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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe qualitative and quantitative cardiothoracic values in geriatric Sika deer (Cervus nippon) using digital radiography, 6-lead ECG (sECG), and smartphone-based ECG (aECG).

ANIMALS

10 healthy geriatric Sika deer (9 females and 1 male).

PROCEDURES

Deer were chemically immobilized, thoracic radiographs were obtained, and inhalant anesthesia was initiated. An sECG and aECG were simultaneously recorded for each animal using the same ECG specifications. Results were compared between devices.

RESULTS

Radiographically, no deer had any cardiopulmonary abnormalities. Median (range) values for the most important cardiac measurements were 170 (153–193) mm for cardiac height, 135 (122–146) mm for cardiac width, 9 (8–9) for vertebral heart score, and 99 (69–124) mm for cardiosternal contact. All deer had a normal sinus rhythm with no pathological arrhythmias noted. A significant difference between sECG and aECG was identified for minimum heart rate (49 vs 51 beats/min, respectively), P wave duration (0.05 vs 0.03 seconds), P wave amplitude (0.28 vs 0.10 mV), PR interval (0.15 vs 0.12 seconds), and QT interval (0.39 vs 0.30 seconds).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Thoracic radiographs were suitable to evaluate basic cardiothoracic morphology in Sika deer. The aECG was useful for assessing heart rate and rhythm but, compared with sECG, proved no substitute for evaluating duration and amplitude of ECG waveforms.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the level of agreement (LOA) between direct and oscillometric blood pressure (BP) measurements and the ability of oscillometric measurements to accurately detect hypotension in anesthetized chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

ANIMALS

8 captive, adult chimpanzees.

PROCEDURES

During prescheduled annual examinations, each chimpanzee underwent general anesthesia and patient monitoring for their examination, echocardiography for a concurrent study, and measurement of direct BP with the use of tibial artery catheterization and oscillometry with the use of a cuff placed around a brachium and a cuff placed around the second digit of the contralateral forelimb for the present study. Bland-Altman plots were generated to compare results for direct and oscillometric BP measurements. Mean bias and 95% LOAs were calculated for oscillometric measurements of systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) for each cuff site. Sensitivity and specificity in detecting hypotension were also determined for each cuff site.

RESULTS

There were 74 paired direct and brachial oscillometric measurements of each, SAP, MAP, and DAP and 66 paired direct and digit oscillometric measurements of each, SAP, MAP, and DAP. Only brachial oscillometric measurements of MAP had adequate sensitivity (78%) and specificity (95%) to accurately detect hypotension, and this technique also had the least mean bias (0.8 mm Hg; 95% LOA, –29 to 31 mm Hg).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that brachial oscillometric measurement of MAP provided reasonable agreement with tibial arterial direct MAP measurement and performed well in diagnosing hypotension in anesthetized chimpanzees.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the influence of manual ventilation-controlled respiration on right ventricular (RV) pressure-volume loop–derived and echocardiographic variables in dogs.

ANIMALS

8 healthy, anesthetized Beagles.

PROCEDURES

In a prospective experimental study, pressure-volume catheters were percutaneously inserted into the right ventricle of each dog, and manual ventilation was performed; RV pressure-volume loop (hemodynamic) data and conventional echocardiographic variables were assessed. Two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography–derived RV strain (RVS) and RV systolic strain rate (RVSR) were obtained with RV free wall–only analysis (free wall) and RV global analysis (RVGA; interventricular septum). Variables were compared between end-inspiratory and end-expiratory phases of respiration by statistical methods. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between selected hemodynamic and echocardiographic variables.

RESULTS

The RV pressure significantly increased, and RV volume, stroke volume, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, RV fractional area change, peak myocardial systolic velocity of the lateral tricuspid annulus, and RV free wall only–assessed RVS and RVSR significantly decreased in the inspiratory phase, compared with the expiratory phase. There were no significant differences in end-systolic elastance or RVGA-assessed RVS or RVSR between respiratory phases. The RVGA-assessed RVSR was significantly associated with stroke volume and end-systolic elastance.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Specific RV echocardiographic variables were significantly affected by respiration. In contrast, RVS and RVSR determined with RVGA were not affected by respiration and were associated with hemodynamic indicators of RV contractility.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the accuracy and precision of cardiac output (CO) measurements derived from 4 thermodilution protocols that used different injectate temperatures and volumes in healthy adult horses.

ANIMALS

8 healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES

Horses were anesthetized and instrumented with Swan-Ganz catheters. The CO was derived from each of 4 thermodilution protocols (IV injection of physiologic saline [0.9% NaCl] solution chilled to < 5 °C at volumes of 1 mL/15 kg of body weight [protocol A; control], 1 mL/25 kg [protocol B], and 1 mL/35 kg [protocol C] or maintained at 17 °C at a volume of 1 mL/15 kg [protocol D]) 3 times during each of 5 measurement cycles, with a 30-minute interval between cycles. During each measurement cycle, protocol A was performed first, and protocols B, C, and D were performed in a randomized order. Mean CO and within-subject variance in CO were compared among the 4 protocols.

RESULTS

Mean CO did not differ significantly among the 4 protocols. The within-subject variance for CO measurements derived from protocols C and D, but not protocol B, was significantly greater than that for protocol A (control).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that, in healthy adult horses, decreasing the thermodilution injectate volume to 1 mL/25 kg from the recommended volume of 1 mL/15 kg did not adversely affect the accuracy or precision of CO measurements. However, use of smaller injectate volumes or use of injectate at approximately room temperature is not recommended owing to a clinically unacceptable increase in CO measurement variability.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate associations between short-term treatment with a previously described compounded transdermal formulation of atenolol and heart rate in cats.

ANIMALS

11 healthy adult cats.

PROCEDURES

Cats received the atenolol gel formulation (gradually increased from 12.5 mg/cat, q 24 h to 25 mg/cat, q 12 h) by application to the pinnae at home over a 10-day period in a prospective, experimental study. On day 10, cats were hospitalized for measurement of serum atenolol concentrations 3, 6, and 12 hours after the morning treatment. Mean heart rate measured at the 3- and 6-hour time points was compared with a baseline value (measured at enrollment).

RESULTS

All cats completed the study; 4 were excluded from analyses after an apparent formulation error was detected in 1 batch. Two cats had minor adverse effects (localized erythema of the pinna). Five of 7 cats had serum atenolol concentrations ≥ 260 ng/mL (considered therapeutic) at ≥ 1 time point. Heart rate had a strong negative correlation (r =–0.87) with serum atenolol concentration. A 90-day drug stability investigation of 4 formulations (identical to the intended study treatment except for pH [range, 6.5 to 7.7]) revealed an apparent decrease in atenolol concentration at a pH of 7.7.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Topical administration of the formulation as described resulted in targeted serum atenolol concentrations in most cats, with attendant HR reduction. Validation of these preliminary results in a larger sample and investigation of the treatment in cats with structural heart disease is needed. Verification of appropriate pH (target, 7.0) is likely essential for the compound's stability.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) concentrations between sea otters with and without cardiomyopathy and describe 2 cases of cardiomyopathy with different etiologies.

ANIMALS

25 free-ranging southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) with (n = 14; cases) and without (11; controls) cardiomyopathy and 17 healthy managed southern sea otters from aquariums or rehabilitation centers (controls).

PROCEDURES

Serum cTnI concentration was measured in live sea otters. Histopathologic and gross necropsy findings were used to classify cardiomyopathy status in free-ranging otters; physical examination and echocardiography were used to assess health status of managed otters. Two otters received extensive medical evaluations under managed care, including diagnostic imaging, serial cTnI concentration measurement, and necropsy.

RESULTS

A significant difference in cTnI concentrations was observed between cases and both control groups, with median values of 0.279 ng/mL for cases and < 0.006 ng/mL for free-ranging and managed controls. A cutoff value of ≥ 0.037 ng/mL yielded respective sensitivity and specificity estimates for detection of cardiomyopathy of 64.3% and 90.9% for free-ranging cases versus free-ranging controls and 64.3% and 94.1% for free-ranging cases versus managed controls.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Cardiomyopathy is a common cause of sea otter death that has been associated with domoic acid exposure and protozoal infection. Antemortem diagnostic tests are needed to identify cardiac damage. Results suggested that serum cTnI concentration has promise as a biomarker for detection of cardiomyopathy in sea otters. Serial cTnI concentration measurements and diagnostic imaging are recommended to improve heart disease diagnosis in managed care settings.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate whether mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be safely administered IV to dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) secondary to myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) to improve cardiac function and prolong survival time.

ANIMALS

10 client-owned dogs with CHF secondary to MMVD.

PROCEDURES

Dogs with an initial episode of CHF secondary to MMVD were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Five dogs in the MSC group received allogeneic Wharton jelly–derived MSCs (2 X 106 cells/kg, IV), and 5 dogs in the placebo group received a 1% solution of autologous serum (IV) for 3 injections 3 weeks apart. Cell-release criteria included trilineage differentiation, expression of CD44 and CD90 and not CD34 and major histocompatability complex class II, normal karyotype, and absence of contamination by pathogenic microorganisms. Patients were followed for 6 months or until death or euthanasia. Echocardiographic data, ECG findings, serum cardiac biomarker concentrations, CBC, and serum biochemical analysis results were obtained prior to and 4 hours after the first injection and every 3 months after the final injection.

RESULTS

Lymphocyte and eosinophil counts decreased significantly 4 hours after injection, and monocytes decreased significantly only in dogs that received an MSC injection. No significant differences were seen in the echocardiographic variables, ECG results, serum cardiac biomarker concentrations, survival time, and time to first diuretic drug dosage escalation between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study showed that MSCs can be easily collected from canine Wharton jelly as an allogeneic source of MSCs and can be safely delivered IV to dogs with CHF secondary to MMVD.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the dose of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) needed to achieve at least a 3-fold increase in plasma CoQ10 concentration in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) and congestive heart failure (CHF).

ANIMALS

18 dogs with CHF due to MMVD and 12 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES

In a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial, dogs with MMVD were given 50 or 100 mg of water-soluble CoQ10 (ubiquinone; total daily dose, 100 mg [n = 5] or 200 mg [6]) or a placebo (7), PO, twice a day for 2 weeks in addition to regular cardiac treatment. Plasma CoQ10 concentration was measured in dogs with MMVD before (baseline) and at various time points after supplementation began and in healthy dogs once. Concentrations were compared among and within groups.

RESULTS

No significant difference in median baseline plasma CoQ10 concentration was detected between healthy dogs and dogs with MMVD. Fold increases in plasma CoQ10 concentrations ranged from 1.7 to 4.7 and 3.2 to 6.8 for individual dogs in the 100-mg and 200-mg groups, respectively. The change in plasma CoQ10 concentration after supplementation began was significantly higher than in the placebo group at 4 hours and 1 and 2 weeks for dogs in the 200-mg group and at 1 and 2 weeks for dogs in the 100-mg group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A daily CoQ10 dose of 200 mg was sufficient to achieve at least a 3-fold increase in plasma CoQ10 concentration and may be used in CoQ10 supplementation studies involving dogs with CHF due to MMVD.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine repeatability, reproducibility, and reference intervals of indices of right atrial longitudinal strain (RALS) derived from speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) in dogs without heart disease.

ANIMALS

110 client-owned dogs and 10 laboratory Beagles.

PROCEDURES

To determine intraobserver within-day (repeatability) and interobserver (reproducibility) coefficients of variation, RALS during ventricular systole (εS), ventricular early diastole (εE), and atrial systole (εA), as derived with STE, were obtained by 2 investigators for 5 randomly selected client-owned dogs and analyzed by linear regression. Reference intervals were estimated from the results of all dogs. Correlations between RALS indices (εS, εE, and εA) and sex, age, body weight, heart rate, and blood pressure were determined.

RESULTS

RALS derived from STE showed good intraobserver within-day repeatability and interobserver reproducibility, with coefficients of variation of < 20%. Both εS and εE were significantly negatively correlated with age, but εA was not correlated with age. Indices were not correlated with sex, body weight, or blood pressure.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

RALS indices derived from STE were repeatable and reproducible and were affected by the age of dogs without heart disease. Age should be considered in the interpretation of RALS indices in clinical settings. Further studies are needed to apply RALS indices for assessing dogs with heart disease.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether administration of trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (TMS), detomidine (DET), or TMS plus DET would be associated with changes in ECG repolarization parameters in horses.

ANIMALS

9 healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES

Each horse received 4 treatments in a blinded, randomized, crossover study design as follows: TMS, 16 to 24 mg/kg, IV; DET, 0.015 to 0.02 mg/kg, IV; TMS plus DET; and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Surface ECG traces were obtained over 24 hours, and repolarization parameters were measured at predefined time points after each treatment and compared with a 2-way ANOVA for repeated measures.

RESULTS

Heart rate–corrected QT intervals (QTc) were significantly increased after administration of DET (mean ± SD difference in QTc, 36.57 ± 23.07 milliseconds; increase of 7%) and TMS plus DET (44.96 ± 29.16 milliseconds; increase of 9%), compared with baseline (before treatment) values and values after administration of saline solution. Saline solution and TMS alone did not affect QTc.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Administration of DET or TMS plus DET was associated with a significant and possibly clinically relevant prolongation of QTc, with prolongation of 7% to 9%, a range that is considered as a risk factor for the development of cardiac arrhythmias in people. Results were unexpected because DET is considered to be a safe sedative for horses.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research