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IN SHORT AVMA seeks candidates for treasurer

The AVMA is seeking candidates to serve as AVMA treasurer for the 2023-29 term. The deadline to submit applications is Aug. 15.

Candidates must be current AVMA voting members and have been voting members for at least five continuous years immediately prior to election. Candidates also must meet the criteria for the office as stated in the AVMA Bylaws. The duties and responsibilities of the treasurer are described in Article VI, Section 5 of the bylaws.

The AVMA Board of Directors will elect the new treasurer during its September meeting. The treasurer will

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To quantify the translation and angular rotation of the distal sesamoid bone (DSB) using computed tomography (CT) and medical modeling software.

SAMPLE

30 thoracic limbs from equine cadavers.

PROCEDURES

Partial (n = 12), full (8), and matched full and subsequently transected (10) thoracic limbs were collected. Bone volume CT images were acquired in three positions: extension (200° metacarpophalangeal angle), neutral (180°), and maximal flexion (110°). Mean translation and angular rotation of each DSB were recorded. Differences were determined with two-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey’s tests for pairwise comparisons; P value was set at < 0.05.

RESULTS

Dorsal translation was significant during extension (1.4 ± 0.4 mm full limbs and 1.3 ± 0.2 mm partial limbs, P < 0.001). Distal translation was significant during extension (1.9 ± 0.4 mm full and 1.1 ± 0.4 mm partial) and flexion (5.4 ± 0.7 mm full and 6.22 ± 0.6 mm partial, P < 0.001). Rotation was significant (P < 0.001) about the mediolateral axis during extension (17.1° ± 1.4°) and flexion (2.6° ± 1.3°). Translation and rotation of the DSB were significantly different (P < 0.001) between full and partial limbs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study provides the first quantification of translation and angular rotation of the DSB within the equine hoof. Partial limbs had significantly reduced movement compared to full limbs, suggesting that transection of flexor tendons alters distal thoracic limb kinematics. Further studies are required to determine if pathologic changes in the podotrochlear apparatus have an impact in clinical lameness outcomes.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Observations from rabies surveillance and COVID-19

We would like to share ideas on the publication “Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2020.” 1 According to Ma et al, the number of rabies samples submitted in the US dipped below 90,000 for the first time since 2006; this is thought to be due to factors related to the COVID-19 pandemic, as similar declines in sample submission were also observed in Canada and Mexico. 1 We agree that the COVID-19 outbreak has the potential to alter local disease prevalence. It’s possible that this is due to disease control lockdown

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

When the Morrill Act establishing land-grant colleges became the law of the land in 1862, teaching the “agricultural arts” included instruction in the professional care and feeding of farm animals. 

Ready to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, the Colorado Agricultural College (now Colorado State University) launched veterinary education courses in 1879, the same year classes began at the new land-grant college.

Dr. George Glover, the first head of the Department of Veterinary Science, was optimistic about the future of the program, which was expanding its focus to include care for the dogs and cats that Americans were increasingly

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Author: Lisa A. Fortier

Dear AVMA Members and Readers,

I hope to meet many of you at AVMA Convention 2022 at the end of this month. Our Social Media Editor, Dr. Sarah Wright, will be there with me to share all the things we are doing to continue to improve the JAVMA and AJVR experience for our readers and authors. We would also love to hear your ideas for ways in which the journals can serve you even better. While at the convention, we will be announcing recipients of the inaugural Journal Awards. We will award six $500 awards each

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

An 18-year-old 688-kg Belgian gelding was presented for chronic weight loss and a recent deterioration of its general condition.

Clinical and Gross Findings

On initial assessment, the horse had a rectal temperature of 39.0 °C (reference range, 37.2 to 38.3 °C), heart rate of 100 beats/min (reference range, 28 to 44 beats/min), and shallow respirations with clinically normal bronchovesicular sounds. Intestinal sounds were also clinically normal. There was frothy discharge from the oral cavity, and feces were slightly liquid. Ceftiofur (6.6 mg/kg, IM, q 96 h), moxidectin-praziquantel (dose not reported, PO), and flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg, IV) were initially

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Author: Teresa Southard
History

A previously healthy 4-year-old castrated male Standard Poodle was found dead in the driveway of its home in Virginia. The previous day, the dog had consumed a bag of milk chocolate–covered potato chips. The dog’s veterinarian had been contacted and did not think treatment was necessary. The dog had been swimming in a lake earlier in the day. The owner returned to the house in the evening and noticed that some mulch in the yard had been disturbed, but the dog greeted her normally. Several hours later, the dog did not come when called, and the owner found the

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
History

A 12-year-old 7-kg sexually intact male Miniature Dachshund was evaluated for constipation and tenesmus.

Clinical and Gross Findings

On presentation, a grape-sized swelling and soft palpable mass were present in the right perineal area. The rest of the clinical examination was unremarkable.

Ultrasonographic examination of the perineal area revealed a hyperechoic mass surrounded by a small amount of free fluid (Figure 1). The exact origin of the mass could not be determined. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples were collected for cytologic analysis.

Perineal mass in a 12-year-old intact male dog. A—Ultrasonographic image illustrating

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine the pharmacokinetics and ex vivo pharmacodynamics of oral firocoxib administration in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

ANIMALS

6 healthy New Zealand White rabbits.

PROCEDURES

Pharmacokinetics were determined from plasma concentrations measured via ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after oral administration of firocoxib at a dose of 3.74 to 4.20 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using non compartmental methods. Pharmacodynamics of firocoxib were evaluated by measuring plasma concentrations of thromboxane and prostaglandin via ELISAs as surrogate markers of cyclooxygenase enzyme isoform inhibition.

RESULTS

The terminal rate constant was 0.07 hours (range, 0.05 to 0.11 h). The mean maximum concentration (Cmax) and time to Cmax were 0.16 µg/mL and 3.81 hours (range, 2.0 to 8.0 h), respectively. Mean residence time was 15.02 hours. Mean elimination half-life was 9.12 hours. For the pharmacodynamic analysis, firocoxib administration did not demonstrate a significant difference between any time point for prostaglandin E2 and only a significant difference between 24 and 48 hours for thromboxane B2.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although the pharmacokinetic research supports that plasma firocoxib concentrations that would be therapeutic in dogs are achieved in rabbits, the pharmacodynamic results do not demonstrate a significant difference in levels of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition, which indirectly reflects the anti-inflammatory effects of the drug. Further pharmacodynamic studies and multidose studies are warranted to determine the efficacy and safety of this drug in rabbits.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
Author: Mathieu Spriet

Abstract

Positron emission tomography (PET) has established itself as a pertinent tool in equine musculoskeletal imaging in the last few years. With the ability to provide functional information regarding both bone and soft tissues, PET has found several clinical applications in horses. PET is currently used in horses as an enhanced bone scan, providing high-resolution 3-dimensional information, in particular for imaging of the racehorse fetlock. Combined with CT and MRI, PET is particularly pertinent in horses for the assessment of subchondral bone and enthesis. The development of a dedicated PET scanner to image the distal limb of horses with standing sedation led to new applications, where PET is used as a first-line advanced imaging tool, in particular for foot, fetlock, and tarsal imaging. A complimentary clinical review of when to seek advanced imaging in equine athletes can be found in the companion Currents in One Health by Garrett in the July 2022 issue of the Journal of American Veterinary Medical Association. The clinical use of PET in human medicine remains mainly focused on oncological imaging; however, numerous small-scale clinical studies have demonstrated valuable applications for musculoskeletal imaging. These include assessment of foot and ankle pain, osteoarthritis of the knee and hip, osteoporosis, response to bisphosphonates, and chronic osteomyelitis. The use of musculoskeletal PET in dogs remains quite limited, but a few studies have recently been published and clinical interest is growing. The available research data and clinical applications between horses, humans, and dogs are currently quite disparate, but all suggest great promises for earlier and more accurate clinical diagnosis, as well as better understanding of pathophysiology and response to treatment. Translating knowledge from a species to another will undoubtedly help further growth of musculoskeletal PET.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research