OBJECTIVE To compare the plasma pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin between 3-week-old (preweaned) and 6-month-old (weaned) calves and to characterize the distribution of tulathromcyin into pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) of preweaned and weaned calves following SC administration of a single dose (2.5 mg/kg).
ANIMALS 8 healthy 3-week-old and 8 healthy 6-month-old Holstein steers.
PROCEDURES A jugular catheter and SC ultrafiltration probe were aseptically placed in the neck of each calf before tulathromycin administration. Blood, ISF, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected at predetermined times before and after tulathromycin administration for quantification of drug concentration. A urea dilution method was used to estimate tulathromycin concentration in PELF from that in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Tulathromycin–plasma protein binding was determined by in vitro methods. Plasma pharmacokinetics were determined by a 2-compartment model. Pharmacokinetic parameters and drug concentrations were compared between preweaned and weaned calves.
RESULTS Clearance and volume of distribution per fraction of tulathromycin absorbed were significantly greater for weaned calves than preweaned calves. Tulathromycin–plasma protein binding was significantly greater for weaned calves than preweaned calves. Maximum PELF tulathromycin concentration was significantly greater than the maximum plasma and maximum ISF tulathromycin concentrations in both groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that age affected multiple pharmacokinetic parameters of tulathromycin, likely owing to physiologic changes as calves mature from preruminants to ruminants. Knowledge of those changes may be useful in the development of studies to evaluate potential dose adjustments during treatment of calves with respiratory tract disease.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the diuretic effects and associated changes in hematologic and plasma biochemical values following SC furosemide administration to water-deprived inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).
ANIMALS 9 bearded dragons.
PROCEDURES In a crossover study design, furosemide (5 or 10 mg/kg) was administered SC every 12 hours for 4 doses or no treatment (control treatment) was provided for the same period. Food and water were withheld. Body weight was recorded before (baseline) and 12 hours after treatment sessions ended and then after 5 minutes of soaking in a water bath. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 12 hours after treatment sessions ended for various measurements.
RESULTS Compared with control values, a significant decrease from baseline in body weight was detected after furosemide treatment at 5 and 10 mg/kg (mean ± SD percentage decrease, 5.5 ± 3.2% and 5.2 ± 4.1%, respectively). Soaking resulted in a significant increase in body weight after the 5- and 10-mg/kg furosemide treatments (mean ± SD percentage increase, 2.9 ± 1.8% and 5.6 ± 2.5%, respectively), compared with change in body weight after the control treatment (0.7 ± 0.7%). Plasma total solids and total protein concentrations increased significantly with both furosemide treatments, and PCV increased significantly with the 10 mg/kg treatment only. No significant or relevant differences were identified in plasma osmolarity or uric acid or electrolyte concentrations.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Furosemide as administered resulted in hemoconcentration and weight loss in bearded dragons, most likely owing to its diuretic effects. With additional research, furosemide could be considered for treatment of congestive heart failure and other conditions requiring diuresis in bearded dragons.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the plasma disposition of mycophenolic acid (MPA) and its derivatives MPA glucuronide and MPA glucoside after twice-daily infusions of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in healthy cats for 3 days and to assess the effect of MMF administration on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) counts and CD4+-to-CD8+ ratios.
ANIMALS 5 healthy adult cats.
PROCEDURES MMF was administered to each cat (10 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h for 3 days). Each dose of MMF was diluted with 5% dextrose in water and then administered over a 2-hour period with a syringe pump. Blood samples were collected for analysis. A chromatographic method was used to quantitate concentrations of MPA and its metabolites. Effects of MMF on PBMC counts and CD4+-to-CD8+ ratios were assessed by use of flow cytometry.
RESULTS All cats biotransformed MMF into MPA. The MPA area under the plasma concentration–time curve from 0 to 14 hours ranged from 14.6 to 37.6 mg·h/L and from 14.4 to 22.3 mg·h/L after the first and last infusion, respectively. Total number of PBMCs was reduced in 4 of 5 cats (mean ± SD reduction, 25.9 ± 15.8% and 26.7 ± 19.3%) at 24 and 48 hours after the end of the first infusion of MMF, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Plasma disposition of MPA after twice-daily IV infusions for 3 days was variable in all cats. There were no remarkable changes in PBMC counts and CD4+-to-CD8+ ratios.
PROCEDURES Enrofloxacin (20 mg/kg) was administered SC once to 6 prairie dogs and IV once to 2 prairie dogs. A blood sample was collected from each animal immediately before (0 hours) and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Plasma enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin concentrations were quantified with ultraperformance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed.
RESULTS Enrofloxacin was biotransformed to ciprofloxacin in the prairie dogs used in the study. For total fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin), the mean (range) of peak plasma concentration, time to maximum plasma concentration, and terminal half-life after SC administration were 4.90 μg/mL (3.44 to 6.08 μg/mL), 1.59 hours (0.5 to 2.00 hours), and 4.63 hours (4.02 to 5.20 hours), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that administration of enrofloxacin (20 mg/kg, SC, q 24 h) in black-tailed prairie dogs may be appropriate for treatment of infections with bacteria for which the minimum inhibitory concentration of enrofloxacin is ≤ 0.5 μg/mL. However, clinical studies are needed to determine efficacy of such enrofloxacin treatment.
OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of age on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of flunixin meglumine following IV and transdermal administration to calves.
ANIMALS 8 healthy weaned Holstein bull calves.
PROCEDURES At 2 months of age, all calves received an injectable solution of flunixin (2.2 mg/kg, IV); then, after a 10-day washout period, calves received a topical formulation of flunixin (3.33 mg/kg, transdermally). Blood samples were collected at predetermined times before and for 48 and 72 hours, respectively, after IV and transdermal administration. At 8 months of age, the experimental protocol was repeated except calves received flunixin by the transdermal route first. Plasma flunixin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy. For each administration route, pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by noncompartmental methods and compared between the 2 ages. Plasma prostaglandin (PG) E2 concentration was determined with an ELISA. The effect of age on the percentage change in PGE2 concentration was assessed with repeated-measures analysis. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of flunixin on PGE2 concentration was determined by nonlinear regression.
RESULTS Following IV administration, the mean half-life, area under the plasma concentration-time curve, and residence time were lower and the mean clearance was higher for calves at 8 months of age than at 2 months of age. Following transdermal administration, the mean maximum plasma drug concentration was lower and the mean absorption time and residence time were higher for calves at 8 months of age than at 2 months of age. The half maximal inhibitory concentration of flunixin on PGE2 concentration at 8 months of age was significantly higher than at 2 months of age. Age was not associated with the percentage change in PGE2 concentration following IV or transdermal flunixin administration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In calves, the clearance of flunixin at 2 months of age was slower than that at 8 months of age following IV administration. Flunixin administration to calves may require age-related adjustments to the dose and dosing interval and an extended withdrawal interval.
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of florfenicol, terbinafine, and betamethasone acetate after topical application to canine auricular skin and the influence of synthetic canine cerumen on pharmacokinetics.
SAMPLE Auricular skin from 6 euthanized shelter dogs (3 females and 3 neutered males with no visible signs of otitis externa).
PROCEDURES Skin adjacent to the external opening of the ear canal was collected and prepared for use in a 2-compartment flow-through diffusion cell system to evaluate penetration of an otic gel containing florfenicol, terbinafine, and betamethasone acetate over a 24-hour period. Radiolabeled 14C-terbinafine hydrochloride and 3H-betamethasone acetate were added to the gel to determine dermal penetration and distribution. Florfenicol absorption was determined by use of high-performance liquid chromatography–UV detection. Additionally, the effect of synthetic canine cerumen on the pharmacokinetics of all compounds was evaluated.
RESULTS During the 24-hour experiment, mean ± SD percentage absorption without the presence of synthetic canine cerumen was 0.28 ± 0.09% for 3H-betamethasone acetate, 0.06 ± 0.06% for florfenicol, and 0.06 ± 0.02% for 14C-terbinafine hydrochloride. Absorption profiles revealed no impact of synthetic canine cerumen on skin absorption for all 3 active compounds in the gel or on skin distribution of 3H-betamethasone acetate and 14C-terbinafine hydrochloride.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE3H-betamethasone acetate, 14C-terbinafine hydrochloride, and florfenicol were all absorbed in vitro through healthy auricular skin specimens within the first 24 hours after topical application. Synthetic canine cerumen had no impact on dermal absorption in vitro, but it may serve as a temporary reservoir that prolongs the release of topical drugs.
OBJECTIVE To compare the pharmacokinetics of 2 commercial florfenicol formulations following IM and SC administration to sheep.
ANIMALS 16 healthy adult mixed-breed sheep.
PROCEDURES In a crossover study, sheep were randomly assigned to receive florfenicol formulation A or B at a single dose of 20 mg/kg, IM, or 40 mg/kg, SC. After a 2-week washout period, each sheep was administered the opposite formulation at the same dose and administration route as the initial formulation. Blood samples were collected immediately before and at predetermined times for 24 hours after each florfenicol administration. Plasma florfenicol concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by noncompartmental methods and compared between the 2 formulations at each dose and route of administration.
RESULTS Median maximum plasma concentration, elimination half-life, and area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to the last quantifiable measurement for florfenicol were 3.76 μg/mL, 13.44 hours, and 24.88 μg•h/mL, respectively, for formulation A and 7.72 μg/mL, 5.98 hours, and 41.53 μg•h/mL, respectively, for formulation B following administration of 20 mg of florfenicol/kg, IM, and 2.63 μg/mL, 12.48 hours, and 31.63 μg•h/mL, respectively, for formulation A and 4.70 μg/mL, 16.60 hours, and 48.32 μg•h/mL, respectively, for formulation B following administration of 40 mg of florfenicol/kg, SC.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that both formulations achieved plasma florfenicol concentrations expected to be therapeutic for respiratory tract disease caused by Mannheimia haemolytica or Pasteurella spp at both doses and administration routes evaluated.
OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics and pulmonary disposition of minocycline in horses after IV and intragastric administration.
ANIMALS 7 healthy adult horses.
PROCEDURES For experiment 1 of the study, minocycline was administered IV (2.2 mg/kg) or intragastrically (4 mg/kg) to 6 horses by use of a randomized crossover design. Plasma samples were obtained before and 16 times within 36 hours after minocycline administration. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed 4 times within 24 hours after minocycline administration for collection of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (PELF) and BAL cells. For experiment 2, minocycline was administered intragastrically (4 mg/kg, q 12 h, for 5 doses) to 6 horses. Plasma samples were obtained before and 20 times within 96 hours after minocycline administration. A BAL was performed 6 times within 72 hours after minocycline administration for collection of PELF samples and BAL cells.
RESULTS Mean bioavailability of minocycline was 48% (range, 35% to 75%). At steady state, mean ± SD maximum concentration (Cmax) of minocycline in plasma was 2.3 ± 1.3 μg/mL, and terminal half-life was 11.8 ± 0.5 hours. Median time to Cmax (Tmax) was 1.3 hours (interquartile range [IQR], 1.0 to 1.5 hours). The Cmax and Tmax of minocycline in the PELF were 10.5 ± 12.8 μg/mL and 9.0 hours (IQR, 5.5 to 12.0 hours), respectively. The Cmax and Tmax for BAL cells were 0.24 ± 0.1 μg/mL and 6.0 hours (IQR, 0 to 6.0 hours), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Minocycline was distributed into the PELF and BAL cells of adult horses.
OBJECTIVE To investigate the pharmacokinetics of metformin hydrochloride in healthy dogs after IV and oral bolus administrations and determine the oral dose of metformin that yields serum concentrations equivalent to those thought to be effective in humans.
ANIMALS 7 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.
PROCEDURES Each dog was given a single dose of metformin IV (mean ± SD dose, 24.77 ± 0.60 mg/kg) or PO (mean dose, 19.14 ± 2.78 mg/kg) with a 1-week washout period between treatments. For each treatment, blood samples were collected before and at intervals up to 72 hours after metformin administration. Seventy-two hours after the crossover study, each dog was administered metformin (mean dose, 13.57 ± 0.55 mg/kg), PO, twice daily for 7 days. Blood samples were taken before treatment initiation on day 0 and immediately before the morning drug administration on days 2, 4, 6, and 7. Serum metformin concentrations were determined by means of a validated flow injection analysis–tandem mass spectrometry method.
RESULTS After IV or oral administration to the 7 dogs, there was high interindividual variability in mean serum metformin concentrations over time. Mean ± SD half-life of metformin following IV administration was 20.4 ± 4.1 hours. The mean time to maximum serum concentration was 2.5 ± 0.4 hours. Mean systemic clearance and volume of distribution were 24.1 ± 7.8 mL/min/kg and 44.8 ± 23.5 L/kg, respectively. The mean oral bioavailability was 31%.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The study data indicated that the general disposition pattern and bioavailability of metformin in dogs are similar to those reported for cats and humans.
OBJECTIVE To measure concentrations of trazodone and its major metabolite in plasma and urine after administration to healthy horses and concurrently assess selected physiologic and behavioral effects of the drug.
ANIMALS 11 Thoroughbred horses enrolled in a fitness training program.
PROCEDURES In a pilot investigation, 4 horses received trazodone IV (n = 2) or orally (2) to select a dose for the full study; 1 horse received a vehicle control treatment IV. For the full study, trazodone was initially administered IV (1.5 mg/kg) to 6 horses and subsequently given orally (4 mg/kg), with a 5-week washout period between treatments. Blood and urine samples were collected prior to drug administration and at multiple time points up to 48 hours afterward. Samples were analyzed for trazodone and metabolite concentrations, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined; plasma drug concentrations following IV administration best fit a 3-compartment model. Behavioral and physiologic effects were assessed.
RESULTS After IV administration, total clearance of trazodone was 6.85 ± 2.80 mL/min/kg, volume of distribution at steady state was 1.06 ± 0.07 L/kg, and elimination half-life was 8.58 ± 1.88 hours. Terminal phase half-life was 7.11 ± 1.70 hours after oral administration. Horses had signs of aggression and excitation, tremors, and ataxia at the highest IV dose (2 mg/kg) in the pilot investigation. After IV drug administration in the full study (1.5 mg/kg), horses were ataxic and had tremors; sedation was evident after oral administration.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Administration of trazodone to horses elicited a wide range of effects. Additional study is warranted before clinical use of trazodone in horses can be recommended.