Browse

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 13,717 items for

  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To compare the analgesic efficacy of grapiprant to carprofen for the treatment of postoperative pain and inflammation in dogs following ovariohysterectomy.

ANIMALS

12 purpose-bred adult sexually intact female Beagles.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups: grapiprant (2 mg/kg, PO; n = 6) or carprofen (4.4 mg/kg, PO; n = 6), 1.5 hours prior to ovariohysterectomy (OVH) and every 24 hours afterward for 3 total doses. An ultrafiltration probe was placed within the OVH incision to collect interstitial fluid (ISF). Pain and inflammation were assessed by masked investigators via mechanical nociceptive threshold testing and the short form of the Glasgow Composite Pain Scale before drug administration and at multiple time points for 72 hours following dosing and surgery. ISF samples were collected at the same time points to assess prostaglandin E2 concentrations at the site of inflammation.

RESULTS

In both groups, pain scale scores were highest in the immediate postoperative period and decreased over time. In both treatment groups, there were significant (P = 0.003) differences in mechanical nociceptive threshold results over time when compared with baseline, but there was no difference between groups. Prostaglandin E2 concentrations in ISF were higher in dogs receiving grapiprant compared with carprofen (P < 0.001). One dog in the carprofen group required rescue analgesia.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results of this preliminary study suggested both carprofen and grapiprant may be effective for postoperative pain following OVH in dogs; however, additional studies are warranted to determine grapiprant’s effectiveness in a larger and more diverse population of dogs.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To perform a qualitative analysis of the distribution of µ- and κ-opioid receptor mRNA in the forebrain and midbrain of budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus).

SAMPLE

8 brains of male budgerigars.

PROCEDURES

Custom-made RNA hybridization probes (RNAscope; Advanced Cell Diagnostics Inc) were used for fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) assays performed on selected fresh frozen prepared sections of brain tissue to identify µ- and κ-opioid receptor mRNA.

RESULTS

There was κ-opioid receptor mRNA present in the nucleus dorsomedialis posterior thalami, lateral striatum, mesopallium, tractus corticohabenularis et corticoseptalis, griseum et fibrosum, stratum griseum centrale, medial striatum, and area parahippocampalis. There was µ-opioid receptor mRNA present in the stratum griseum centrale, stratum opticum, dorsomedialis posterior thalami, area parahippocampalis, medial striatum, and nidopallium intermedium.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Consistent with previous studies in pigeons and domestic chicks, κ-opioid receptors were more abundant than µ-opioid receptors in the samples of the present study. The results of this study may also help explain the hyperexcitability or lack of response that can occur with administration of pure µ-opioid receptor agonists, but not κ-opioid receptor agonists. This study was not quantitative, so further research should endeavor to compare the various regions of the brain using FISH technology.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To provide epidemiological information on animal and human cases of rabies in the US during 2020 and summaries of 2020 rabies surveillance for Canada and Mexico.

ANIMALS

All animals submitted for laboratory diagnosis of rabies in the US during 2020.

PROCEDURES

State and territorial public health departments and USDA Wildlife Services provided 2020 rabies surveillance data. Data were analyzed temporally and geographically to assess trends in domestic and wildlife rabies cases.

RESULTS

During 2020, 54 jurisdictions submitted 87,895 animal samples for rabies testing, of which 85,483 (97.3%) had a conclusive (positive or negative) test result. Of these, 4,479 (5.2%) tested positive for rabies, representing a 4.5% decrease from the 4,690 cases reported in 2019. Texas (n = 580 [12.9%]), Pennsylvania (371 [8.3%]), Virginia (351 [7.8%]), New York (346 [7.7%]), North Carolina (301 [6.7%]), New Jersey (257 [5.7%]), Maryland (256 [5.7%]), and California (248 [5.5%]) together accounted for > 60% of all animal rabies cases reported in 2020. Of the total reported rabid animals, 4,090 (91.3%) involved wildlife, with raccoons (n = 1,403 [31.3%]), bats (1,400 [31.3%]), skunks (846 [18.9%]), and foxes (338 [7.5%]) representing the primary hosts confirmed with rabies. Rabid cats (288 [6.4%]), cattle (43 [1.0%]), and dogs (37 [0.8%]) accounted for 95% of rabies cases involving domestic animals in 2020. No human rabies cases were reported in 2020.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

For the first time since 2006, the number of samples submitted for rabies testing in the US was < 90,000; this is thought to be due to factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic, as similar decreases in sample submission were also reported by Canada and Mexico.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

As I write my final President’s Column, it’s hard to express what an honor it has been to serve as El Presidente of the AVMA over the past year.

Yes, the COVID-19 pandemic continues to create challenges for us all. But it has not deterred us from putting our best foot forward in service to the animals entrusted to our care, the people who rely on veterinarians for our professional guidance and caring hearts, and to the environment we all have an obligation to protect. We can all celebrate that accomplishment, and each one of you is a part of

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To characterize the clinical course and therapeutic response in dogs with coccidioidomycosis treated with fluconazole.

ANIMALS

49 client-owned dogs with coccidioidomycosis that were treated with fluconazole and had ≥ 2 follow-up examinations.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were retrospectively searched to identify dogs in which coccidioidomycosis was diagnosed between January 2015 and May 2020. Data recorded from each dog included signalment, clinical signs, diagnostic test results, and treatment.

RESULTS

Dogs were treated with fluconazole at a median initial dosage of 19.7 mg/kg/d. Median treatment duration was 298.5 days, with 26 of the 49 dogs completing treatment during the study period. Respiratory signs, lethargy, and hyporexia were the most common clinical signs. Frequency of lethargy decreased after 30 days, whereas frequency of hyporexia and respiratory signs decreased after 90 days. Median IgG titer at diagnosis was 1:32 and was significantly decreased, compared with baseline titer, at all recheck intervals after 90 days. Hyperglobulinemia, monocytosis, and neutrophilia were the most common clinicopathologic abnormalities. Hyperglobulinemia resolved within 30 days, neutrophilia resolved within 90 days, and monocytosis resolved after 180 days.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Improvements in clinical signs, titers, and clinicopathologic abnormalities were observed after initiation of treatment with fluconazole. Improvement began as early as the first 3 months of treatment, but some variables did not resolve until after 6 to 9 months of treatment. This information provides clinical guidance and describes expectations when prescribing fluconazole to treat coccidioidomycosis in dogs.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 10-year-old 57-kg sexually intact female alpaca was presented because of a 3- to 4-month history of aggressive behavior (attacking and charging herdmates). The alpaca previously had several successful pregnancies, with her last cria born approximately 1.5 years earlier. There had been no other male exposure since that breeding, as the owners only have females and 1 gelding (housed separately). The referring veterinarian collected blood for hormone testing through the Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center in Ithaca, NY. Serum progesterone concentration was 10.49 ng/mL, consistent with progesterone concentration reference limit of > 2 mg/mL during pregnancy in camelids.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Author: Mark Zabel

In the Colorado State University (CSU) College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (CVMBS), collaboration is the foundation of our world-renowned expertise in life sciences. Our “team science” approach means we seek out connections—with fellow researchers worldwide and with corporate, foundation, and agency partners—that make our science stronger.

These collaborations transform foundational research into clinical practice through translational medicine to deliver One Health solutions—vaccines, drugs, and diagnostic tools—that benefit animals, people, and the planet. Our scientists contribute to this one health approach through collaboration of research teams with diverse skillsets and discoveries in internationally recognized research areas of expertise.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
History

A 4-month-old 14.9-kg sexually intact male Chinese Shar-Pei was presented for right hind limb lameness. The dog had been vaccinated against canine distemper virus, hepatitis virus, Leptospira, parvovirus, parainfluenza virus, rabies virus, and Bordetella spp 16 days prior to presentation and became toe-touching lame in the right hind limb 14 days prior to presentation. This lameness progressed to non–weight-bearing lameness and did not improve with a course of carprofen (2.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 5 days) initiated 8 days prior to presentation. One day prior to presentation, serum biochemical analyses and a CBC

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

An 11.5-week-old 2.6-kg sexually intact male domestic medium-hair kitten was presented to the emergency service for evaluation because of diarrhea, anorexia, and lethargy of < 1 day's duration. The owner had adopted the kitten 2 weeks prior to presentation, and the kitten had no previous medical history and was not administered any medications in the 2 weeks prior to adoption.

On physical examination, the kitten had a rectal temperature of 36.3 °C (reference range, 37.2 to 39.4 °C), a pulse of 200 beats/min (reference range, 140 to 200 beats/min), a respiratory rate of 36 breaths/min (reference range, 10 to

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Introduction

A 12-year-old 21-kg castrated male Border Collie was examined because of acute-onset blindness, 2 episodes of collapse, and nonambulatory tetraparesis. The first episode of collapse had occurred 8 days prior to presentation and lasted 20 minutes. The dog acutely collapsed into lateral recumbency with tonic extension of all limbs and subsequently recovered fully. Blindness was noticed 2 days later. Five days later, a similar collapsing episode occurred that lasted 45 minutes. The dog was ataxic with intermittent circling in both directions thereafter. The dog’s condition deteriorated over the next day, with ambulatory paraparesis progressing to nonambulatory tetraparesis on presentation.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association