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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe clinical outcomes in cats with insulin resistance and acromegaly treated with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS).

ANIMALS

14 client-owned cats.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of cats with insulin resistance and acromegaly treated with SRS (17 Gy) between August 2013 and November 2019 at a single institution were reviewed. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to evaluate overall survival time.

RESULTS

Acute adverse effects of SRS included somnolence (n = 2) and alopecia (1). Delayed adverse effects of SRS included unspecified neurologic complications (n = 1; 481 days), seizures (1; 1,541 days), and hypothyroidism (1; 64 days). Exogenous insulin requirements decreased in 10 of the 14 cats, with a median time to lowest insulin dose of 399 days (range, 42 to 879 days). Complete diabetic remission was achieved in 3 cats. The median overall survival time was 741 days (95% CI, 353 to 1,129 days). Six cats were still alive at the end of the study period, with a median follow-up time of 725 days. In 7 of the 8 cats that had died, death was presumptively attributed to acromegaly owing to continued insulin resistance, organ failure, or altered neurologic status.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The SRS protocol was well tolerated and associated with survival times similar to those reported previously. Most cats had decreased exogenous insulin requirements after SRS. Latency to an endocrine response was highly variable, emphasizing the need for careful ongoing diabetic monitoring of acromegalic cats after pituitary gland irradiation.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 4-year-old sexually intact male leucistic axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) was presented with a 2-week history of dysrexia and difficulty swallowing.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Physical examination revealed a 1-cm-diameter intraoral mass on the rostral aspect of the palate and swelling of the left nasal fossa. Local invasion into the left nasal fossa was suspected during oral examination. The lesion was marginally excised, and an incompletely excised olfactory neuroblastoma was diagnosed histologically. Five weeks later, physical examination revealed persistent erythema, delayed healing of the rostral portion of the palate, and a mild facial deformity associated with a white mass in the nasal cavity.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

6 weeks after excision, adjuvant electron (6-MeV) beam radiotherapy was initiated for treatment of the incompletely excised olfactory neuroblastoma and likely presence of a recurrent mass. The protocol consisted of 4 weekly fractions of 8 Gy each (total, 32 Gy) with the axolotl under anesthesia. No acute adverse radiation effects were noted following radiotherapy. The oral erythema resolved after the third session. No recurrence was observed 2 months after treatment, and the owners reported no abnormal signs at home. The axolotl died 3.5 months after radiotherapy was completed (8 months after marginal excision of the tumor) secondary to an environmental management failure. Postmortem histologic evaluation showed no evidence of neoplasia.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In axolotls, olfactory neuroblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of intraoral palatal masses. This report describes the first application of radiotherapy for treatment of an olfactory neuroblastoma in an axolotl.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

An 8-year-old 6.8-kg neutered male Dachshund was presented for evaluation of vomiting, diarrhea, anorexia, and swelling over the right perineal region. The dog had a history of a bilateral perineal herniorrhaphy and castration 14 months prior to presentation.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Bilateral perineal hernias were confirmed by digital rectal examination. Abdominal ultrasonography confirmed the presence of intestine within the right hernia. Three days after admission to the hospital, the region of the right perineal hernia became painful, erythematous, and edematous. Computed tomography revealed jejunal incarceration within the right hernia with dilation of 1 jejunal segment that indicated intestinal obstruction.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Abdominal exploratory surgery was performed, during which irreducible small intestinal incarceration was confirmed. Intra-abdominal jejunal resection and anastomosis was performed, and an approximately 13-cm-long section of the jejunum was resected. Bilateral perineal herniorrhaphies with internal obturator and superficial gluteal muscle transposition were performed. Six months after surgery, digital rectal examination of the dog revealed that the repair was intact. The dog had no perineal hernia–related clinical signs at the time of the recheck examination.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

For the dog of the present report, surgical management of small intestinal strangulation associated with a perineal hernia was successful. Although a portion of the small intestines can frequently be found within perineal hernias in dogs, perineal hernia-related small intestinal strangulation has not been previously described, to the authors’ knowledge. Veterinarians and clients should be aware of this potential complication secondary to perineal hernia and be prepared to perform an abdominal surgical procedure to address small intestinal incarceration in affected dogs.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the presence of Leishmania infection within the animal population receiving care from US Army Veterinary Services.

ANIMALS

629 canine, feline, and equine patients of US Army Veterinary Services from 2014 to 2017.

PROCEDURES

Personnel at the US Army Public Health Center ran a query within the Remote Online Veterinary Record system using previously validated search terms (eg, liesh, leish, and lesh) and returned data on any patient for which the master problem list included those terms. Next, a query was run to identify all leishmaniasis testing. Records identified by queries were reviewed manually, and data were collected on patient signalment, indication for and type of testing, location of testing, and previous locations or country of the patient.

RESULTS

Only dogs (n = 378), not cats or horses, had been tested for leishmaniasis, 54 (14.3%) of which tested positive for Leishmania infection. More specifically, 39 of 104 (37.5%) privately owned dogs tested positive, compared with 15 of 274 (5.6%) government-owned dogs. Overall, 186 dogs had no clinical signs, 12 (6.5%) of which tested positive. Forty-four of the 54 (81%) test-positive dogs were located in or had traveled to an endemic area.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The prevalence of leishmaniasis in the various subpopulations of dogs suggested the need for additional prevalence studies. Many animals travel in and out of the US, and repeated introduction of Leishmania spp could lead to this vector-borne disease becoming endemic in the US animal and human populations. Consequently, US veterinarians need to ensure proper testing and follow-up to protect one health.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 3-year-old 27-kg female spayed American Bulldog with severe burn injuries caused by a gasoline can explosion was evaluated.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

The dog had extensive partial- and full-thickness burns with 50% of total body surface area affected. The burns involved the dorsum extending from the tail to approximately the 10th thoracic vertebra, left pelvic limb (involving 360° burns from the hip region to the tarsus), inguinal area bilaterally, right medial aspect of the thigh, and entire perineal region. Additional burns affected the margins of the pinnae and periocular regions, with severe corneal involvement bilaterally.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

The dog was hospitalized in the hospital’s intensive care unit for 78 days. Case management involved provision of aggressive multimodal analgesia, systemic support, and a combination of novel debridement and reconstructive techniques. Debridement was facilitated by traditional surgical techniques in combination with maggot treatment. Reconstructive surgeries involved 6 staged procedures along with the use of novel treatments including applications of widespread acellular fish (cod) skin graft and autologous skin cell suspension.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The outcome for the dog of the present report highlighted the successful use of maggot treatment and applications of acellular cod skin and autologous skin cell suspension along with aggressive systemic management and long-term multimodal analgesia with debridement and wound reconstruction for management of severe burn injuries encompassing 50% of an animal’s total body surface area.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the mycobiome of the oral cavity in healthy dogs and dogs with various stages of periodontal disease.

ANIMALS

51 dogs without periodontal disease (n = 12) or with mild (10), moderate (19), or severe (10) periodontal disease.

PROCEDURES

The whole maxillary arcade of each dog was sampled with a sterile swab, and swabs were submitted for next-generation DNA sequencing targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 region with a commercial sequencing platform.

RESULTS

Fungi were detected in all samples, with a total of 320 fungal species from 135 families detected in the data set. No single fungal species was found in all samples. The 3 most frequently found fungal species were Cladosporium sp (46/51 samples), Malassezia restricta (44/51 samples), and Malassezia arunalokei (36/51 samples). Certain fungi, specifically those of the family Didymellaceae, the family Irpicaceae, and the order Pleosporales, were significantly associated with different stages of periodontitis. Mycobial analysis indicated that Cladosporium sp could be considered part of the core oral cavity mycobiome.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results highlighted that fungi are present in the oral cavity of dogs and are characterized by substantial species diversity, with different fungal communities associated with various stages of periodontal disease. The next-generation DNA sequencing used in the present study revealed substantially more species of fungi than previous culture-based studies.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To measure plasma and tissue activities of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase, and γ-glutamyltransferase in 2 snake species.

ANIMALS

6 banded water snakes (Nerodia fasciata) and 6 diamondback water snakes (Nerodia rhombifer).

PROCEDURES

Blood was collected via the ventral tail vein to measure plasma enzyme activities. Animals were then euthanized, and samples of 9 tissues were collected from each snake: skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, testicle, pancreas, and gallbladder. Tissues were frozen for 30 days, then homogenized and processed. Supernatants were collected and analyzed within 24 hours of processing. A linear mixed model was used to determine differences in enzyme activity between tissues and species and assess interactions between tissues and species.

RESULTS

Activities of all enzymes were found to differ significantly among tissues. There were also significant differences between species for all enzyme activities, except AST activity. The kidney had the highest alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyltransferase activities. Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly highest in liver and kidney tissues than in other tissue. Creatine kinase activity was highest in skeletal muscle, followed by cardiac muscle and kidney. AST activity was present in all tissues evaluated, but was highest in liver, kidney, and cardiac muscle in both species.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results reinforced the importance of characterizing the origin of tissue enzymes in reptiles to improve our understanding of biochemistry results and highlighted the differences that can exist in tissue enzyme activities between closely related species.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research