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Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 19-year-old male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) presented with inappetence and avoidant behavior.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Ultrasound revealed a large-volume left-sided pleural effusion, which was consistent with chronic nonchylous lymphatic effusion and mild chronic hemorrhage by cytology. Computed tomography identified ipsilateral rib fractures, atelectasis, nodular pleuritis, marginal lymph node enlargement, and suspected dilation of the thoracic duct and internal thoracic veins. Fifteen lipids were significantly higher in serum of the dolphin as compared with controls (n = 3) using nontargeted lipidomics.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

A series of thoracentesis procedures were performed. Follow-up CT demonstrated marked reduction in pleural effusion with persistence of thoracic duct dilation and mass-like areas of pleural thickening. Ultrasonographic resolution of pleural effusion occurred 14 months after presentation; however, recrudescence was noted 5 months later. Over a total of 24 months, 21.52 L of pleural effusion was removed. Despite the presence of pleural effusion, the patient was clinically stable during this time and quality of life was considered good on the basis of continuous animal welfare evaluations. Humane euthanasia was elected following acute clinical decline 27 months after initial diagnosis. Necropsy confirmed severe pleural effusion, chronic severe pleural fibrosis with chronic hemorrhage, and mediastinal fibrosis with entrapped lymph nodes and thymic tissue.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Pleuritis and effusion were suspected sequelae of previous rib fractures. To our knowledge, this is the first report of nonchylous lymphatic pleural effusion with repeated pleural drainage and diagnostic imaging for clinical management in a bottlenose dolphin.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 12-year-old sexually intact male zoo-managed Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) was evaluated for a 3-day history of vomiting, hyporexia, and lethargy. Radiographs were supportive of gastrointestinal obstruction, and an exploratory laparotomy was performed.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Diffuse tan foci were present on the liver parenchyma, and the tiger became icteric throughout the procedure. Hepatic histopathology and immunohistochemistry resulted in a diagnosis of leptospirosis. Serum microagglutination testing for Leptospira spp antibody titers were positive for L kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, rising from 1:400 to 1:3,200 in 2 days.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

The tiger was treated with antimicrobials, ursodiol, and mirtazapine, and increased biosecurity measures were instituted. Free-ranging wildlife on grounds were trapped, euthanized, and submitted for necropsy to screen for disease vectors. The tiger’s urine was intermittently opportunistically collected from the enclosure and remained PCR assay negative for Leptospira spp until being positive once again on day 595. Although the tiger was without clinical signs at that time, antimicrobial therapy and increased biosecurity protocols were instituted a second time until urinary Leptospira shedding was confirmed to have stopped. By 1,071 days after initial presentation, the tiger remained nonclinical, with no additional urinary shedding episodes.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

While domestic and nondomestic free-ranging felids have been reported as subclinical Leptospira spp carriers, this report indicates the clinical importance of leptospirosis when a tiger presents with generalized gastrointestinal signs and icterus. Due to the zoonotic potential, biosecurity measures are necessary. This patient had a clinically successful outcome with antimicrobial therapy and supportive care.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess proportionate mortality from all causes for male and female US veterinarians during 1979 through 2015.

SAMPLE

Death records for 11,620 veterinarians.

PROCEDURES

For this proportionate mortality ratio (PMR) study, information for veterinarians who died during 1979 through 2015 was obtained from AVMA obituary and life insurance databases and submitted to a centralized database of US death records to obtain underlying causes of death. Decedent data that met records-matching criteria were imported into a software program for calculation of PMRs for all causes stratified by sex and indirectly standardized for age, race, and 5-year calendar period with 95% CIs.

RESULTS

11,620 decedents consisted of 11,049 (95%) males and 571 (5%) females with a median age at death of 77 years. Proportionate mortality for all veterinarian decedents was higher than expected for melanoma (PMRs, 2.1 and 2.2 for males and females, respectively), suicide (PMRs, 2.1 and 3.5 for males and females, respectively), and transportation injuries (PMRs, 1.7 and 1.6 for males and females, respectively). Proportionate mortality for all decedents was lower than expected for respiratory cancers (PMRs, 0.6 and 0.5 for males and females, respectively), diabetes mellitus (PMRs, 0.7 and 0.4 for males and females, respectively), heart disease (PMRs, 0.9 and 0.6 for males and females, respectively), and respiratory disorders (PMRs, 0.7 and 0.6 for males and females, respectively).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated proportionate mortality from malignant melanoma, transportation injuries, and suicide for male and female veterinarians was higher than the general population. These data may help stakeholders improve veterinarian workplace safety and health guidelines.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 9-year-old spayed female Maine Coon cat was presented at the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna for further investigation of chronic nonpruritic bilateral ear disease and unilateral Horner syndrome.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Physical examination and otoscopy findings included right sided Horner syndrome, a right head tilt of approximately 20° and a small pink nodule in the right and several smaller nodules in the left proximal horizontal external ear canal. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed soft tissue opacity material in both middle ear cavities, the caudal portion of the nasal cavity, the left nasopharyngeal meatus and the right frontal sinus. Via videootoscopy, 2 multilobular and several flat nodules were detected in the proximal right horizontal external ear canal and in the left tympanic bulla, respectively. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of cholesterol granulomas.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

All otic cholesterol granulomas (CGs) were removed via video-otoscopy (VO), and topical treatment was initiated in addition to oral prednisolone. After the histopathological confirmation, negative microbial cultures from the middle ear cavities, and the remission of the symptoms by the first recheck, topical, and systemic treatment were discontinued. A follow-up 6 months later, did not reveal any recurrence of the CGs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

To our knowledge, this is the first case of bilateral CGs diagnosed with a combination of CT, MRI, VO, and histopathology and removed minimal invasively via VO, without a need for ventral bulla osteotomy, which led to complete remission of all signs and no relapse until the follow up 6 months later.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the clinical and pathological findings of rabbits diagnosed with lymphoma.

ANIMALS

16 rabbits.

PROCEDURES

The medical and pathology records database of the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at the University of California, Davis was searched for rabbits diagnosed with lymphoma from 1996 to 2019.

RESULTS

Mean age of the 16 rabbits was 8 years (range, 4.5 to 12 years). Immunophenotyping was performed in 14 cases. Diffuse, large, B-cell lymphoma was most common (n = 7) followed by epitheliotropic, T-cell lymphoma (2); type II enteropathy-associated, T-cell lymphoma (2); marginal-zone, B-cell lymphoma (1); peripheral, T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (cutaneous nonepitheliotropic lymphoma; 1); primary, mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma (1), and unclassified (cytology only with no immunophenotyping; 2). Multiple chemotherapy protocols were used on the basis of each individual animal’s disease state. Initial clinical improvement was reported for most rabbits receiving chemotherapy (5/6), with diffuse B-cell lymphoma responding most favorably to treatment. The 11 rabbits included in the survival analysis had a median survival time of 60 days (range, 1 to 480 days), and those diagnosed with B- and T-cell lymphoma had a median survival time of 8 and 36 days (range, 1 to 150 and 1 to 90 days), respectively.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Rabbits develop a range of lymphoma subtypes and, similar to humans and dogs, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma appears to be the most common. Chemotherapy treatments followed multiple protocols, which were mostly well tolerated and had a highly variable response. Further research into chemotherapy protocols is needed to optimize treatment of lymphoma in rabbits.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

A 10-month-old male crossbred dog presented with a 4-week history of polyuria and polydipsia and a 6-month history of vomiting.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Clinical examination revealed abdominal pain and right-sided nephromegaly. Biochemistry was within normal limits. Diagnostic imaging showed a well-defined, unilateral renal mass containing anechoic fluid consistent with a simple renal cyst (SRC).

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

The cyst was drained under ultrasonographic guidance but recurred 3 months later, concomitant with recurrence of the previously reported clinical signs. The cyst was then deroofed, fulgurated, and omentalized under laparoscopy by use of a 3-port technique. The resected cystic wall was histopathologically consistent with an SRC, presumptively congenital. The dog showed a good recovery with resolution of clinical signs. Renal function was normal at last follow-up, conducted 2 years postoperatively, without evidence of recurrent disease.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

To our knowledge, this was the first report of a symptomatic juvenile SRC of presumptively congenital origin in a dog treated successfully by laparoscopic deroofing, fulguration, and omentalization. The polyuria, polydipsia, chronic vomiting, and abdominal pain may all have been related to space-occupying effects of the cyst, as these symptoms resolved post-treatment. Results of long-term follow-up advocate for this durable cure of SRC by use of laparoscopic procedures, especially when compared to simple drainage of the cyst, as the latter initially failed in the present case.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess what information sources veterinarians use to select drug dosages for treating exotic animals and how they implement this information.

SAMPLE

936 veterinarians from Europe, Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas.

PROCEDURES

An anonymous, online survey was used to collect data on information sources used for dosage decisions by veterinarians treating exotic species. Logistic regression models were built to identify associations between individual characteristics and primary outcomes.

RESULTS

Respondents reported their single most common source for establishing drug dosages as formularies (682/936 [72.9%]), followed by scientific journals (96 [10.3%]), other textbooks (68 [7.3%]), colleagues (47 [5.0%]), or continuing education notes (38 [4.1%]). Over two-thirds of the respondents (645, 68.9%) consulted a specific exotic animal formulary for establishing drug dosages in most situations. Of the 936 respondents, 407 (43.5%) reported that they sometimes (318 [34.0%]) or never (89 [9.5%]) checked the source of a dosage in a textbook or a formulary, 503 (55.3%) reported that they sometimes (399 [42.6%]) or never (104 [11.1%]) searched the original publication on a dosage, and 486 (51.9%) reported that they would base their dosage decision on the abstract of an article if they had no access to the full-text. Several respondents’ reported characteristics were significant predictors of primary outcomes.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Considering our findings, we recommend authors of formularies and textbooks should focus on evidence-based information and state clearly when information is anecdotal. Tailored strategies to educate veterinarians treating exotic animals on the importance of primary sources are also recommended.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

An 8-year-old spayed female Yorkshire Terrier–Poodle dog was evaluated for persistent pollakiuria and stranguria following routine cystotomy for calcium oxalate cystoliths.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

The dog presented for a cystotomy with intermittent hematuria. Postoperative radiographs revealed no remaining cystoliths. Urine, cystolith, and bladder mucosal aerobic cultures were negative. Pollakiuria, stranguria, and hematuria developed immediately after surgery and persisted despite antibiotics. Ultrasound revealed suspected fibrous adhesions within the urinary bladder lumen connecting the dorsal and ventral bladder wall creating a septum. This was confirmed cystoscopically 4 weeks after surgery.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Cystoscopic-guided laser ablation was performed to incise abnormal tissue connecting the ventral and dorsal bladder wall using a holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. Three weeks later, ultrasound revealed adhesion resolution though mild pollakiuria and stranguria persisted. Oxybutynin was prescribed and clinical signs resolved. At 27 months after ablation, hematuria occurred with recurrent cystoliths. These cystoliths were removed by percutaneous cystolithotomy, documenting a cystoscopically normal bladder wall. The patient had normal urination for 55.5 months after ablation, with normal bladder wall thickness on ultrasound repeated at 27 and 36 months after ablation.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

To the authors’ knowledge, an adhesion creating a septum between the dorsal and ventral bladder wall has not been previously reported as a complication after cystotomy in any species and should be considered as a cause of persistent lower urinary signs after surgery. Ultrasound identified the lesion in this dog. Because bladder abnormalities can develop quickly after surgery, ultrasound might be considered if urine testing is not supportive of infection. Cystoscopic-guided laser ablation was a successful minimally invasive treatment in this case.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine (DXM) and its subsequent reversal with atipamezole (APM) on the echocardiogram and circulating concentrations of cardiac biomarkers in cats.

ANIMALS

14 healthy cats.

PROCEDURES

Cats underwent echocardiography and measurements of circulating cTn-I and NT-proBNP concentrations before (PRE) and during (INTRA) DXM sedation (40 µg/kg IM) and 2 to 4 (2H POST) and 24 (24H POST) hours after reversal with APM.

RESULTS

Administering DXM significantly decreased heart rate, right ventricular and left ventricular (LV) outflow tract velocities, and M-mode–derived LV free-wall thickness; increased LV end systolic diameter and volume; and caused valvar regurgitation. While sedative effects resolved within 25 minutes of APM reversal, the evolution of echocardiographic changes was mixed: LV ejection fraction and mitral valvar regurgitation score were different at 2H POST than at both INTRA and PRE (partial return toward baseline), LV end-diastolic volume was different PRE to INTRA and INTRA to 2H POST but not different PRE to 2H POST (full return toward baseline), and M-mode–derived LV free-wall thickness was significantly different from PRE to INTRA and PRE to 2H POST (no return toward baseline). Serum cTn-I and plasma NT-proBNP concentrations increased significantly with DXM, which remained significant 2H POST.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Administration of DXM and APM reversal produced changes in echocardiographic results and in circulating cTn-I and NT-proBNP concentrations. Understanding these changes could help veterinarians differentiate drug effects from cardiac disease.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate patterns of bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility test results for dogs with retrobulbar abscesses and generate recommendations for empirical antimicrobial selection.

ANIMALS

133 dogs examined between 2002 and 2019.

PROCEDURES

Records were retrospectively reviewed to determine type of bacterial culture, number and type of bacterial isolates, antimicrobial susceptibility test results, concurrent and recent antimicrobial exposure, effect of culture results on antimicrobial regimen, and outcome.

RESULTS

Aerobic culture alone was performed in 37 dogs, and aerobic and anaerobic culture was performed in 96 dogs. Isolates were recovered from 96 dogs, with multiple isolates recovered from 54 (56%) of those dogs. Of the 69 dogs for which both aerobic and anaerobic culture was performed and at least 1 isolate was obtained, 34 (49%) had purely aerobic infections, 15 (22%) had mixed aerobic and anaerobic infections, and 20 (29%) had purely anaerobic infections. Pasteurella spp (n = 26), Streptococcus spp (20), and Escherichia coli (12) were the most common aerobic isolates. Bacteroides spp (n = 22), Actinomyces spp (10), and Fusobacterium (10) spp were the most common anaerobic isolates. Susceptibility test results led to changes in the antimicrobial regimen in 37 of 80 (46%) dogs. Of the 76 dogs for which outcome information was available, 78 (97%) recovered.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Multipathogen and anaerobic infections were common in dogs with retrobulbar abscesses. Susceptibility data supported the use of amoxicillin-clavulanate or a combination of clindamycin and enrofloxacin as first-line treatments. Additional study is needed to characterize anaerobic antimicrobial susceptibilities and to compare results of susceptibility testing with in vivo responses to antimicrobial administration.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association