OBJECTIVE To determine the ability of an accelerometer within a commercially available portable media device (PMD) to measure changes in postural stability of standing horses during various stance conditions and to compare these results with data obtained by use of a stationary force platform.
ANIMALS 7 clinically normal horses.
PROCEDURES A PMD was mounted on a surcingle; the surcingle was placed immediately caudal to the highest point of the shoulders (withers). Each horse was examined while standing on a stationary force platform system in a normal square stance, forelimb base-narrow stance, and normal square stance at 5 and 10 minutes after sedation induced by IV administration of xylazine hydrochloride. A minimum of 5 trials were conducted for each stance condition. Ranges of craniocaudal and mediolateral motion as well as SDs were collected for the PMD and force platform system. Analyses were performed with mixed-model ANOVAs, and correlation coefficients were calculated.
RESULTS Stance condition significantly altered craniocaudal accelerations measured by use of the PMD, all craniocaudal and mediolateral displacements of the center of pressure, and velocities measured by use of the stationary force platform. For both the PMD and force platform, SDs were significantly affected by stance condition in both craniocaudal and mediolateral directions. Correlation coefficients between the systems for all variables were low to moderate (r = 0.18 to 0.58).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Body-mounted PMDs should be investigated for use in assessment of postural stability in horses with neuromuscular abnormalities.
OBJECTIVE To perform 3-D inverse dynamics analysis of the entire forelimb of healthy dogs during a walk and trot.
ANIMALS 5 healthy adult Beagles.
PROCEDURES The left forelimb of each dog was instrumented with 19 anatomic markers. X-ray fluoroscopy was used to optimize marker positions and perform scientific rotoscoping for 1 dog. Inverse dynamics were computed for each dog during a walk and trot on the basis of data obtained from an infrared motion-capture system and instrumented quad-band treadmill. Morphometric data were obtained from a virtual reconstruction of the left forelimb generated from a CT scan of the same dog that underwent scientific rotoscoping.
RESULTS Segmental angles, torque, and power patterns were described for the scapula, humerus, ulna, and carpus segments in body frame. For the scapula and humerus, the kinematics and dynamics determined from fluoroscopy-based data varied substantially from those determined from the marker-based data. The dominant action of scapular rotation for forelimb kinematics was confirmed. Directional changes in the torque and power patterns for each segment were fairly consistent between the 2 gaits, but the amplitude of those changes was often greater at a trot than at a walk.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that control of the forelimb joints of dogs is similar for both a walk and trot. Rotation of the forelimb around its longitudinal axis and motion of the scapula should be reconsidered in the evaluation of musculoskeletal diseases, especially before and after treatment or rehabilitation.
OBJECTIVE To compare stiffness and resistance to cyclic fatigue of two 3.5-mm locking system plate-rod constructs applied to an experimentally created fracture gap in femurs of canine cadavers.
SAMPLE 20 femurs from cadavers of 10 mixed-breed adult dogs.
PROCEDURES 1 femur from each cadaver was stabilized with a conical coupling plating system-rod construct, and the contralateral femur was stabilized with a locking compression plate (LCP)-rod construct. An intramedullary Steinmann pin was inserted in each femur. A 40-mm gap then was created; the gap was centered beneath the central portion of each plate. Cyclic axial loading with increasing loads was performed. Specimens that did not fail during cyclic loading were subjected to an acute load to failure.
RESULTS During cyclic loading, significantly more LCP constructs failed (6/10), compared with the number of conical coupling plating system constructs that failed (1/10). Mode of failure of the constructs included fracture of the medial or caudal aspect of the cortex of the proximal segment with bending of the plate and pin, bending of the plate and pin without fracture, and screw pullout. Mean stiffness, yield load, and load to failure were not significantly different between the 2 methods of stabilization.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Both constructs had similar biomechanical properties, but the conical coupling plating system was less likely to fail than was the LCP system when subjected to cyclic loading. These results should be interpreted with caution because testing was limited to a single loading mode.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate biomechanical properties of intact feline mandibles, compared with those for mandibles with an experimentally created osteotomy that was stabilized with 1 of 2 internal fixation configurations.
SAMPLE 20 mandibles from 10 adult feline cadavers.
PROCEDURES An incomplete block study design was used to assign the mandibles of each cadaver to 2 of 3 groups (locking plate with locking screws [locking construct], locking plate with nonlocking screws [nonlocking construct], or intact). Within each cadaver, mandibles were randomly assigned to the assigned treatments. For mandibles assigned to the locking and nonlocking constructs, a simple transverse osteotomy was created caudal to the mandibular first molar tooth after plate application. All mandibles were loaded in cantilever bending in a single-load-to-failure test while simultaneously recording load and actuator displacement. Mode of failure (bone or plate failure) was recorded, and radiographic evidence of tooth root and mandibular canal damage was evaluated. Mechanical properties were compared among the 3 groups.
RESULTS Stiffness, bending moments, and most post-yield energies for mandibles with the locking and nonlocking constructs were significantly lower than those for intact mandibles. Peak bending moment and stiffness for mandibles with the locking construct were significantly greater than those for mandibles with the nonlocking construct. Mode of failure and frequency of screw damage to tooth roots and the mandibular canal did not differ between the locking and nonlocking constructs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that both fixation constructs were mechanically inferior to intact mandibles. The locking construct was mechanically stronger than the nonlocking construct.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of exercise in an underwater treadmill (UWT) on forelimb biomechanics and articular histologic outcomes in horses with experimentally induced osteoarthritis of the middle carpal joint.
ANIMALS 16 horses.
PROCEDURES An osteochondral fragment was induced arthroscopically (day 0) in 1 middle carpal joint of each horse. Beginning on day 15, horses were assigned to exercise in a UWT or in the UWT without water (simulating controlled hand walking) at the same speed, frequency, and duration. Thoracic and pelvic limb ground reaction forces, thoracic limb kinematics, and electromyographic results for select thoracic limb muscles acting on the carpi were collected on days -7 (baseline), 14, 42, and 70. Weekly evaluations included clinical assessments of lameness, response to carpal joint flexion, and goniometric measurements of thoracic limb articulations. At study conclusion, articular cartilage and synovial membrane from the middle carpal joints was histologically examined.
RESULTS Exercise in a UWT significantly reduced synovial membrane inflammation and resulted in significant clinical improvements with regard to symmetric thoracic limb loading, uniform activation patterns of select thoracic limb muscles, and return to baseline values for carpal joint flexion, compared with results for horses with simulated hand walking.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Overall improvements in thoracic limb function, joint range of motion, and synovial membrane integrity indicated that exercise in a UWT was a potentially viable therapeutic option for the management of carpal joint osteoarthritis in horses.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate mechanical properties of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri versus ostectomized humeri stabilized with a locking or nonlocking plate.
SAMPLE 30 humeri from pigeon cadavers.
PROCEDURES Specimens were allocated into 3 groups and tested in bending and torsion. Results for intact pigeon humeri were compared with results for ostectomized humeri repaired with a titanium 1.6-mm screw locking plate or a stainless steel 1.5-mm dynamic compression plate; the ostectomized humeri mimicked a fracture in a thin cortical bone. Locking plates were secured with locking screws (2 bicortical and 4 monocortical), and nonlocking plates were secured with bicortical nonlocking screws. Constructs were cyclically tested nondestructively in 4-point bending and then tested to failure in bending. A second set of constructs were cyclically tested non-destructively and then to failure in torsion. Stiffness, strength, and strain energy of each construct were compared.
RESULTS Intact specimens were stiffer and stronger than the repair groups for all testing methods, except for nonlocking constructs, which were significantly stiffer than intact specimens under cyclic bending. Intact bones had significantly higher strain energies than locking plates in both bending and torsion. Locking and nonlocking plates were of equal strength and strain energy, but not stiffness, in bending and were of equal strength, stiffness, and strain energy in torsion.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results for this study suggested that increased torsional strength may be needed before bone plate repair can be considered as the sole fixation method for avian species.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of an orthosis on biomechanics of a cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL)-deficient canine stifle joint by use of a 3-D quasistatic rigid-body pelvic limb computer model simulating the stance phase of gait and to investigate influences of orthosis hinge stiffness (durometer).
SAMPLE A previously developed computer simulation model for a healthy 33-kg 5-year-old neutered Golden Retriever.
PROCEDURES A custom stifle joint orthosis was implemented in the CrCL-deficient pelvic limb computer simulation model. Ligament loads, relative tibial translation, and relative tibial rotation in the orthosis-stabilized stifle joint (baseline scenario; high-durometer hinge]) were determined and compared with values for CrCL-intact and CrCL-deficient stifle joints. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the influence of orthosis hinge stiffness on model outcome measures.
RESULTS The orthosis decreased loads placed on the caudal cruciate and lateral collateral ligaments and increased load placed on the medial collateral ligament, compared with loads for the CrCL-intact stifle joint. Ligament loads were decreased in the orthosis-managed CrCL-deficient stifle joint, compared with loads for the CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Relative tibial translation and rotation decreased but were not eliminated after orthosis management. Increased orthosis hinge stiffness reduced tibial translation and rotation, whereas decreased hinge stiffness increased internal tibial rotation, compared with values for the baseline scenario.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Stifle joint biomechanics were improved following orthosis implementation, compared with biomechanics of the CrCL-deficient stifle joint. Orthosis hinge stiffness influenced stifle joint biomechanics. An orthosis may be a viable option to stabilize a CrCL-deficient canine stifle joint.
OBJECTIVE To assess effects of vertebral distraction-fusion techniques at a treated segment (C5-C6) and an adjacent segment (C4-C5) of canine cervical vertebrae.
SAMPLE Cervical vertebrae harvested from cadavers of 10 skeletally mature Beagles.
PROCEDURES Three models (intact, titanium plate, and polymethylmethacrylate [PM MA]) for stabilization of the caudal region of the cervical vertebrae (C4 through C7) were applied to the C5-C6 vertebral segment sequentially on the same specimens. Biomechanical assessments with flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotational tests were conducted after each procedure. Range of motion (ROM) for a torque load applied with a 6-axis material tester was measured at C4-5 and C5-6 and calculated by use of a 3-D video measurement system.
RESULTS In both the plate and PMMA models, ROM significantly increased at C4-5 and significantly decreased at C5-6, compared with results for the intact model. The ROM at C5-6 was significantly lower for the plate model versus the PMMA model in lateral bending and for the PMMA model versus the plate model in axial rotation. Conversely, ROM at C4-5 was significantly higher in axial rotation for the PMMA model versus the plate model. No significant differences were identified in flexion-extension between the PMMA and plate models at either site.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of this study suggested that vertebral distraction and fusion of canine vertebrae can change the mechanical environment at, and may cause disorders in, the adjacent segment. Additionally, findings suggested that effects on the adjacent segment differed on the basis of the fusion method used.
OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of conventional and slanted ventral slot procedures on the biomechanical behavior of the C5-C6 vertebral motion unit (VMU) in dogs.
SAMPLE 14 vertebral columns (C4 through C7) from canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES Specimens were assigned to a conventional or slanted ventral slot group (n = 7/group). For each specimen, the C5-C6 VMU was tested in ventral and dorsal bending and positive and negative axial torsion before and after surgery. Range of motion (ROM), stiffness, and energy absorption were compared between the 2 groups.
RESULTS Both procedures significantly increased the ROM and stiffness and significantly decreased the energy absorption of the C5-C6 VMU in ventral and dorsal bending. Both procedures also increased the ROM in positive and negative axial torsion. In negative torsion, total stiffness and stiffness over the maximum ROM tested decreased less for the slanted slot procedure than for the conventional slot procedure. There were no significant differences between procedures for any of the other biomechanical outcomes examined.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the biomechanical response of the C5-C6 VMU to the conventional and slanted ventral slot procedures was not significantly different, especially when considering postsurgical instability induced by both procedures. This was most likely due to disruption of the nucleus pulposus and dorsal annulus fibrosus of the disk with both procedures. On the basis of these findings, neither procedure appeared biomechanically superior. Comparative clinical studies are warranted to further evaluate the 2 procedures.
OBJECTIVE To compare the biomechanical behavior of mandibular critical-sized defects stabilized with 2 plating configurations under in vitro conditions resembling clinical situations.
SAMPLE 24 mandibles harvested from 12 adult canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES 8 mandibles were kept intact as control samples. A critical-sized defect was created in 16 mandibles; these mandibles were stabilized by use of a single locking plate (LP [n = 8]) or an LP combined with an alveolar miniplate (LMP ). Mandibles were loaded in cantilever bending in a single-load-to-failure test with simultaneous recording of load and actuator displacement. Stiffness, yield, and failure properties were compared among groups. Mode of failure was recorded. Radiographic evidence of tooth root and mandibular canal damage was quantified and compared between groups.
RESULTS Stiffness and yield loads of single LP and LMP constructs were < 30% of values for intact mandibles, and failure loads were < 45% of values for intact mandibles. There were no consistent biomechanical differences at failure between single LP and LMP constructs, but the LMP construct had greater stiffness and strength prior to yield. Frequency of screw penetration of teeth and the mandibular canal was significantly greater for LMP than for single LP constructs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Both fixation methods were mechanically inferior to an intact mandible. The LMP construct was mechanically stronger than the LP construct but may not be clinically justifiable. Addition of an alveolar miniplate provided additional strength to the construct but resulted in more frequent penetration of tooth roots and the mandibular canal.