Objective—To determine the effects of hypothyroidism on insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and concentrations of hormones counter-regulatory to insulin in dogs.
Animals—8 anestrous mixed-breed bitches with experimentally induced hypothyroidism and 8 euthyroid control dogs.
Procedures—The insulin-modified frequently sampled IV glucose tolerance test and minimal model analysis were used to determine basal plasma insulin and glucose concentrations, acute insulin response to glucose, insulin sensitivity, glucose effectiveness, and disposition index. Growth hormone response was assessed by stimulation and suppression tests. Additionally, basal serum growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations and urine cortisol-to-creatinine concentration ratios were measured and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was performed to evaluate body composition.
Results—Insulin sensitivity was lower in the hypothyroid group than in the euthyroid group, whereas acute insulin response to glucose was higher. Glucose effectiveness and disposition index were not different between groups. Basal serum GH and IGF-1 concentrations as well as abdominal fat content were high in hypothyroid dogs, but urine cortisol-to-creatinine concentration ratios were unchanged.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hypothyroidism appeared to negatively affect glucose homeostasis by inducing insulin resistance, but overall glucose tolerance was maintained by increased insulin secretion in hypothyroid dogs. Possible factors affecting insulin sensitivity are high serum GH and IGF-1 concentrations and an increase in abdominal fat. In dogs with diseases involving impaired insulin secretion such as diabetes mellitus, concurrent hypothyroidism can have important clinical implications.
Objective—To investigate whether circulating concentrations of biomarkers of glucose homeostasis, progesterone, and growth hormone in healthy female Elkhounds differ during diestrus and anestrus and to compare those findings with data from dogs of other breeds.
Animals—22 healthy female dogs of Elkhound breeds (known to have a high incidence of diestrus-associated diabetes mellitus) and 18 healthy female non-Elkhound dogs.
Procedures—For each dog, a blood sample (12 mL) was collected once during anestrus and once 2 to 8 weeks after cessation of estrual bleeding. Serum or whole blood samples were analyzed for glucose, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1, C-peptide, fructosamine, and glycated hemoglobin A1c concentrations. Homeostasis model assessments (HOMAs) of pancreatic beta-cell function and insulin secretion were calculated.
Results—In Elkhounds, C-peptide concentration and the HOMA for beta-cell function (markers of insulin secretion) were higher in samples obtained during diestrus, compared with findings in samples obtained during anestrus. The HOMA for insulin sensitivity was lower (albeit not significantly) during diestrus than it was during anestrus in Elkhounds. Markers of insulin secretion and sensitivity were similar during anestrus and diestrus in the dogs of other breeds. Serum progesterone concentrations were greater during diestrus than during anestrus in Elkhounds and non-Elkhound dogs. All other variables did not differ between diestrus and anestrus within or between the 2 breed groupings.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provided evidence that circulating insulin concentrations during diestrus are higher than those during anestrus in Elkhounds, which could contribute to development of diestrus-associated diabetes mellitus.
Objective—To compare the adrenocortical response of healthy dogs to a commonly used dose of a nonadsorbed tetracosactide product (tetracosactide) with responses to 2 doses of a depot formulation of tetracosactide (depot tetracosactide).
Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive tetracosactide (5 mg/kg, IV) or depot tetracosactide (250 μg, IM, or 5 μg/kg, IM). Dogs received each treatment once with a 2-week interval between treatments. Blood samples were assayed for cortisol, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and estradiol concentrations.
Results—Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly higher than the preadministration (baseline) concentrations for all treatments 60 minutes after administration of ACTH. Peak cortisol concentration was detected 180 minutes after IM administration of 250 μg of the depot tetracosactide. Serum concentrations of progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione did not differ significantly from baseline concentrations after stimulation with the 5 μg/kg dose of depot tetracosactide. Adrenal gland progesterone response was significantly higher than baseline concentrations at 60 minutes after administration of the 250-μg dose of depot tetracosactide, and the 17-hydroxyprogesterone and androstenedione responses were significantly higher than baseline concentrations at 120 minutes. Compared with the response to tetracosactide, adrenocortical response was higher and more sustained following administration of the depot tetracosactide, except for androstenedione concentration, which had a nonsignificant response.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Except for androstenedione concentrations, a high dose of the depot tetracosactide (250 μg, IM) induced an adrenocortical response similar to that after administration of tetracosactide. Thus, depot tetracosactide may represent an alternative to the nonadsorbed tetracosactide product.
Objective—To compare daily endogenous cortisol production rate and the pharmacokinetics of an IV bolus of hydrocortisone between neonatal foals and adult horses.
Animals—10 healthy full-term 2- to 4-day-old foals and 7 healthy adult horses.
Procedures—Blood samples were collected from each horse every 15 to 20 minutes for 24 hours for determination of 24-hour mean cortisol concentration. Afterward, dexamethasone (0.08 mg/kg) was administered IV to suppress endogenous cortisol production. Twelve hours afterward, hydrocortisone sodium succinate (1.0 mg/kg) was administered as a rapid IV bolus and serial blood samples were collected to determine hydrocortisone pharmacokinetics. Cortisol concentrations, daily cortisol production rate, and hydrocortisone pharmacokinetics were determined, and results were compared between adult horses and foals.
Results—The mean ± SD 24-hour cortisol concentration was significantly lower in foals (20 ± 4 ng/mL) than in horses (26 ± 6 ng/mL), but the daily cortisol production rate was significantly greater in foals (6,710 ± 320 ng/kg/d) than in horses (2,140 ± 400 ng/kg/d). For hydrocortisone, foals had a significantly greater volume of distribution at steady state (1.92 ± 1.11 L/kg) and total body clearance (1.39 ± 0.108 L/kg/h) and significantly lower peak plasma concentration (1,051 ± 343 ng/mL) than did horses (0.58 ± 0.15 L/kg, 0.349 ± 0.065 L/kg/h, and 8,934 ± 3,843 ng/mL, respectively).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Important differences were detected in cortisol production and metabolism between neonatal foals and adult horses consistent with lower plasma protein binding of cortisol in foals. This decrease may contribute to cortisol insufficiency during prolonged critical illness in neonatal foals.
Objective—To compare pharmacokinetics of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) following IV, intra-articular (IA), and IM administration and determine its effect on plasma concentrations of hydrocortisone and cortisone.
Procedures—TA (0.04 mg/kg) was administered IV, IM, or IA, and plasma TA, hydrocortisone, and cortisone concentrations were determined.
Results—IV administration of TA was fitted to a 2-compartment model. Median distribution half-life was 0.50 hours (range, 0.24 to 0.67 hours); elimination half-life was 6.1 hours (range, 5.0 to 6.4 hours). Transfer half-life of TA from joint to plasma was 5.2 hours (range, 0.49 to 73 hours); elimination half-life was 23.8 hours (range, 18.9 to 32.2 hours). Maximum plasma concentration following IA administration was 2.0 ng/mL (range, 0.94 to 2.5 ng/mL), and was attained at 10 hours (range, 8 to 12 hours). Maximum plasma concentration following IM administration was 0.34 ng/mL (range, 0.20 to 0.48 ng/mL) and was attained at 13.0 hours (range, 12 to 16 hours); concentration was still quantifiable at 360 hours. Hydrocortisone plasma concentrations were significantly different from baseline within 0.75, 2, and 1 hours after IV, IA, and IM administration, respectively, and remained significantly different from baseline at 96 and 264 hours for IV and IA administration. Following IM administration of TA, plasma concentrations of hydrocortisone did not recover to baseline concentrations by 360 hours.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pharmacokinetics of TA and related changes in hydrocortisone were described following IV, IA, and IM administration. A single administration of TA has profound effects on secretion of endogenous hydrocortisone.
Objective—To evaluate and compare circulating concentrations of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), insulin, and glucose in nondiabetic cats classified by body condition score (BCS) and in cats with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus.
Animals—109 (82 nondiabetic, 21 nonketoacidotic diabetic, and 6 ketoacidotic diabetic) cats.
Procedures—Cats were examined and BCSs were assessed on a scale of 1 to 9. After food was withheld for 12 hours, blood was collected and plasma concentrations of IAPP and serum concentrations of insulin and glucose were measured. Differences in these values were evaluated among nondiabetic cats grouped according to BCS and in diabetic cats grouped as ketoacidotic or nonketoacidotic on the basis of clinicopathologic findings. Correlations were determined among variables.
Results—In nondiabetic cats, BCS was significantly and positively correlated with circulating IAPP and insulin concentrations. Mean plasma IAPP concentrations were significantly different between cats with BCSs of 5 and 7, and mean serum insulin concentrations were significantly different between cats with BCSs of 5 and 8. Serum glucose concentrations were not significantly different among nondiabetic cats. Mean IAPP concentrations were similar between nonketoacidotic diabetic cats and nondiabetic cats with BCSs of 8 or 9. Mean IAPP concentrations were significantly reduced in ketoacidotic diabetic cats, compared with those of nondiabetic cats with BCSs of 6 through 8 and of nonketoacidotic diabetic cats.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that increased BCS (a measure of obesity) is associated with increased circulating concentrations of IAPP and insulin in nondiabetic cats.
Objective—To determine whether trilostane or ketotrilostane is more potent in dogs and determine the trilostane and ketotrilostane concentrations that inhibit adrenal gland cortisol, corticosterone, and aldosterone secretion by 50%.
Sample—24 adrenal glands from 18 mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Adrenal gland tissues were sliced, placed in tissue culture, and stimulated with 100 pg of ACTH/mL alone or with 5 concentrations of trilostane or ketotrilostane. Trials were performed independently 4 times. In each trial, 6 samples (1 for each time point) were collected for each of the 5 concentrations of trilostane and ketotrilostane tested as well as a single negative control samples. At the end of 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 hours, tubes were harvested and media and tissue slices were assayed for cortisol, corticosterone, aldosterone, and potassium concentrations. Data were analyzed via pharmacodynamic modeling. One adrenal slice exposed to each concentration of trilostane or ketotrilostane was submitted for histologic examination to assess tissue viability.
Results—Ketotrilostane was 4.9 and 2.4 times as potent in inhibiting cortisol and corticosterone secretion, respectively, as its parent compound trilostane. For trilostane and ketotrilostane, the concentrations that inhibited secretion of cortisol or corticosterone secretion by 50% were 480 and 98.4 ng/mL, respectively, and 95.0 and 39.6 ng/mL, respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ketotrilostane was more potent than trilostane with respect to inhibition of cortisol and corticosterone secretion. The data should be useful in developing future studies to evaluate in vivo serum concentrations of trilostane and ketotrilostane for efficacy in the treatment of hyperadrenocorticism.
Objective—To investigate the in vitro effect of the combination of lignan enterolactone (ENL) or lignan enterodiol (END) with melatonin on steroid hormone secretion and cellular aromatase content in human adrenal carcinoma cells. Sample—Human adrenocortical carcinoma cells.
Procedures—Melatonin plus ENL or END was added to cell culture medium along with cAMP (100μM); control cells received cAMP alone. Medium and cell lysates were collected after 24 and 48 hours of cultivation. Samples of medium were analyzed for progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, aldosterone, estradiol, and cortisol concentration by use of radioimmunoassays. Cell lysates were used for western blot analysis of aromatase content.
Results—The addition of ENL or END with melatonin to cAMP-stimulated cells (treated cells) resulted in significant decreases in estradiol, androstenedione, and cortisol concentrations at 24 and 48 hours, compared with concentrations in cells stimulated with cAMP alone (cAMP control cells). The addition of these compounds to cAMP-stimulated cells also resulted in higher progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone concentrations than in cAMP control cells; aldosterone concentration was not affected by treatments. Compared with the content in cAMP control cells, aromatase content in treated cells was significantly lower.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The combination of lignan and melatonin affected steroid hormone secretion by acting directly on adrenal tumor cells. Results supported the concept that this combination may yield similar effects on steroid hormone secretion by the adrenal glands in dogs with typical and atypical hyperadrenocorticism.
Objective—To characterize the effects of pregnancy on insulin sensitivity (SI) and glucose dynamics in pasture-maintained mares fed supplemental feeds of differing energy composition.
Animals—Pregnant (n = 22) and nonpregnant (10) healthy Thoroughbred mares.
Procedures—Pregnant and nonpregnant mares underwent frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests at 2 times (period 1, 25 to 31 weeks of gestation; period 2, 47 weeks of gestation). Following period 1 measurements, mares were provided a high-starch (HS; 39% starch) or high-fat and -fiber (14% fat and 70% fiber) supplemental feed. From a subset of mares (n = 12), blood samples were collected hourly for 24 hours to assess glycemic and insulinemic response to feeding while pastured. The minimal model of glucose and insulin dynamics was used to estimate SI, glucose effectiveness, and acute insulin response to glucose from tolerance testing data.
Results—Pregnant mares during period 1 had a lower SI and glucose effectiveness and higher acute insulin response to glucose than did nonpregnant mares. The SI value decreased in nonpregnant but not pregnant mares from periods 1 to 2. Pregnant mares fed HS feed had a greater glycemic and insulinemic response to feeding than did any other group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Pregnant mares had slower glucose clearance and greater insulin secretion at 28 weeks of gestation than did nonpregnant mares. Glucose and insulin responses to meal feeding, particularly with HS feed, were greater in pregnant mares, indicating that pregnancy enhanced the postprandial glycemic and insulinemic effects of starch-rich feed supplements.
Objective—To investigate the effects of a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of dextrose solution or dextrose solution and insulin on glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy and endotoxin-exposed horses.
Animals—9 adult mares.
Procedures—During phase 1, treatments consisted of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control group; n = 4) or 20% dextrose solution (group 1; 4) administered IV as a 360-minute CRI. During phase 2, treatments consisted of 360-minute CRIs of 20% dextrose solution and insulin administered simultaneously at 367.6 mg/kg/h (30 kcal/kg/d) and 0.07 U/kg/h, respectively, in healthy horses (group 2; n = 4) or horses administered 35 ng of lipopolysaccharide/kg, IV, 24 hours before starting the dextrose solution and insulin CRIs (group 3; 4). A balanced crossover study design was used in both phases. Blood samples were collected for measurement of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations.
Results—Infusion of dextrose solution alone resulted in hyperglycemia for most of the 360-minute CRI. Insulin concentration increased significantly in group 1, compared with that in the control group. Mean insulin concentration of group 2 was significantly higher throughout most of the infusion period, compared with concentrations of the control group and group 1. Mean glucose concentration did not differ significantly between groups 2 and 3.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Insulin infusion at a rate of 0.07 U/kg/h was found to be effective for the prevention of hyperglycemia when administered concurrently with dextrose solution. This rate was considered to be safe because horses did not become hypoglycemic during infusions of dextrose solution.