OBJECTIVE To assess 3-D geometry of the humerus of dogs and determine whether the craniocaudal canal flare index (CFI) is associated with specific geometric features.
SAMPLE CT images (n = 40) and radiographs (38) for 2 groups of skeletally mature nonchondrodystrophic dogs.
PROCEDURES General dimensions (length, CFI, cortical thickness, and humeral head offset), curvature (shaft, humeral head, and glenoid cavity), version (humeral head and greater tubercle), and torsion were evaluated on CT images. Dogs were allocated into 3 groups on the basis of the craniocaudal CFI, and results were compared among these 3 groups. The CT measurements were compared with radiographic measurements obtained for another group of dogs.
RESULTS Mean ± SD humeral head version was −75.9 ± 9.6° (range, −100.7° to −59.4°). Mean mechanical lateral distal humeral angle, mechanical caudal proximal humeral angle, and mechanical cranial distal humeral angle were 89.5 ± 3.5°, 50.2 ± 4.5°, and 72.9 ± 7.8°, respectively, and did not differ from corresponding radiographic measurements. Mean humeral curvature was 20.4 ± 4.4° (range, 9.6° to 30.5°). Mean craniocaudal CFI was 1.74 ± 0.18 (range, 1.37 to 2.10). Dogs with a high craniocaudal CFI had thicker cranial and medial cortices than dogs with a low craniocaudal CFI. Increased body weight was associated with a lower craniocaudal CFI. Radiographic and CT measurements of craniocaudal CFI and curvature differed significantly.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CT-based 3-D reconstructions allowed the assessment of shaft angulation, torsion, and CFI. Radiographic and CT measurements of shaft curvature and CFI may differ.
OBJECTIVE To assess the repeatability and accuracy of polymer replicas of small, medium, and large long bones of small animals fabricated by use of 2 low-end and 2 high-end 3-D printers.
SAMPLE Polymer replicas of a cat femur, dog radius, and dog tibia were fabricated in triplicate by use of each of four 3-D printing methods.
PROCEDURES 3-D renderings of the 3 bones reconstructed from CT images were prepared, and length, width of the proximal aspect, and width of the distal aspect of each CT image were measured in triplicate. Polymer replicas were fabricated by use of a high-end system that relied on jetting of curable liquid photopolymer, a high-end system that relied on polymer extrusion, a triple-nozzle polymer extrusion low-end system, and a dual-nozzle polymer extrusion low-end system. Polymer replicas were scanned by use of a laser-based coordinate measurement machine. Length, width of the proximal aspect, and width of the distal aspect of the scans of replicas were measured and compared with measurements for the 3-D renderings.
RESULTS 129 measurements were collected for 34 replicas (fabrication of 1 large long-bone replica was unsuccessful on each of the 2 low-end printers). Replicas were highly repeatable for all 3-D printers. The 3-D printers overestimated dimensions of large replicas by approximately 1%.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Low-end and high-end 3-D printers fabricated CT-derived replicas of bones of small animals with high repeatability. Replicas were slightly larger than the original bones.
OBJECTIVE To investigate effects of hyaluronic acid (HA) or HA combined with chondroitin sulfate (CS) and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (NAG) by use of a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro method.
SAMPLE Monolayer cultures of synovial cells from 4 adult horses.
PROCEDURES Synovial cell cultures were untreated or treated with HA alone or HA-CS-NAG for 24 hours, subsequently unchallenged or challenge-exposed with 2 LPS concentrations (20 and 50 ng/mL) for 2 hours, and retreated with HA or HA-CS-NAG for another 24 hours. Cellular morphology of cultures was evaluated at 0, 24 (before LPS), 26 (after LPS), and 50 (24 hours after end of LPS) hours. At 50 hours, cell number and viability and prostaglandin (PG) E2, interleukin (IL)-6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 production were measured.
RESULTS LPS challenge exposure induced a significant loss of characteristic synovial cell morphology, decrease in cell viability, and increases in concentrations of PGE2, IL-6, MMP-3, and COX-2. Cells treated with HA or HA-CS-NAG had significantly better viability and morphology scores and lower concentrations of PGE2, MMP-3, IL-6, and COX-2 than untreated LPS challenge-exposed cells. Cells treated with HA had significantly better morphology scores at 50 hours than cells treated with HA-CS-NAG. Cells treated with HA-CS-NAG had significantly superior suppression of LPS-induced production of PGE2, IL-6, and MMP-3 than cells treated with HA alone.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE HA and HA-CS-NAG protected synovial cells from the effects of LPS. Treatment with HA-CS-NAG had the greatest anti-inflammatory effect. These results supported the protective potential of HA and HA-CS-NAG treatments.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate 4 methods for generating decellularized equine synovial extracellular matrix.
SAMPLE Villous synovium harvested from the femoropatellar and medial femorotibial joints of 4 healthy adult horses < 7 years of age. Synovial samples were frozen (−80°C) until used.
PROCEDURES Synovial samples were thawed and left untreated (control) or decellularized with 1 of 4 methods (15 samples/horse/method): incubation in 0.1% peracetic acid (PAA), incubation in 0.1% PAA twice, incubation in 1% Triton X-100 followed by incubation in DNase, and incubation in 2M NaCl followed by incubation in DNase. Control and decellularized samples were examined for residual cells, villous integrity, and collagen structure and integrity by means of histologic examination and scanning electron microscopy; cell viability was evaluated by means of culture and exclusion staining. Decellularization efficiency was assessed by testing for DNA content and DNA fragment size.
RESULTS Incubation in PAA once preserved the synovial villous architecture, but resulted in high DNA content and retention of large (> 25,000 base pair) DNA fragments. Incubation in Triton and incubation in NaCl resulted in low DNA content and short (< 200 base pair) DNA fragments, but destroyed the synovial villous architecture. Incubation in PAA twice resulted in low DNA content and short DNA fragments while retaining the synovial villous architecture.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that of the methods evaluated, incubation in 0.1% PAA twice was the best method for generating decellularized equine synovial extracellular matrix.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of selective hip joint denervation on gait abnormalities and signs of hip joint pain in dogs.
ANIMALS 6 healthy adult hound-type dogs.
PROCEDURES Minimally invasive denervation was performed on the right hip joint of each dog. Two weeks later, sodium urate was injected into the right hip joint to induce synovitis. Dogs were evaluated clinically and by use of instrumented gait analysis before and 2 weeks after minimally invasive denervation and 4, 8, and 24 hours after induction of synovitis. Dogs were euthanized, and necropsy and histologic examination were performed.
RESULTS No kinetic or kinematic gait modifications were detected 2 weeks after minimally invasive denervation. Denervation did not eliminate signs of pain and lameness associated with sodium urate–induced synovitis. Results of histologic examination confirmed that denervation was an effective method for transecting the innervation of the craniolateral and caudolateral aspects of the hip joint capsule.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, minimally invasive denervation did not result in gait modifications in dogs. Denervation did not abolish the signs of pain and lameness associated with generalized induced synovitis of the hip joint. Further studies are required before conclusions can be drawn regarding the clinical usefulness of hip joint denervation for dogs with hip dysplasia.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of IV administration of a product containing hyaluronan, sodium chondroitin sulfate, and N-acetyl-d-glucosamine for prevention or treatment of osteoarthritis in horses.
ANIMALS 32 healthy 2- to 5-year-old horses.
PROCEDURES The study involved 2 portions. To evaluate prophylactic efficacy of the test product, horses received 5 mL of the product (n = 8) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (8; placebo) IV every fifth day, starting on day 0 (when osteoarthritis was induced in the middle carpal joint of 1 forelimb) and ending on day 70. To evaluate treatment efficacy, horses received either the product or placebo (n = 8/treatment) on days 16, 23, 30, 37, and 44 after osteoarthritis induction. Clinical, diagnostic imaging, synovial fluid, gross anatomic, and histologic evaluations and other tests were performed. Results of each study portion were compared between treatment groups.
RESULTS Limb flexion and radiographic findings were significantly worse for horses that received the test product in the prophylactic efficacy portion than for placebo-treated horses or product-treated horses in the treatment efficacy portion. In the prophylactic efficacy portion, significantly less articular cartilage erosion was identified in product-treated versus placebo-treated horses. In the treatment efficacy portion, joints of product-treated horses had a greater degree of bone edema identified via MRI than did joints of placebo-treated horses but fewer microscopic articular cartilage abnormalities.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that caution should be used when administering the evaluated product IV to horses, particularly when administering it prophylactically, as it may have no benefit or may even cause harm.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the biomechanical properties of 4 methods for fusion of the centrodistal and tarsometatarsal joints in horses and compare them among each other and with control tarsi.
SAMPLE 24 sets of paired tarsi without substantial signs of osteoarthritis harvested from equine cadavers.
PROCEDURES Test constructs (n = 6/type) were prepared from 1 tarsus from each pair to represent surgical drilling; 2 medially to laterally placed kerf-cut cylinders (MLKCs); a single large, dorsally applied kerf-cut cylinder (DKC); and a dorsomedially applied locking compression plate (DMLCP). Constructs and their contralateral control tarsi were evaluated in 4-point bending in the dorsoplantar, lateromedial, and mediolateral directions; internal and external rotation; and axial compression. Bending, torsional, and axial stiffness values were calculated.
RESULTS Mean stiffness values were consistently lower for surgical drilling constructs than for contralateral control tarsi. Over all biomechanical testing, surgical drilling significantly reduced joint stability. The MLKC constructs had superior biomechanical properties to those of control tarsi for 4-point bending but inferior properties for external and internal rotation. The DMLCP and DKC constructs were superior to control tarsi in dorsoplantar, rotational, and axial compression directions only; DMLCP constructs had no superior stiffness in lateromedial or mediolateral directions. Only the DKC constructs had greater stiffness in the mediolateral direction than did control tarsi. Over all biomechanical testing, DMLCP and DKC constructs were superior to the other constructs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE These biomechanical results suggested that a surgical drilling approach to joint fusion may reduce tarsal stability in horses without clinical osteoarthritis, compared with stability with no intervention, whereas the DMLCP and DKC approaches may significantly enhance stability.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of simultaneous intra-articular and IV injection of autologous adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints.
ANIMALS 22 client-owned dogs (12 placebo-treated [control] dogs and 10 treated dogs).
PROCEDURES Dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints that caused signs of lameness or discomfort were characterized on the basis of results of orthopedic examination, goniometry, lameness score, the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI), a visual analogue scale, and results obtained by use of a pressure-sensing walkway at week 0 (baseline). Dogs received a simultaneous intraarticular and IV injection of SVF and PRP or a placebo. Dogs were examined again 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after injection.
RESULTS CBPI scores were significantly lower for the treatment group at week 24, compared with scores for the control group. Mean visual analogue scale score for the treatment group was significantly higher at week 0 than at weeks 4, 8, or 24. Dogs with baseline peak vertical force (PVF) in the lowest 25th percentile were compared, and the treatment group had a significantly higher PVF than did the control group. After the SVF-PRP injection, fewer dogs in the treated group than in the control group had lameness confirmed during examination.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints treated with SVF and PRP, improvements in CBPI and PVF were evident at some time points, compared with results for the control group.
OBJECTIVE To determine morphological characteristics of subchondral bone cysts (SBCs) in medial femoral condyles (MFCs) of adult horses with orthopedic disease.
SAMPLE CT scans of 7 MFCs with SBCs from 6 adult horses.
PROCEDURES CT was used to determine the volume, surface area, and centers of the articular cyst opening and SBC in each MFC. Cysts were ordered from smallest to largest on the basis of volume. Osseous pathological characteristics of the MFC were assessed in the frontal plane. Three-dimensional distance of displacement between the center of the articular cyst opening and center of the cyst was determined for each SBC. Cyst surface area-to-volume ratio was evaluated and compared with that of a true sphere.
RESULTS All SBCs had a defect in the subchondral bone plate at the cranial 15% to 20% of the MFC. Cyst center was located in a caudal, proximal, and abaxial direction with respect to the center of the articular cyst opening for each horse. Small- and intermediate-volume SBCs were irregular and multilobulated, whereas large-volume SBCs were smooth and discrete with a surface area-to-volume ratio approaching that of a sphere.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Consistency in morphological characteristics suggested a common etiopathogenesis for SBCs in MFCs of adult horses. Cyst enlargement may have been attributable to a biomechanical predisposition to decrease the surface area-to-volume ratio, resulting in a spherical cyst.
OBJECTIVE To measure the minimal joint space width (mJSW) in caudocranial radiographic views of orthopedically normal femorotibial joints of horses, to compare the accuracy of measurements with those of a software program designed for humans, and to identify the ideal caudocranial radiographic projection angle for mJSW measurement.
ANIMALS 12 healthy mares (22 femorotibial joints) and 3 equine cadavers (6 stifle joints).
PROCEDURES Caudocranial views of femorotibial joints were acquired in the proximodistal plane at 5°, 10°, and 15° (caudo-5°-proximal-craniodistal oblique, 10°, and 15°) and lateromedial plane (caudo-10°-proximo-5°-lateral-craniodistomedial oblique and caudo-10°-proximo-5°-medial-craniodistolateral oblique). The mJSWs of medial and lateral femorotibial joint compartments were measured manually by 2 evaluators and automatically by a digital analysis software program. Interevaluator reproducibility was assessed. Post hoc tests were used to identify the projection angle that provided the largest measurements. Validation of mJSW measurements was performed by evaluation of 6 stifle joints ex vivo.
RESULTS Excellent agreement was achieved between the 2 evaluators and between the veterinary radiologist and the analysis software for the medial and lateral compartments of femorotibial joints. Angle of caudocranial view in the proximodistal but not lateromedial plane had a significant effect on the medial compartment mJSW measurements. Mean mJSW for the medial compartment was significantly higher for the caudoproximal-craniodistal oblique projection made at 10° from the horizontal than for other angles. Angle had no significant effect on mean mJSW for the lateral compartment. Agreement between automated measurements of mJSW in the medial compartment and thickness of nonmineralized cartilage in histologic preparations of associated tissues was excellent.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Measurements of mJSW in the medial compartment of femorotibial joints, the most common site of osteoarthritis in horses, were reproducible and optimal with a caudoproximal-craniodistal oblique radiographic projection made at 10° from the horizontal. (Am J Vet Res 2016;77:127–136)