To compare mechanical properties (stiffness, yield load, failure load, and deformation at failure) of 2 pearl-type locking plate system (PLS) constructs (PLS 1 and PLS 2) in a simulated fracture gap model and to compare screw push-out forces of the 2 PLSs with and without plate contouring.
40 PLS constructs.
Mechanical properties of uncontoured PLS 1 (n = 8) and PLS 2 (8) constructs were evaluated in synthetic bone-plate models under axial compression. Screw push-out forces were evaluated in 6 uncontoured and 6 contoured PLSs of each type. Variables of interest were compared between PLS groups and between contoured and uncontoured plates by statistical methods.
Yield and failure loads were higher in the PLS 1 group than in the PLS 2 group, but stiffness did not differ significantly between groups. All constructs failed by plate bending, with greater deformation in the PLS 2 group. Push-out force to screw-plate uncoupling was higher in the PLS 2 group than in the PLS 1 group for uncontoured and contoured plates. Locking mechanism failure of PLS 1 specimens was through screw-thread stripping. The PLS 2 specimens failed by node deformation followed by screwhead stripping.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Distinct mechanical differences were identified between the 2 PLSs. The clinical relevance of these differences is unknown. Further research including cyclic fatigue testing is needed to reveal more clinically pertinent information.
To compare joint stability and ultimate strength among 4 prosthetic ligament constructs for repair of tarsal medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury in dogs.
13 canine cadavers (26 hind limbs).
Each limb was stripped of all soft tissues except those associated with the tarsal joint and assigned to 1 of 4 prosthetic ligament constructs. The AN construct consisted of 3 bone anchors connected with monofilament nylon suture. The AU construct consisted of low-profile suture anchors connected with multifilament ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) suture. The TN and TU constructs involved the creation of 3 bone tunnels and use of nylon or UHMWPE suture, respectively. Each limb underwent biomechanical testing before and after MCL transection and before and after cyclic range-of-motion testing following completion of the assigned construct. Tarsal joint stability (extent of laxity) was assessed with the joint in each of 3 positions (75°, 135°, and 165°). After completion of biomechanical testing, each limb was tested to failure to determine the ultimate strength of the construct.
Relative to intact tarsal joints, joint laxity was significantly increased following completion of all 4 constructs. Construct type was not associated with the magnitude of change in joint laxity. Ultimate strength was greatest for the UHMWPE-suture constructs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that all 4 constructs effectively stabilized MCL-deficient tarsal joints. Implants used for the TU, TN, and AU constructs had a lower profile than those used for the AN construct, which may be clinically advantageous. In vivo studies are warranted.
To evaluate recovery of limb function by use of gait force analysis after tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in dogs with unilateral cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) rupture.
19 dogs with unilateral CrCL rupture treated with TPLO.
Force plate gait analysis was performed before and 1, 2, 4, and 7 months after TPLO. Ground reaction forces (GRFs; which comprised peak vertical force [PVF], vertical impulse [VI], peak braking force, braking impulse, peak propulsion force [PPF], and propulsion impulse), time to switching from braking to propulsion, and vector magnitude at PVF in the forelimbs and hind limbs were evaluated.
GRFs in the affected hind limb were significantly lower than in the contralateral hind limb before TPLO. These variables, except for PPF, were not significantly different 7 months after TPLO. Time to the switching point in the affected hind limb was significantly less from before to 2 months after TPLO. Vector magnitude at PVF had a similar pattern as PVF and VI during the recovery process. The PVF in the ipsilateral forelimb was significantly higher than in the contralateral forelimb before TPLO.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
A similar pattern was detected between PVF or VI and craniocaudal force during recovery of dogs that underwent TPLO. Rupture of he CrCl resulted in a decrease in GRFs in the affected hind limb as well as in the switching point and PVF of limbs. However, weight distribution for the craniocaudal force was normalized before PVF or VI. Vector magnitude at PVF might be effectively evaluated by combining vertical force and craniocaudal force.
To compare use of a 3-level self-locking suture (3LSLS) technique with use of a previously described modified 3-loop pulley (M3LP) technique to repair rupture of the proximal aspect of patellar tendons in limbs from canine cadavers.
Paired hind limbs of 6 adult mixed-breed dogs.
A limb from each pair was randomly assigned to be repaired by the 3LSLS technique or M3LP technique with size-2 ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene and size-0 monofilament polypropylene suture, respectively. Limbs were prepared, and each patellar tendon was transected at a site chosen to simulate rupture at the proximal aspect. Tendons were repaired with the assigned techniques and mechanically tested with a biaxial servohydraulic test system; the clamp was distracted until the repair failed. Force at 1 -mm gap formation, 3-mm gap formation, and repair failure and gap size at failure were measured and compared between methods. Mode of failure was recorded.
There was no significant difference between methods for the force required to produce a 1 - or 3-mm gap in the repair. The 3LSLS technique required a significantly higher load for complete failure; gap formation immediately before failure was significantly greater for this method than for the M3LP technique. Four of 6 repairs with the M3LP technique and 0 of 6 repairs with the 3LSLS technique failed by suture breakage.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The 3LSLS technique with size-2 ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene suture was as effective at resistance to 1 - and 3-mm gap formation as the M3LP with size-0 monofilament polypropylene suture.
OBJECTIVE To provide an objective, quantitative morphometric description of the caudal cervical intervertebral disk (IVD) spaces of dogs.
SAMPLE Vertebral specimens consisting of C4 through C7 from 5 medium-sized dogs.
PROCEDURES CT images were obtained with the specimens positioned in neutral, flexion, extension, and lateral bending positions. Size and shape of the cranial and caudal end plates, angle between the end plates (IVD wedge angle), and craniocaudal distance (IVD width) between end plates for the 4 loading positions were measured and compared for the 3 segments (C4-5, C5-6, and C6-7).
RESULTS End plate size and shape, IVD wedge angle, and IVD width were not significantly different among the 3 segments. Caudal cervical end plates were consistently larger than cranial cervical end plates. The IVD wedge angle ranged from −4.8° to 15.2°. Flexion induced a reduction in IVD width in the ventral portion of the IVD, whereas extension induced a decrease in width in the dorsal portion of the IVD. Central IVD width remained unchanged among the loading positions.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Unique morphometric and dynamic characteristics of the caudal cervical IVD space of dogs were detected. These findings may help investigators when designing IVD prostheses for dogs with cervical spondylomyelopathy.
OBJECTIVE To compare strain at the bone-pin and cast-pin interfaces among 3 transfixation pin–cast constructs applied to equine forelimbs.
ANIMALS 15 forelimbs from 15 adult horses.
PROCEDURES Limbs were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 constructs. Centrally threaded positive-profile pins were used for all constructs, and the most distal pin was placed just proximal to the epicondyles of the third metacarpal bone. Construct 1 consisted of two 6.3-mm-diameter pins spaced 4 cm apart at 30° to each other. Construct 2 was the same as construct 1 except the pins were placed 5 cm apart. Construct 3 consisted of four 4.8-mm-diameter pins spaced 2 cm apart and at 10° to one another. An osteotomy was created in the proximal phalanx. Strain gauges were attached to the cast and bone proximal to the pins and adjacent to the osteotomy. Limbs underwent compressive loading until failure. Simplified finite element models of constructs 1 and 3 were created to further evaluate strain and load transfer between the bone and cast.
RESULTS Strain did not differ between constructs 1 and 2. Compared with the 2-pin constructs, construct 3 had less strain at the bone-pin interface and more strain at the cast-pin interface, which indicated a greater amount of load was transferred to the cast of the 4-pin construct than the cast of the 2-pin constructs. Finite element modeling supported those findings.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that the 4-pin construct was more effective in unloading the fractured bone than either 2-pin construct.
OBJECTIVE To quantify fatigue-induced electromyographic changes in hind limb muscles in horses.
ANIMALS 8 Thoroughbreds.
PROCEDURES The left and right hind limb longissimus dorsi, tensor fasciae latae, gluteus medius, and biceps femoris muscles were instrumented for surface electromyography. Hoof strain gauges were attached to confirm stride cycle. Each horse was galloped on a treadmill (grade, 3%) at a constant speed (12.6 to 14.7 m/s) to achieve fatigue after approximately 360 seconds. Before and after this exercise, the horses were trotted at 3.5 m/s. At 30-second intervals during galloping an integrated electromyography (iEMG) value for a stride and the median frequency of muscle discharge (MF) in each limb were measured. The mean of stride frequency (SF), iEMG value, and MF of 5 consecutive strides at the start and end of galloping for the lead and trailing limbs were compared. For trotting, these variables were compared at 60 seconds before and after galloping.
RESULTS The mean ± SD value for SF decreased over time (2.14 ± 0.06 to 2.05 ± 0.07 stride/s). In both the lead and trailing limbs, fatigue decreased the iEMG values of the gluteus medius and biceps femoris muscles but not those of the longissimus dorsi and tensor fasciae latae muscles. The MF did not change for any muscle during galloping with fatigue. The SF, iEMG value, and MF did not change during trotting with fatigue.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Fatigue induced by high-speed galloping decreased the gluteus medius and biceps femoris muscles' iEMG values in Thoroughbreds. Fatigue of these less fatigue-resistant hind limb muscles would affect a horse's speed.
OBJECTIVE To assess the contribution of antirotational pins (ARPs) and an intact fibula to the compressive strength of 4 tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) constructs (bone and implants).
SAMPLE 20 hind limbs from 10 canine cadavers.
PROCEDURES Each hind limb was assigned to 1 of 4 TPLO constructs (construct in which the ARP was removed, constructs in which 1 or 2 ARPs were left in place, and construct in which the ARP was removed and the fibula was cut). Following TPLO completion, all limbs underwent mechanical testing that included 10,000 cycles of cyclic axial compression followed by testing to failure at a displacement rate of 1 mm/s. Displacement during cyclic testing; load generated at 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 mm of displacement; ultimate load; and failure type were recorded for each limb. Mean values were compared among the groups.
RESULTS None of the specimens failed during cyclic testing. None of the variables assessed during mechanical testing differed significantly among the 4 groups. During testing to failure, the majority (17/20) of specimens failed as the result of a long oblique fracture through the first screw hole in the distal segment.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that the axial compressive strength and stiffness of a TPLO construct were not significantly affected by the addition of 1 or 2 ARPs or the presence of an intact fibula. These findings appear to support removal of ARPs during uncomplicated TPLOs, but further research is warranted to assess the effect of ARP removal on bone healing and complication rates.
OBJECTIVE To describe the torsional and axial compressive properties of tibiotarsal bones of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).
SAMPLE 16 cadaveric tibiotarsal bones from 8 red-tailed hawks.
PROCEDURES 1 tibiotarsal bone from each bird was randomly assigned to be tested in torsion, and the contralateral bone was tested in axial compression. Intact bones were monotonically loaded in either torsion (n = 8) or axial compression (8) to failure. Mechanical variables were derived from load-deformation curves. Fracture configurations were described. Effects of sex, limb side, and bone dimensions on mechanical properties were assessed with a mixed-model ANOVA. Correlations between equivalent torsional and compressive properties were determined.
RESULTS Limb side and bone dimensions were not associated with any mechanical property. During compression tests, mean ultimate cumulative energy and postyield energy for female bones were significantly greater than those for male bones. All 8 bones developed a spiral diaphyseal fracture and a metaphyseal fissure or fracture during torsional tests. During compression tests, all bones developed a crushed metaphysis and a fissure or comminuted fracture of the diaphysis. Positive correlations were apparent between most yield and ultimate torsional and compressive properties.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The torsional and axial compressive properties of tibiotarsal bones described in this study can be used as a reference for investigations into fixation methods for tibiotarsal fractures in red-tailed hawks. Although the comminuted and spiral diaphyseal fractures induced in this study were consistent with those observed in clinical practice, the metaphyseal disruption observed was not and warrants further research.
OBJECTIVE To compare the kinematics of the thoracic limb of healthy dogs during descent of stairs and a ramp with those during a trot across a flat surface (control).
ANIMALS 8 privately owned dogs.
PROCEDURES For each dog, the left thoracic limb was instrumented with 5 anatomic markers to facilitate collection of 2-D kinematic data during each of 3 exercises (descending stairs, descending a ramp, and trotting over a flat surface). The stair exercise consisted of 4 steps with a 35° slope. For the ramp exercise, a solid plank was placed over the steps to create a ramp with a 35° slope. For the flat exercise, dogs were trotted across a flat surface for 2 m. Mean peak extension, peak flexion, and range of movement (ROM) of the shoulder, elbow, and carpal joints were compared among the 3 exercises.
RESULTS Mean ROM for the shoulder and elbow joints during the stair exercise were significantly greater than during the flat exercise. Mean peak extension of the elbow joint during the flat exercise was significantly greater than that during both the stair and ramp exercises. Mean peak flexion of the elbow joint during the stair exercise was significantly greater than that during the flat exercise.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that descending stairs may be beneficial for increasing the ROM of the shoulder and elbow joints of dogs. Descending stair exercises may increase elbow joint flexion, whereas flat exercises may be better for targeting elbow joint extension.