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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To estimate the effects of practice ownership on wellbeing of US private practice veterinarians.

Sample

1,217 practice owners and 1,414 associate veterinarians (ie, nonowners) who participated in the 2021 AVMA Census of Veterinarians and Practice Owners Survey.

Procedures

A professional quality of life instrument was used to measure compassion satisfaction (CS; a positive attribute), burnout (BO), and secondary traumatic stress (STS) in practice owners and nonowners both as scores and as score categories (low, moderate, and high CS, BO, and STS). For hypothesis tests, propensity score matching was used, with owners (n = 595) matched to nonowners (595) on several demographic and employment factors.

Results

Owners had significantly (P < .001) higher CS scores (mean ± SE, 34.1 ± 0.3) and lower BO scores (26.1 ± 0.3) than nonowners (32.8 ± 0.3 and 26.9 ± 0.3, respectively), but STS scores were comparable between groups (27.4 ± 0.3 and 27.5 ± 0.3; P = .55). The prevalence of low CS scores and high BO scores was significantly (P < .001) higher for nonowners versus owners (53.8% vs 42.7% and 51.6% vs 46.4%, respectively). Both owners and nonowners had a high prevalence of high STS scores (81.8% and 83.2%, respectively; P = .53).

Clinical Relevance

Results suggested that practice ownership confers a benefit to private practice veterinarians in terms of CS and BO, but not STS. The prevalence of poor CS, BO, and STS scores was higher than reported previously for 2016 to 2018, suggesting an impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. The high prevalence of high STS scores in both groups warrants attention and action to protect the welfare of the veterinary workforce and support optimal patient care.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of veterinary personnel and pet owners regarding ticks and tick-borne diseases in Alaska and to conduct a serosurvey for tick-borne disease pathogens among domestic animals visiting veterinary clinics for preventative care.

Sample

Across 8 veterinary clinics, we sampled 31 veterinary personnel, 81 pet owners, 102 client-owned dogs, and 1 client-owned cat.

Procedures

Information on KAP among veterinary staff and pet owners was collected via self-administered questionnaires. Tick and tick-borne disease prevalence were assessed via tick checks and benchtop ELISA antibody tests detecting Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Erlichia canis, Erlichia ewingii, and Borrelia burgdorferi.

Results

The veterinary personnel KAP survey showed a low average knowledge score (53.5%) but a moderate attitude score (71.7%). In contrast, owner average knowledge score was higher (67.5%) and attitude score was comparatively low (50.6%). Both veterinary personnel and owners had low average practice scores (64.5% and 56.3%, respectively). One dog was positive for anaplasmosis (unknown species) antibody, and 1 dog was positive for B burgdorferi antibody. No ticks were found during the study.

Clinical Relevance

This study was the first of its kind in the state and indicated a low prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the domestic pet population and highlighted significant knowledge gaps that could be targeted by public health efforts. Our results suggest the value of a One Health approach and of the veterinary-client relationship to address ticks and tick-borne diseases.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Compare changes in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP), abdominal perfusion pressure (APP), hemodynamics, and clinicopathological variables in nonpregnant and late-term pregnant queens undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy (OHE) and evaluate the effect of patient positioning on IAP and APP measurements.

ANIMALS

18 late-term pregnant queens and 25 nonpregnant controls.

PROCEDURES

Temperature, heart rate (HR), Doppler blood pressure (DBP), IAP (dorsal and right lateral), PCV, total protein (TP), and lactate were recorded preoperatively, at abdominal wall closure (dorsal IAP only), and postoperatively under general anesthesia. Uterine weight, blood loss, and surgical duration were recorded. Abdominal perfusion pressure was calculated as DBP minus IAP.

RESULTS

Pre- and postoperatively, pregnant queens had lower DBP, APP, and PCV compared to controls (P < 0.001). IAP was higher in pregnant queens preoperatively (P < 0.001). Controls had a decrease in HR and increase in IAP, while both groups had a decrease in body temperature, DBP, APP, and lactate over time (P < 0.05). Pregnant queens had a decrease (P = 0.029), and controls had an increase in TP (P = 0.001). Blood loss and surgical time were greater for pregnant queens (P < 0.001). Dorsal IAP and APP were higher and lower than right lateral measurements (P < 0.001), respectively, and correlation was strong.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Hemodynamics and APP are impaired in late-term pregnant queens undergoing OHE, and increased monitoring is warranted. Although strongly correlated, feline IAP and APP measurements in dorsal and right lateral recumbency are not interchangeable.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the association between the severity of dynamic upper airway obstruction (DUAO) and selected fitness parameters in Standardbred racehorses measured by treadmill test.

ANIMALS

191 Standardbred racehorses that underwent a standardized diagnostic protocol for poor performance evaluation between 2002 and 2021 at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Milan.

PROCEDURES

Horses underwent a diagnostic protocol including clinical examination, lameness evaluation, laboratory analyses, ECG, resting upper airway endoscopy, metabolic incremental treadmill test, high-speed treadmill endoscopy, postexercise tracheobronchoscopy, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cytology. On the basis of findings of the high-speed treadmill endoscopy, horses were divided into the following groups: no DUAO, mild DUAO (medial deviation of the aryepiglottic folds or epiglottic entrapment), severe DUAO (dorsal displacement of the soft palate, nasopharyngeal collapse, dynamic laryngeal collapse, or epiglottic retroversion), and multiple DUAOs (different forms of DUAO occurring concomitantly). Fitness parameters, measured by incremental treadmill test, included speed at a heart rate of 200 bpm (V200), speed and heart rate at a lactate concentration of 4 mmol/L (VLa4, HRLa4), peak lactate, maximum speed, maximum hematocrit, and minimum pH. Data were compared between groups by use of descriptive and statistical analyses.

RESULTS

Horses affected by severe or multiple DUAOs showed lower V200 and VLa4, compared to the no-DUAO group; horses with multiple DUAOs also had higher peak lactate concentrations compared to horses without DUAOs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

While mild forms of DUAO do not affect athletic capacity, severe forms of DUAO and multiple DUAOs may lead to reduced fitness in Standardbred racehorses by impairing aerobic capacity.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Authors Merve Ider and Mehmet Maden

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the clinical value of selected biomarkers for evaluation of systemic inflammatory response and pulmonary inflammation and damage pattern in calves with different pneumonia forms.

ANIMALS

16 calves with fibrinous pneumonia (FP group; infected with Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella multocida), 12 calves with caseonecrotic pneumonia (CNP group; infected with Mycoplasma bovis), and 10 healthy calves (C group) based on results of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) examination.

PROCEDURES

Blood and BALF samples were collected. Annexin-A2 (Anx-A2), endothelin-1 (ET-1), calgranulin B (S100A9), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-17A (IL-17A), haptoglobin (Hp), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and albumin (Alb) concentrations and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were measured and compared across groups.

RESULTS

Serum concentrations of Anx-A2, S100A9, TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-17A, Hp, and LBP and activities of LDH and ALP were higher and Alb concentrations were lower for the pneumonia groups versus C group. BALF concentration ratios of S100A9:Alb, LBP:Alb, LDH:Alb, and ALP:Alb were higher for the pneumonia groups versus C group (P < .05). BALF concentration ratios of Anx-A2:Alb, TGF-β1:Alb, and IL-17A:Alb were higher for the FP group versus other groups (P < .05).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that serum Anx-A2, S100A9, TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-17A, Hp, LBP, and Alb concentrations were useful in determining the systemic inflammatory response and that BALF concentration ratios of S100A9:Alb, TGF-β1:Alb, LBP:Alb, and ALP:Alb were useful biomarkers in determining pulmonary inflammation and damage. Measurements of BALF concentration ratios of Anx-A2:Alb, TGF-β1:Alb, and IL-17A:Alb could be beneficial to defining fibrinous characterization of pulmonary inflammation.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the biomechanical properties of the mandibles of cats with experimentally created osteotomies simulating oblique ramus fractures, which were stabilized with malleable L-miniplates with either locking screws [locking construct (LC)] or nonlocking screws [nonlocking construct (NLC)], compared with those for intact mandibles.

SAMPLES

20 mandibles from 10 adult cat cadavers.

PROCEDURES

A block study design was adopted to allocate the mandibles of each cadaver to 2 of the 3 test groups (LC, NLC, or intact mandible). Mandibles within each cadaver were allocated systematically to a test group. For mandibles assigned to an LC and an NLC, a complete oblique osteotomy was performed from the mid rostral aspect of the ramus in a caudoventral direction. All mandibles were loaded in a single-load-to-failure test through cantilever bending. Load and actuator displacement were recorded simultaneously. Mode of failure and radiographic evidence of damage to tooth roots and the mandibular canal were evaluated. Biomechanical properties were compared among the groups.

RESULTS

No iatrogenic tooth root damage was evident, but all mandibles with an LC and an NLC had evidence of screw invasion into the mandibular canal. Plated mandibles had significantly less stiffness and bending moment than intact mandibles. Stiffness was not significantly different between the LC and the NLC; the NLC had a greater bending moment at failure than the LC. The pre-yield stiffness of plated mandibles decreased when the number of screw holes overlapping the mandibular canal increased.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

The use of a malleable L-miniplate in a caudal mandibular fracture model is feasible. Both the LC and the NLC were inferior mechanically to intact mandibles. Type of construct used did not affect the construct stiffness significantly in tested mandibles.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research