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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin following oral administration of a generic levofloxacin tablet and IV administration to dogs and whether the achieved plasma levofloxacin concentration would be sufficient to treat susceptible bacterial infections.

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES

Levofloxacin was administered orally as a generic 250-mg tablet (mean dose, 23.7 mg/kg) or IV as a solution (15 mg/kg) to each dog in a crossover study design, with treatments separated by a minimum 2-day washout period. Blood samples were collected at various points for measurement of plasma levofloxacin concentration via high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed with compartmental modeling.

RESULTS

After oral administration of the levofloxacin tablet, mean (coefficient of variation) peak plasma concentration was 15.5 μg/mL (23.8%), mean elimination half-life was 5.84 hours (20.0%), and mean bioavailability was 104% (29.0%). After IV administration, mean elimination half-life (coefficient of variation) was 6.23 hours (14.7%), systemic clearance was 145.0 mL/kg/h (22.2%), and volume of distribution was 1.19 L/kg (17.1%).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

In these dogs, levofloxacin was well absorbed when administered orally, and a dose of approximately 25 mg/kg was sufficient to reach pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic targets for treating infections with susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (ie, ≤ 0.5 μg/mL) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ie, ≤ 1 μg/mL) according to clinical breakpoints established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of maropitant citrate after IV and SC administration to New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

ANIMALS

11 sexually intact (3 males and 8 females) adult rabbits.

PROCEDURES

Each rabbit received maropitant citrate (1 mg/kg) IV or SC. Blood samples were collected at 9 (SC) or 10 (IV) time points over 48 hours. After a 2-week washout period, rabbits received maropitant by the alternate administration route. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. Body weight, food and water consumption, injection site, mentation, and urine and fecal output were monitored.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD maximum concentration after SC administration was 14.4 ± 10.9 ng/mL and was detected at 1.25 ± 0.89 hours. Terminal half-life after IV and SC administration was 10.4 ± 1.6 hours and 13.1 ± 2.44 hours, respectively. Bioavailability after SC administration was 58.9 ± 13.3%. Plasma concentration at 24 hours was 2.87 ± 1.69 ng/mL after IV administration and 3.4 ± 1.2 ng/mL after SC administration. Four rabbits developed local dermal reactions at the injection site after SC injection. Increased fecal production was detected on the day of treatment and 1 day after treatment.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Plasma concentrations of rabbits 24 hours after SC and IV administration of maropitant citrate (1 mg/kg) were similar to those of dogs at 24 hours. Reactions at the SC injection site were the most common adverse effect detected. Increased fecal output may suggest an effect on gastrointestinal motility. Additional pharmacodynamic and multidose studies are needed.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of naloxone hydrochloride in dogs following intranasal (IN) and IV administration.

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.

PROCEDURES

In a blinded crossover design involving 2 experimental periods separated by a washout period (minimum of 7 days), dogs were randomly assigned to receive naloxone IN (4 mg via a commercially available fixed-dose naloxone atomizer; mean ± SD dose, 0.17 ± 0.02 mg/kg) or IV (0.04 mg/kg) in the first period and then the opposite treatment in the second period. Plasma naloxone concentrations, dog behavior, heart rate, and respiratory rate were evaluated for 24 hours/period.

RESULTS

Naloxone administered IN was well absorbed after a short lag time (mean ± SD, 2.3 ± 1.4 minutes). Mean maximum plasma concentration following IN and IV administration was 9.3 ± 2.5 ng/mL and 18.8 ± 3.9 ng/mL, respectively. Mean time to maximum concentration following IN administration was 22.5 ± 8.2 minutes. Mean terminal half-life after IN and IV administration was 47.4 ± 6.7 minutes and 37.0 ± 6.7 minutes, respectively. Mean bioavailability of naloxone administered IN was 32 ± 13%. There were no notable changes in dog behavior, heart rate, or respiratory rate following naloxone administration by either route.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Use of a naloxone atomizer for IN naloxone administration in dogs may represent an effective alternative to IV administration in emergency situations involving opioid exposure. Future studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of IN naloxone administration in dogs with opioid intoxication, including a determination of effective doses.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the pharmacokinetics and antihistaminic effects (pharmacodynamics) of olopatadine in a small population of healthy horses after administration via nasogastric tube.

ANIMALS

4 healthy adult Thoroughbreds.

PROCEDURES

Olopatadine (0.1 mg/kg, once) was administered via nasogastric tube. Blood samples were collected at predetermined time points for pharmacokinetic analyses of the drug in plasma. Olopatadine effects were investigated by measurement of cutaneous wheals induced by ID histamine injection (0.1 mL [10 μg]/injection) at predetermined time points. Inhibition effect ratios were calculated on the basis of measured wheal size (area) after versus before olopatadine administration.

RESULTS

Mean ± SD maximum plasma olopatadine concentration was 48.8 ± 11.0 ng/mL approximately 1.5 hours after administration. Median terminal half-life was 6.11 hours. Mean ± SD maximal effect was 88.2 ± 4.9% inhibition approximately 3.5 hours after drug delivery, and the inhibition effect remained > 80% for 12.5 hours after treatment. No signs of adverse clinical effects were observed.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested olopatadine may have a strong, long-term inhibitory effect against histamine-induced wheals in the skin of horses. Clinical research with a larger number of horses is warranted.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the pharmacokinetics of pentoxifylline (PTX) and its 5-hydroxyhexyl metabolite (M-I) after IV administration of increasing doses of PTX to sheep.

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult Merino sheep.

PROCEDURES

Each sheep received 10-, 20-, and 40-mg/kg doses of PTX, IV, with a 15-day washout period between doses. Blood samples were collected before and at predetermined times after administration of each dose to determine plasma PTX and M-I concentrations by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters for PTX and M-I were estimated by noncompartmental analysis.

RESULTS

No adverse effects were observed after administration of the 10- and 20-mg/kg doses. Following administration of the 40-mg/kg dose, all sheep developed tachycardia and hypersalivation and appeared agitated for approximately 4 hours. Plasma PTX concentrations considered therapeutic in other species were achieved in all sheep after administration of all 3 doses. Pharmacokinetic parameters for PTX and M-I varied in a dose-dependent linear manner. For PTX, the mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), elimination half-life, and volume of distribution increased with dose and ranged from 15.67 to 94.66 h·μg/mL, 0.68 to 0.91 hours, and 0.55 to 0.66 L/kg, respectively, whereas clearance decreased with dose and ranged from 0.42 to 0.64 L/h/kg. The mean ratio of the AUC for M-I to AUC for PTX ranged from 0.38 to 0.46.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results indicated that pharmacokinetic parameters for PTX and M-I varied in a dose-dependent linear manner in healthy sheep. Further studies are warranted to determine the therapeutic threshold and optimal dosage for PTX in sheep.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics after oral administration of a single dose of clopidogrel to horses.

ANIMALS

6 healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES

Blood samples were collected before and at various times up to 24 hours after oral administration of clopidogrel (2 mg/kg). Reactivity of platelets from each blood sample was determined by optical aggregometry and phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). Concentrations of clopidogrel and the clopidogrel active metabolite derivative (CAMD) were measured in each blood sample by use of liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined with a noncompartmental model.

RESULTS

Compared with results for preadministration samples, platelet aggregation in response to 12.5μM ADP decreased significantly within 4 hours after clopidogrel administration for 5 of 6 horses. After 24 hours, platelet aggregation was identical to that measured before administration. Platelet aggregation in response to 25μM ADP was identical between samples obtained before and after administration. Phosphorylation of VASP in response to ADP (20μM) and prostaglandin E1 (3.3μM) was also unchanged by administration of clopidogrel. Time to maximum concentration of clopidogrel and CAMD was 0.54 and 0.71 hours, respectively, and calculated terminal-phase half-life of clopidogrel and CAMD was 1.81 and 0.97 hours, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Clopidogrel or CAMD caused competitive inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation during the first 24 hours after clopidogrel administration. Because CAMD was rapidly eliminated from horses, clopidogrel administration may be needed more frequently than in other species in which clopidogrel causes irreversible platelet inhibition. (Am J Vet Res 2019;80:505–512)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that once-daily oral administration of atenolol would attenuate the heart rate response to isoproterenol for 24 hours.

ANIMALS 20 healthy dogs.

PROCEDURES A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted. Dogs were assigned to receive atenolol (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h) or a placebo for 5 to 7 days. After a washout period of 7 days, dogs then received the other treatment. Heart rate at rest (HRr) and heart rate induced by administration of isoproterenol (HRi) as a constant rate infusion (0.2 μg/kg/min for 5 to 7 minutes) were obtained by use of ECG 0, 0.25, 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours after administration of the final dose of atenolol or the placebo. A mixed-model ANOVA was used to evaluate effects of treatment, time after drug or placebo administration, treatment-by-time interaction, period, and sequence on HRr and HRi.

RESULTS Effects of sequence or period were not detected. There was a significant effect of treatment and the treatment-by-time interaction on HRi. Atenolol significantly attenuated HRi for 24 hours but did so maximally at 3 hours (least squares mean ± SE, 146 ± 5 beats/min and 208 ± 5 beats/min for atenolol and placebo, respectively). The effect at 24 hours was small (193 ± 5 beats/min and 206 ± 5 beats/min for atenolol and placebo, respectively). Atenolol had a small but significant effect on HRr.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This study of healthy dogs receiving atenolol supported a recommendation for a dosing interval < 24 hours.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine pharmacokinetics after oral administration of single and multiple doses and to assess the safety of zonisamide in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

ANIMALS 12 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots.

PROCEDURES Zonisamide (30 mg/kg, PO) was administered once to 6 parrots in a single-dose trial. Six months later, a multiple-dose trial was performed in which 8 parrots received zonisamide (20 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h for 10 days) and 4 parrots served as control birds. Safety was assessed through monitoring of body weight, attitude, and urofeces and comparison of those variables and results of CBC and biochemical analyses between control and treatment groups.

RESULTS Mean ± SD maximum plasma concentration of zonisamide for the single- and multiple-dose trials was 21.19 ± 3.42 μg/mL at 4.75 hours and 25.11 ± 1.81 μg/mL at 2.25 hours after administration, respectively. Mean plasma elimination half-life for the single- and multiple-dose trials was 13.34 ± 2.10 hours and 9.76 ± 0.93 hours, respectively. Pharmacokinetic values supported accumulation in the multiple-dose trial. There were no significant differences in body weight, appearance of urofeces, or appetite between treated and control birds. Although treated birds had several significant differences in hematologic and biochemical variables, all variables remained within reference values for this species.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Twice-daily oral administration of zonisamide to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots resulted in plasma concentrations known to be therapeutic in dogs without evidence of adverse effects on body weight, attitude, and urofeces or clinically relevant changes to hematologic and biochemical variables.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) during administration of multiple doses.

ANIMALS 6 healthy African grey parrots.

PROCEDURES Meloxicam was administered at each of 3 dosages (1 mg/kg, IM, q 24 h, for 7 days; 1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h, for 12 days; and 1.6 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h, for 7 days) with an 8-week washout period between treatments. Blood samples were collected 12 and 24 hours after each drug administration (times of presumptive peak and trough drug concentrations) for pharmacokinetic analysis. Birds were visually assessed during all experiments and monitored for changes in selected plasma and urine biochemical variables after administration of the drug at 1.6 mg/kg.

RESULTS Mean trough plasma concentrations at steady state were 10.7 and 9.16 μg/mL after meloxicam administration at 1 mg/kg, IM, and 1 mg/kg, PO, respectively. Plasma drug accumulation was evident (accumulation ratios of 2.04 ± 0.30 [IM treatment] and 2.45 ± 0.26 [PO treatment]). Plasma and urine N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activities were significantly increased at the end of meloxicam treatment at 1.6 mg/kg.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Plasma concentrations of meloxicam were maintained at values greater than effective analgesic concentrations described for other avian species. Although administration of meloxicam at a dosage of 1 mg/kg IM and PO daily for 1 week and 12 days, respectively, was not associated with adverse clinical effects in this population, further studies are needed to assess the efficacy and safety of the drug during prolonged treatment and the clinical relevance of its accumulation.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To determine the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of trazodone and its effect on the activity of domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult male domestic pigeons.

PROCEDURES: During the first of 3 experiments, birds received orally administered trazodone at doses ranging from 3 to 30 mg/kg to determine the dose for subsequent experiments. During the second experiment, each bird received 1 dose of trazodone (30 mg/kg, PO). Blood was collected for determination of plasma trazodone concentration before and at predetermined times for 24 hours after drug administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis. During experiment 3, birds were instrumented with ultralightweight accelerometers and received orally administered trazodone (30 mg/kg) or an equal volume of water twice at a 48-hour interval. Activity of birds was monitored for 24 hours after administration of each treatment.

RESULTS: No adverse effects were observed. Mean ± SD terminal half-life of trazodone was 5.65 ± 1.75 hours. Plasma trazodone concentrations remained > 0.130 μg/mL for approximately 20 hours. Trazodone did not affect the activity of birds during the first 2 and 15 hours after administration.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results suggested that oral administration of 1 dose (30 mg/kg) of trazodone to healthy pigeons was safe and resulted in plasma drug concentrations that were similar to those considered therapeutic in humans and dogs for up to 20 hours. Further research is necessary to characterize the pharmacokinetics for repeated doses as well as the clinical effects of trazodone in birds with behavior problems.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research