A 10-month-old male crossbred dog presented with a 4-week history of polyuria and polydipsia and a 6-month history of vomiting.
Clinical examination revealed abdominal pain and right-sided nephromegaly. Biochemistry was within normal limits. Diagnostic imaging showed a well-defined, unilateral renal mass containing anechoic fluid consistent with a simple renal cyst (SRC).
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
The cyst was drained under ultrasonographic guidance but recurred 3 months later, concomitant with recurrence of the previously reported clinical signs. The cyst was then deroofed, fulgurated, and omentalized under laparoscopy by use of a 3-port technique. The resected cystic wall was histopathologically consistent with an SRC, presumptively congenital. The dog showed a good recovery with resolution of clinical signs. Renal function was normal at last follow-up, conducted 2 years postoperatively, without evidence of recurrent disease.
To our knowledge, this was the first report of a symptomatic juvenile SRC of presumptively congenital origin in a dog treated successfully by laparoscopic deroofing, fulguration, and omentalization. The polyuria, polydipsia, chronic vomiting, and abdominal pain may all have been related to space-occupying effects of the cyst, as these symptoms resolved post-treatment. Results of long-term follow-up advocate for this durable cure of SRC by use of laparoscopic procedures, especially when compared to simple drainage of the cyst, as the latter initially failed in the present case.
To assess what information sources veterinarians use to select drug dosages for treating exotic animals and how they implement this information.
936 veterinarians from Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas.
An anonymous, online survey was used to collect data on information sources used for dosage decisions by veterinarians treating exotic species. Logistic regression models were built to identify associations between individual characteristics and primary outcomes.
Respondents reported their single most common source for establishing drug dosages as formularies (682/936 [72.9%]), followed by scientific journals (96 [10.3%]), other textbooks (68 [7.3%]), colleagues (47 [5.0%]), or continuing education notes (38 [4.1%]). Over two-thirds of the respondents (645, 68.9%) consulted a specific exotic animal formulary for establishing drug dosages in most situations. Of the 936 respondents, 407 (43.5%) reported that they sometimes (318 [34.0%]) or never (89 [9.5%]) checked the source of a dosage in a textbook or a formulary, 503 (55.3%) reported that they sometimes (399 [42.6%]) or never (104 [11.1%]) searched the original publication on a dosage, and 486 (51.9%) reported that they would base their dosage decision on the abstract of an article if they had no access to the full-text. Several respondents’ reported characteristics were significant predictors of primary outcomes.
Considering our findings, we recommend authors of formularies and textbooks should focus on evidence-based information and state clearly when information is anecdotal. Tailored strategies to educate veterinarians treating exotic animals on the importance of primary sources are also recommended.
An 8-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier–Poodle dog was evaluated for persistent pollakiuria and stranguria following routine cystotomy for calcium oxalate cystoliths.
The dog presented for a cystotomy with intermittent hematuria. Postoperative radiographs revealed no remaining cystoliths. Urine, cystolith, and bladder mucosal aerobic cultures were negative. Pollakiuria, stranguria, and hematuria developed immediately after surgery and persisted despite antibiotics. Ultrasound revealed suspected fibrous adhesions within the urinary bladder lumen connecting the dorsal and ventral bladder wall creating a septum. This was confirmed cystoscopically 4 weeks after surgery.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Cystoscopic-guided laser ablation was performed to incise abnormal tissue connecting the ventral and dorsal bladder wall using a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. Three weeks later, ultrasound revealed adhesion resolution though mild pollakiuria and stranguria persisted. Oxybutynin was prescribed and clinical signs resolved. At 27 months after ablation, hematuria occurred with recurrent cystoliths. These cystoliths were removed by percutaneous cystolithotomy, documenting a cystoscopically normal bladder wall. The patient had normal urination for 55.5 months after ablation, with normal bladder wall thickness on ultrasound repeated at 27 and 36 months after ablation.
To the authors’ knowledge, an adhesion creating a septum between the dorsal and ventral bladder wall has not been previously reported as a complication after cystotomy in any species and should be considered as a cause of persistent lower urinary signs after surgery. Ultrasound identified the lesion in this dog. Because bladder abnormalities can develop quickly after surgery, ultrasound might be considered if urine testing is not supportive of infection. Cystoscopic-guided laser ablation was a successful minimally invasive treatment in this case.
To investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine (DXM) and its subsequent reversal with atipamezole (APM) on the echocardiogram and circulating concentrations of cardiac biomarkers in cats.
14 healthy cats.
Cats underwent echocardiography and measurements of circulating cTn-I and NT-proBNP concentrations before (PRE) and during (INTRA) DXM sedation (40 µg/kg IM) and 2 to 4 (2H POST) and 24 (24H POST) hours after reversal with APM.
Administering DXM significantly decreased heart rate, right ventricular and left ventricular (LV) outflow tract velocities, and M-mode–derived LV free-wall thickness; increased LV end systolic diameter and volume; and caused valvar regurgitation. While sedative effects resolved within 25 minutes of APM reversal, the evolution of echocardiographic changes was mixed: LV ejection fraction and mitral valvar regurgitation score were different at 2H POST than at both INTRA and PRE (partial return toward baseline), LV end-diastolic volume was different PRE to INTRA and INTRA to 2H POST but not different PRE to 2H POST (full return toward baseline), and M-mode–derived LV free-wall thickness was significantly different from PRE to INTRA and PRE to 2H POST (no return toward baseline). Serum cTn-I and plasma NT-proBNP concentrations increased significantly with DXM, which remained significant 2H POST.
Administration of DXM and APM reversal produced changes in echocardiographic results and in circulating cTn-I and NT-proBNP concentrations. Understanding these changes could help veterinarians differentiate drug effects from cardiac disease.
To evaluate patterns of bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test results for dogs with retrobulbar abscesses and generate recommendations for empirical antimicrobial selection.
133 dogs examined between 2002 and 2019.
Records were retrospectively reviewed to determine type of bacterial culture, number and type of bacterial isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility test results, concurrent and recent antimicrobial exposure, effect of culture results on antimicrobial regimen, and outcome.
Aerobic culture alone was performed in 37 dogs, and aerobic and anaerobic culture was performed in 96 dogs. Isolates were recovered from 96 dogs, with multiple isolates recovered from 54 (56%) of those dogs. Of the 69 dogs for which both aerobic and anaerobic culture was performed and at least 1 isolate was obtained, 34 (49%) had purely aerobic infections, 15 (22%) had mixed aerobic and anaerobic infections, and 20 (29%) had purely anaerobic infections. Pasteurella spp (n = 26), Streptococcus spp (20), and Escherichia coli (12) were the most common aerobic isolates. Bacteroides spp (n = 22), Actinomyces spp (10), and Fusobacterium (10) spp were the most common anaerobic isolates. Susceptibility test results led to changes in the antimicrobial regimen in 37 of 80 (46%) dogs. Of the 76 dogs for which outcome information was available, 78 (97%) recovered.
Multipathogen and anaerobic infections were common in dogs with retrobulbar abscesses. Susceptibility data supported the use of amoxicillin-clavulanate or a combination of clindamycin and enrofloxacin as first-line treatments. Additional study is needed to characterize anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibilities and to compare results of susceptibility testing with in vivo responses to antimicrobial administration.
To compare the serum cobalamin concentrations in canine parvovirus (CPV)–infected dogs with those of healthy control dogs.
45 dogs with CPV enteritis and 17 healthy age-matched control dogs.
Infection was confirmed by visualization of CPV-2 through fecal electron microscopy. All dogs received supportive care. Serum samples taken at admission were used to determine cobalamin, C-reactive protein, and albumin concentrations.
Serum cobalamin concentrations were significantly lower in the CPV-infected group (median [interquartile range], 173 pmol/L [< 111 to 722 pmol/L]) than in healthy control dogs (379 pmol/L [193 to > 738 pmol/L). There was no association between cobalamin concentration and C-reactive protein or albumin concentration.
While hypocobalaminemia was common in CPV-infected dogs, the clinical relevance of this finding remains to be determined. Studies assessing markers of cellular cobalamin deficiency in dogs with CPV infection appear warranted.
To evaluate the outcome of surgical fixation of shell fractures in rehabilitated wild freshwater turtles.
51 freshwater turtles with 86 shell fractures.
The medical record database of a wildlife rehabilitation center in Wisconsin was searched from 2014 through 2019 for records of freshwater turtles with shell fractures repaired with a plate technique, screws and wire technique, or both. Signalment, fracture location, therapeutic approach (including the type of hardware used for repair), dry-docking duration, time to hardware removal, postremoval care, and outcome were evaluated.
36 of 51 (71%) turtles with shell fractures experienced successful fracture healing following surgical hardware fixation, and 33 (65%) were released. Shells of 38 (75%) turtles were repaired with plates only, 5 (10%) turtles with wire only, and 8 (16%) turtles with a combination of plates and screws and wires. Of the 51 turtles, 13 (25%) did not survive > 4 weeks following hardware repair, leaving 38 animals available to assess fracture healing. Median time to start staged removal was 42 days (range, 35 to 49 days) and to complete removal of the applied hardware was 56 days (range, 26 to 77 days). Complications associated with placement of the hardware occurred in 6 of 38 (16%) turtles. Complications included screw hole infection (4/38 [11%]), fracture necrosis (1/38 [3%]), and deep screw hole penetration (1/38 [3%]).
Results indicated that shell fractures in freshwater turtles treated with surgical fixation techniques had a successful outcome. Most complications were minor, and fractures improved with time, resulting in acceptable fracture healing for release.