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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the metastasis rate, survival time, and prognostic factors associated with appendicular or scapular osteosarcoma treated by limb amputation in cats.

ANIMALS

67 cats with histologically confirmed appendicular or scapular osteosarcoma treated by limb amputation.

PROCEDURES

This retrospective cohort study included cats with histologically confirmed appendicular or scapular osteosarcoma between January 1997 and December 2018. A questionnaire survey was conducted at veterinary clinics where limb amputation was performed. Distant metastasis, local recurrence, and lymph node metastasis rates and survival time were determined. Factors associated with distant metastasis and survival were investigated.

RESULTS

The distant metastasis rate after limb amputation was 41.9% (26/62). The overall distant metastasis rate was 46.3% (31/67), including 5 cats with distant metastasis at the time of amputation. Osteosarcoma of the humerus resulted in distant metastasis in 6 of 7 cases. Osteosarcoma of the humerus was significantly associated with distant metastasis in univariate and multivariate analyses (adjusted OR, 9.56). The rate of lymph node metastasis after limb amputation was 3.0% (2/66), and the local recurrence rate was 9.0% (6/67). The median survival time was 527 days. Age and tumor location were not significantly associated with survival time.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Distant metastasis occurs in approximately 40% of cats with appendicular or scapular osteosarcoma after limb amputation. In addition, osteosarcoma of the humerus has a particularly high incidence of distant metastasis. Detailed follow-up is therefore necessary, even after limb amputation, especially in cases of osteosarcoma of the humerus.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether premature death occurred among dogs with nonmalignant splenic histopathologic findings after splenectomy for nontraumatic hemoabdomen.

ANIMALS

197 dogs with nontraumatic hemoabdomen that underwent splenectomy and histopathologic evaluation between 2005 and 2018.

PROCEDURES

Information was obtained from electronic medical records, dog owners, and referring veterinarians to determine patient characteristics, histopathologic findings, survival information, and cause of death. Dogs were grouped based on histopathological diagnosis and outcome, and median survival times (MSTs) and risk factors for death were determined.

RESULTS

Histopathologic findings indicated malignancy in 144 of the 197 (73.1%) dogs with nontraumatic hemoabdomen. Hemangiosarcoma was diagnosed in 126 dogs (87.5% of those with malignancies and 64.0% of all dogs). Nine of 53 (17%) dogs with nonmalignant histopathologic findings had an adverse outcome and premature death, with an MST of 49 days. Risk factors for this outcome included low plasma total solids concentration, an elevated hemangiosarcoma likelihood prediction score, and a medium or high hemangiosarcoma likelihood prediction score category.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

This study showed that there is a group of dogs with nontraumatic hemoabdomen due to splenic disease that have nonmalignant histopathologic findings after splenectomy, but nonetheless suffer an adverse outcome and die prematurely of a suspected malignancy. Further evaluation of potential at-risk populations may yield detection of otherwise overlooked malignancies.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To test clinical and analgesic effects of a single-injection caudal thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) after localization of the thoracic paravertebral space with a loss-of-resistance to air injection technique in female dogs undergoing unilateral radical mastectomy.

ANIMALS

14 client-owned dogs.

PROCEDURES

Dogs were premedicated with methadone, anesthetized with propofol and sevoflurane, and randomly assigned to receive a TPVB or no block preoperatively. Rescue analgesia with fentanyl and methadone was provided on the basis of cardiovascular responses during surgery and postoperative pain scores assigned with a validated pain scale. Required dose of rescue opioids; mean end-tidal sevoflurane concentration; episodes of hypotension, bradycardia, and other complications; quality of recovery scores; and postoperative pain scores were compared between groups.

RESULTS

Median intraoperative fentanyl doses were 0 µg/kg (range, 0 to 2 µg/kg) and 4 µg/kg (range, 2 to 6 µg/kg) for the TPVB and control groups, respectively. Median postoperative methadone doses were 0 mg/kg (range, 0 to 0.2 mg/kg) and 0.6 mg/kg (range, 0.4 to 0.6 mg/kg) for the TPVB and control groups, respectively. Recovery scores and pain scores assigned at the time of and 1 hour after extubation were significantly lower in the TPVB group than in the control group.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A single-injection caudal TPVB improved pain control and recovery quality in female dogs undergoing unilateral radical mastectomy. Because the TPVB involves only a single injection, does not take long to perform, and requires only readily available low-cost equipment, the technique may be a valuable option in both referral and first-opinion practice.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

Outbreaks of sudden death in apparently healthy weaned dairy calves due to Strongyloides papillosus parasitism were diagnosed on 2 separate and independent New York (NY) dairies.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Most calves were found dead; however, 1 calf observed while dying showed signs of tachycardia, tachypnea, vocalization, and convulsions shortly before death. In 6 affected heifers that underwent post-mortem examination, precocious bilaterally symmetric mammary gland enlargement was seen. A portion of their parasitized living cohorts also demonstrated similar mammary gland enlargement. A diagnosis of S papillosus hyperinfection was made based upon the presence of high numbers of S papillosus ova in feces, and confirmation by S papillosus–specific PCR assays. Consistent histopathological findings in affected calves included generalized mammary gland vascular congestion, interstitial edema and hemorrhage with ductal hyperplasia. Mild multifocal cardiomyocyte degeneration was found in 5 of 14 calves examined. Factors believed to contribute to the parasite’s environmental amplification and host hyperinfection included group housing on wood shavings and high environmental temperatures and humidity.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

Treatment of calves with doramectin pour-on stopped mortality and resolved the udder enlargement.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Similar outbreaks have previously been described in Japan and South Bohemia (Czech Republic), where researchers hypothesized that sudden death may be due to fatal arrhythmia caused by a parasite-associated cardiotoxin. This report highlights the importance of including S papillosus among the differential diagnoses for sudden death alone or together with precocious udder enlargement in calves kept in confinement housing.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To investigate the outcome of surgical creation of multiple drainage holes (MDHs) versus local corticosteroid injection (LCI) for treatment of aural hematomas (AHs) in dogs and identify risk factors for recurrence and development of new AHs.

ANIMALS

51 dogs with 71 AHs.

PROCEDURES

Medical records were reviewed, and information on signalment, clinical findings, and outcome was recorded. Recurrence was defined as development of an AH at the primary site after the first month of treatment. Development of a new AH was defined as an AH occurring at a site different from the treated site.

RESULTS

The recurrence rate after the first month of treatment was significantly higher following the LCI procedure (17/48 AHs [33%]) than after the MDH procedure (1/24 AHs [4%]). The odds of recurrence increased as the numbers of LCI in the first month increased (OR, 2.414). Recurrent AHs after LCI resolved with additional LCIs; only 1 AH (2%) required a change to MDHs. No recurrence was observed after the eighth month, and the cosmetic results were good. Sixteen of 51 (31%) dogs had multiple or new AHs. The risk of new AHs was higher in Golden Retrievers and Labrador Retrievers and in dogs with allergic dermatitis.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Long-term outcomes suggested that both creation of MDHs and LCI can be therapeutic options for dogs with AHs. However, the risk of new AH development should be considered, especially in retriever breeds and dogs with allergic dermatitis.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate ultrasound-guided placement of an anchor wire (AW) or injection of methylene blue (MB) to aid in the intraoperative localization of peripheral lymph nodes in dogs and cats.

ANIMALS

125 dogs and 10 cats with a total of 171 lymphadenectomies.

PROCEDURES

Medical records of dogs and cats that underwent peripheral lymphadenectomies with or without (N) the AW or MB localization technique were reviewed. Data retrieved included clinical, surgical, and histologic findings. The proportions of successful lymphadenectomies, lymph node characteristics, and complications among the 3 groups were analyzed.

RESULTS

143 (84%) lymph nodes were successfully excised. Lymphadenectomy success was significantly affected by the localization technique, with 94% for group AW, 87% for group MB, and 72% for group N. Lymph node size was smaller in groups AW and MB, compared with group N. Duration of lymphadenectomy was shorter in group AW, compared with groups MB and N, and in group MB, compared with group N. Intra- (7%) and postoperative (10%) complications and final diagnosis did not significantly differ among groups.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Both lymph node localization techniques were highly successful and reduced surgery time, compared with unassisted lymphadenectomy. Specifically, these techniques were effective for localization of normal-sized and nonpalpable lymph nodes and were efficient and practical options for peripheral lymphadenectomies, particularly for those that were small or nonpalpable.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association