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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify complications associated with and short- and long-term outcomes of surgical intervention for treatment of esophageal foreign bodies (EFBs) in dogs.

ANIMALS

63 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

Patient records from 9 veterinary hospitals were reviewed to identify dogs that underwent surgery for removal of an EFB or treatment or an associated esophageal perforation between 2007 and 2019. Long-term follow-up data were obtained via a client questionnaire.

RESULTS

54 of the 63 (85.7%) dogs underwent surgery after an unsuccessful minimally invasive procedure or subsequent evidence of esophageal perforation was identified. Esophageal perforation was present at the time of surgery in 42 (66.7%) dogs. Most dogs underwent a left intercostal thoracotomy (37/63 [58.7%]). Intraoperative complications occurred in 18 (28.6%) dogs, and 28 (50%) dogs had a postoperative complication. Postoperative complications were minor in 14 of the 28 (50%) dogs. Dehiscence of the esophagotomy occurred in 3 dogs. Forty-seven (74.6%) dogs survived to discharge. Presence of esophageal perforation preoperatively, undergoing a thoracotomy, and whether a gastrostomy tube was placed were significantly associated with not surviving to discharge. Follow-up information was available for 38 of 47 dogs (80.9%; mean follow-up time, 46.5 months). Infrequent vomiting or regurgitation was reported by 5 of 20 (25%) owners, with 1 dog receiving medication.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that surgical management of EFBs can be associated with a high success rate. Surgery should be considered when an EFB cannot be removed safely with minimally invasive methods or esophageal perforation is present.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify factors that individuals in clinical residency training programs consider when making a choice for or against a career in academic clinical medicine.

SAMPLE

207 veterinarians in clinical residency programs.

PROCEDURES

An online survey was distributed to 1,053 veterinarians participating in clinical residency training programs overseen by organizations recognized by the AVMA American Board of Veterinary Specialties. Results were compiled and decision factors were analyzed by means of principal component analysis to identify latent factors from the set of survey items. These factors were then used to construct a decision tree to predict respondents’ choice of whether to enter academic medicine or private clinical practice.

RESULTS

207 (20%) responses were analyzed. Ninety-three of 194 (48%) respondents reported a desire to pursue a career in academic medicine, and 101 (52%) reported a desire to pursue a career in private clinical practice. Principal component analysis identified 14 items clustered on research, clinical teaching, classroom teaching, and clinical practice. A decision tree was constructed that resulted in an overall accuracy of 82% in predicting a resident's career choice of academic medicine versus private clinical practice. The construct of professional benefits had a negative effect on desiring a career in academic medicine, whereas the construct of professional priorities and having had a positive residency training experience had a positive effect on desiring a career in academic medicine.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Understanding factors that attract and encourage residents who might have an aptitude and interest in academic medicine holds important implications for addressing the shortage of veterinarians entering academic medicine.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the prevalence of pectoral girdle fractures in wild passerines found dead following presumed window collision and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of various radiographic views for diagnosis of pectoral girdle fractures.

SAMPLE

Cadavers of 103 wild passerines that presumptively died as a result of window collisions.

PROCEDURES

Seven radiographic projections (ventrodorsal, dorsoventral, lateral, and 4 oblique views) were obtained for each cadaver. A necropsy was then performed, and each bone of the pectoral girdle (coracoid, clavicle, and scapula) was evaluated for fractures. Radiographs were evaluated in a randomized order by a blinded observer, and results were compared with results of necropsy.

RESULTS

Fifty-six of the 103 (54%) cadavers had ≥ 1 pectoral girdle fracture. Overall accuracy of using individual radiographic projections to diagnose pectoral girdle fractures ranged from 63.1% to 72.8%, sensitivity ranged from 21.3% to 51.1%, and specificity ranged from 85.7% to 100.0%. The sensitivity of using various combinations of radiographic projections to diagnose pectoral girdle fractures ranged from 51.1% to 66.0%; specificity ranged from 76.8% to 96.4%.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Radiography alone appeared to have limited accuracy for diagnosing fractures of the bones of the pectoral girdle in wild passerines after collision with a window. Both individual radiographic projections and combinations of projections resulted in numerous false negative but few false positive results.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effect of a constant rate infusion of ketamine on cardiac index (CI) in sheep, as estimated using noninvasive cardiac output (NICO) monitoring by partial carbon dioxide rebreathing, when anesthetized with sevoflurane at the previously determined minimum alveolar concentration that blunts adrenergic responses (MACBAR).

ANIMALS

12 healthy Dorset-crossbred adult sheep.

PROCEDURES

Sheep were anesthetized 2 times in a balanced placebo-controlled crossover design. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane delivered via a tight-fitting face mask and maintained at MACBAR. Following induction, sheep received either ketamine (1.5 mg/kg IV, followed by a constant rate infusion of 1.5 mg/kg/h) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (placebo). After an 8-day washout period, each sheep received the alternate treatment. NICO measurements were performed in triplicate 20 minutes after treatment administration and were converted to CI. Blood samples were collected prior to the start of NICO measurements for analysis of ketamine plasma concentrations. The paired t test was used to compare CI values between groups and the ketamine plasma concentrations with those achieved during the previous study.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD CI of the ketamine and placebo treatments were 2.69 ± 0.65 and 2.57 ± 0.53 L/min/m2, respectively. No significant difference was found between the 2 treatments. Mean ketamine plasma concentration achieved prior to the NICO measurement was 1.37 ± 0.58 µg/mL, with no significant difference observed between the current and prior study.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Ketamine, at the dose administered, did not significantly increase the CI in sheep when determined by partial carbon dioxide rebreathing.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of long-term (30-day) oral administration of melatonin on tear production, intraocular pressure (IOP), and concentration of melatonin in the tears and serum of healthy dogs.

ANIMALS

20 healthy sexually intact adult male dogs.

PROCEDURES

10 dogs were given melatonin (0.3 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h, administered in food at 9 am), and 10 dogs were given a placebo. Tear and serum melatonin concentrations, IOP, and tear production (determined with a Schirmer tear test) were recorded before (baseline) and 30 minutes, 3 hours, and 5 hours after administration of melatonin or the placebo on day 1 and 30 minutes after administration of melatonin or the placebo on days 8, 15, and 30.

RESULTS

Data collection time had significant effects on tear production, IOP, and tear melatonin concentration but not on serum melatonin concentration. Treatment (melatonin vs placebo) had a significant effect on tear melatonin concentration, but not on tear production, IOP, or serum melatonin concentration; however, tear melatonin concentration was significantly different between groups only 30 minutes after administration on day 1 and not at other times.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In healthy dogs, long-term administration of melatonin at a dosage of 0.3 mg/kg, PO, every 24 hours did not have any clinically important effects on tear production, IOP, or serum or tear melatonin concentrations.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To replicate a previously defined behavioral procedure to acclimate adult cats to temporary restriction in indirect calorimetry chambers and measure energy expenditure and respiratory quotient changes during acclimation.

ANIMALS

8 healthy adult cats (4 spayed females, and 4 neutered males; mean ± SEM age, 2.5 ± 1.5 years; mean body weight, 4.8 ± 1.8 kg).

PROCEDURES

Cats underwent a 13-week incremental acclimation procedure whereby cats were acclimated to the chambers in their home environment (weeks 1 to 3), to the study room (weeks 4 to 6), and to increasing lengths of restriction within their home environment (weeks 7 to 8) and the chambers (weeks 9 to 13). Cat stress score, respiratory rate, fearfulness (assessed with a novel object test), energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient were measured. Data were analyzed by use of a repeated-measures mixed model.

RESULTS

Stress, based on cat stress scores, fearfulness, and respiration, peaked at weeks 4, 9, and 10 but returned to baseline levels by week 11. Energy expenditure and respiratory quotient peaked at weeks 10 and 11, respectively, but were reduced significantly by weeks 11 and 13, respectively. All cats returned to baseline by the end of the study and were deemed fully acclimated.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Changes in perceived stress level, energy expenditure, and respiratory quotient at various stages of the acclimation procedure suggest that stress should be considered a significant variable in energy balance measurements when indirect calorimetry is used in cats. An incremental acclimation procedure should therefore be used to prepare cats for the temporary space restriction necessary for indirect calorimetry studies.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the association between a diagnosis of eosinophilic lung disease (ELD) in dogs with signalment and bronchoscopic features and evaluate the accuracy of visualization of nodules for the diagnosis of ELD.

ANIMALS

781 dogs with cough that underwent bronchoscopy between 2014 and 2016.

PROCEDURES

Data were extracted from the medical records of each included dog. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to investigate associations between ELD and patient characteristics.

RESULTS

ELD was diagnosed in 113 (14.5%) dogs. More than 3 nodular lesions of the bronchial mucosa were detected in 64 (8.2%) dogs. The odds of having ELD were greater in dogs with nodules (adjusted OR [aOR], 26.0; 95% CI, 13.0 to 52.0) and static bronchial collapse (aOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.6), and lower in dogs having focal versus diffuse inflammation (aOR, 0.05; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.37). The odds of having ELD decreased for each 1-year increase in age (aOR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.92), and increased for each 1-kg increase in weight (aOR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.06). Visualization of nodules during bronchoscopy had a overall accuracy of 89.4% (95% CI, 87.0% to 91.4%), sensitivity of 41.6% (32.4% to 51.2%), and specificity of 97.5% (96.0% to 98.5%) for a diagnosis of ELD.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

On the basis of high specificity and negative predictive value, lack of visualization of bronchial nodules during bronchoscopy can be used to preliminarily rule out ELD. However, visualization of bronchial nodules does not imply presence of ELD. This could be especially relevant when results of BAL cytology are available several days after the actual bronchoscopy.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the radiographic outcome of root canal treatment (RCT) in dogs and compare outcomes with those reported for a previous study performed at the same institution in 2002.

ANIMALS

204 dogs representing 281 teeth that underwent RCT.

PROCEDURES

The medical record database of a veterinary teaching hospital was searched to identify dogs that underwent RCT between 2001 and 2018. Only dogs that had undergone at least 1 radiographic recheck appointment a minimum of 50 days after RCT were included in the study. Dental radiographs were reviewed. Treatment was considered successful if the periapical periodontal ligament space was within reference limits and preexisting external inflammatory root resorption (EIRR), if present, had stabilized. Treatment was considered to show no evidence of failure (NEF) if preoperative EIRR had stabilized and any preoperative periapical lucency (PAL) remained the same or had decreased in size but had not completely resolved. Treatment was considered to have failed if EIRR or a PAL developed after RCT, if a preoperative PAL increased in size, or if preexisting EIRR progressed.

RESULTS

Follow-up time ranged from 52 to 3,245 days (mean, 437 days). RCT was classified as successful for 199 (71%) teeth, NEF for 71 (25%) teeth, and failed for 11 (4%) teeth.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results showed that almost 2 decades after RCT outcome in dogs was first evaluated, during which time numerous advances in dental materials and techniques had been made, the success rate of RCT was virtually unchanged.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association