dogs and dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD) and to compare results with those for positive control samples for CB1 (hippocampus) and CB2 (lymph nodes).
Sample—Skin samples from 5 healthy dogs and 5 dogs with AD and popliteal lymph node and hippocampus samples from 5 cadavers of dogs.
Procedures—CB1 and CB2 were immunohistochemically localized in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of tissue samples.
Results—In skin samples of healthy dogs, CB1 and CB2 immunoreactivity was detected in various types of cells in the epidermis and in cells in the dermis, including perivascular cells with mast cell morphology, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. In skin samples of dogs with AD, CB1 and CB2 immunoreactivity was stronger than it was in skin samples of healthy dogs. In positive control tissue samples, CB1 immunoreactivity was detected in all areas of the hippocampus, and CB2 immunoreactivity was detected in B-cell zones of lymphoid follicles.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The endocannabinoid system and cannabimimetic compounds protect against effects of allergic inflammatory disorders in various species of mammals. Results of the present study contributed to knowledge of the endocannabinoid system and indicated this system may be a target for treatment of immune-mediated and inflammatory disorders such as allergic skin diseases in dogs.
Objective—To determine whether high-frequency diagnostic ultrasonography is useful for assessment of skin thickness in Shar-Peis.
Animals—10 healthy Shar-Peis and 10 healthy Beagles used as controls.
Procedures—Ultrasonographic examination of the skin was performed on 4 cutaneous sites by use of a 13-MHz linear-array transducer, and the mean of 3 measurements was calculated. Ultrasonography results were compared with histologic findings of skin specimens stained with H&E, Alcian blue at a pH of 2.5, and Masson trichrome stains, with histometric measurements of skin thickness made by use of a microscope, and with measurements of skin thickness made by use of a plicometer. Ultrasonograpy results were also compared via age and sex of selected animals.
Results—A clear correlation was detected between ultrasonography results and results of histologic and histometric analysis in both groups. In Shar-Peis, no correlation was found between ultrasonography results and age and sex, whereas in Beagles, a weak positive correlation was found only between skin thickness in dorsal cervical and frontal (on the rostral margins of the supraorbital processes) regions and age. A positive overall correlation was found in Shar-Peis between measurements made via ultrasonography and plicometery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonography was a useful tool to assess skin thickness, and in Shar-Peis, it might be considered a valid alternative to invasive methods such as histologic examination to objectively estimate the severity of hereditary cutaneous hyaluronosis.
Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG for the alleviation or prevention of clinical signs of atopic dermatitis (AD) in genetically predisposed dogs.
Animals—2 adult Beagles with severe AD and 16 puppies.
Procedures—The 2 adult Beagles were bred twice, with a year between breedings. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG was administered to the bitch during the second pregnancy and to the puppies of the second litter from 3 weeks to 6 months of age. Both litters were epicutaneously sensitized to Dermatophagoides farinae. Blood samples were collected from puppies every 6 weeks to measure serum titers of allergen-specific IgE. At 6 months of age, all puppies underwent intradermal allergen testing and environmental challenge with D farinae. Clinical signs were scored.
Results—In the first litter, at 6 months of age, 7 of 7 puppies were strongly seropositive for IgE against D farinae, 6 had a positive reaction to intradermal testing, and 7 developed severe clinical signs of AD after the environmental challenge. In the second litter, 7 of 9 puppies were seropositive, 3 had a positive reaction to intradermal testing, and 6 developed dermatitis and pruritus after the challenge. The second litter had a significantly lower serum titer of allergen-specific IgE and milder reaction to intradermal testing, compared with the first litter. Clinical scores did not differ between litters.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Administration of L rhamnosus GG to puppies appeared to reduce immunologic indicators of AD, although no significant decrease in clinical signs was detected.
Objective—To determine whether coagulase-positive staphylococcal isolates that are genotypically the same strain obtained from pustules and carriage sites of individual dogs with superficial bacterial folliculitis have the same antimicrobial susceptibility phenotype.
Animals—40 dogs with superficial bacterial folliculitis.
Procedures—Samples were obtained from 3 pustules and 3 carriage sites (ie, anus, nonlesional axillary skin, and nasal mucosa) for bacterial culture, morphologic identification, Gram staining, catalase and coagulase testing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, speciation, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Results—223 isolates from pustules and carriage sites were included. Seventeen susceptibility phenotypes were found among isolates. One hundred twenty-eight (100%) isolates from pustules and 95 (100%) isolates from carriage sites were susceptible to cephalothin; 128 (100%) isolates from pustules and 94 (98.9%) isolates from carriage sites were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid; 114 (89.1%) isolates from pustules and 82 (86.3%) isolates from carriage sites were susceptible to erythromycin and lincomycin hydrochloride; and 103 (80.5%) isolates from pustules and 70 (73.7%) isolates from carriage sites were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In 37 of 39 (94.9%) dogs, isolates with the same PFGE pattern from multiple pustules had the same susceptibility phenotype. In 21 of 33 (63.6%) dogs, isolates from multiple carriage sites with the same PFGE pattern had the same susceptibility phenotype.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs with superficial bacterial folliculitis, most coagulase-positive staphylococcal isolates from pustules that are genotypically the same strain will have the same susceptibility phenotype and treatment may be based on empiric antimicrobial selection or susceptibility testing of 1 lesional isolate.
Objective—To determine whether staphylococcal isolates cultured from pustules and carriage sites in dogs with superficial bacterial folliculitis were genotypically the same strain by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Animals—40 dogs with superficial bacterial folliculitis.
Procedures—Samples were obtained from 3 pustules and 3 carriage sites (anus, axillary skin, and nasal mucosa). Bacterial culture, morphologic identification, Gram staining, catalase and coagulase tests, speciation, and PFGE were performed.
Results—Of 246 isolates, 203 were Staphylococcus intermedius, 5 were Staphylococcus aureus, 15 were Staphylococcusspp, and 22 were coagulase-negative staphylococcal isolates. No dog had an isolate with the same PFGE pattern as an isolate from another dog. Coagulase-positive isolates from multiple pustules and multiple carriage sites had the same PFGE pattern in 37 of 39 (94.9%) and 22 of 39 (56.4%) dogs, respectively. Coagulase-positive staphylococcal isolates from at least 1 pustule had the same PFGE pattern as an isolate from at least 1 carriage site in 34 of 36 (94.4%) dogs. Ninety-seven of 116 (83.6%) coagulase-positive staphylococcal isolates from pustules had the same PFGE pattern as an isolate from at least 1 carriage site. Sixty-nine of 91 (75.8%) coagulase-positive staphylococcal isolates from carriage sites had the same PFGE pattern as an isolate from at least 1 pustule.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Coagulasepositive staphylococcal strains were heterogeneous among dogs with superficial bacterial folliculitis. In individual dogs, strains from multiple pustules were genotypically the same, and strains from pustules were genotypically the same as strains from carriage sites.