In a randomized, blind, controlled, complete crossover design, all 14 ferrets received a single, SC injection of hydromorphone low dose (0.1 mg/kg), hydromorphone high dose (0.2 mg/kg), buprenorphine low dose (0.02 mg/kg), buprenorphine high dose (0.04 mg/kg), or saline solution (0.2 mL/kg). Sedation and forelimb withdrawal latency from a noxious thermal stimulation were evaluated, and behavior was recorded for a total of 8 hours postinjection.
Compared to saline, administration of hydromorphone at 0.2 mg/kg resulted in an estimated increase of withdrawal latencies of 7.4 seconds (95% CI, 3.2 to 11.6) at 60 minutes, of 6.6 seconds (2.4 to 10.8) at 90 minutes, of 6.0 seconds (1.8 to 10.2) at 120 minutes, of 7.0 seconds (2.9 to 11.1) at 180 minutes, and of 4.5 seconds (0.5 to 8.6) at 240 minutes. These differences were statistically significant. Hydromorphone administered at a lower dose and buprenorphine at either dose did not increase withdrawal latencies compared to saline. Based on the sedation score used in this study, signs of sedation increased over time in a similar fashion with all treatments, including saline. Erratic dysphoric-like behaviors occurred in all groups except for saline.
SC administration of hydromorphone at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg provided antinociception from 1 to 4 hours postinjection. Further validation of sedation scores in ferrets is warranted.
To describe the clinical features, treatment, and outcomes of wild freshwater turtles with fishing hook injuries.
126 wild turtles residing in central North Carolina that were presented to a wildlife rescue clinic.
Medical records from July 1997 to July 2022 were reviewed, and data were collected and analyzed.
The most common species presenting for a fishhook injury was the yellow-bellied slider (Trachemys scripta scripta) (n = 69/126 [54.8%]; 95% CI, 45.7 to 63.6). The most common location identified was the oral cavity (n = 77/140 [55%]; 95% CI, 46.4 to 63.4) and the most common removal method was retrograde removal after cutting the barb off of the hook (76/120 [63.3%]; 95% CI, 54.1 to 71.9). Fishhooks embedded in the esophagus had a significantly higher chance of complications affecting recovery (OR estimate, 3.49; 95% CI, 1.07 to 11.38). There was no significant increase in mortality associated with the location of the injury; however, there was a significant increase in mortality in patients that experienced complications (P < 0.001). The time in care ranged from 1 to 150 days (median, 16 days). Of the turtles evaluated, 10.8% (n = 12/111; 95% CI, 5.7 to 18.1) were euthanized or died after treatment and 89.2% (99/111; 95% CI, 81.9 to 94.3) were released.
These findings describe various successful techniques to remove fishhooks from turtles. While no superior treatment was identified, considerations should be taken to provide patient comfort, decrease injury-associated complications, and shorten recovery time by using minimally invasive techniques. Overall, freshwater turtles with fishhook injuries have a high release rate even when the injuries are severe.
To evaluate predictive model ability to determine whether an animal finished the feeding period using data known at first treatment for bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Additional comparisons evaluated the potential benefits of predictions by adding weather data, utilizing balancing techniques, and creating models for individual feedyards.
This retrospective study included animal, pen, and feedyard data from 12 US feedyards from 2016 to 2021. The final dataset consisted of 96,382 BRD cases of which 14.2% did not finish the feeding phase.
Five predictive models were trained and underwent threshold probability adjustment to maximize F1 score. Model performance was evaluated using accuracy, sensitivity specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC).
Overall, model performance was low with a median AUC value of 0.675. The addition of weather data had little effect on AUC but resulted in more variation in sensitivity and specificity. Resampling the dataset had a limited effect on performance. Individual feedlot models had higher AUC values than others with the decision tree typically performing best in most feedyards.
Results indicated some utility of predictive models evaluating BRD cases to predict cattle that did not finish the feeding phase. These models could be valuable in assisting health providers making decisions on individual cases.
To evaluate the effect of variable centrifugation protocols on the cellular composition of the final product of a canine autologous conditioned plasma double-syringe system.
30 client-owned healthy adult medium- to large-breed (17- to 45-kg) dogs.
35 mL of anticoagulated whole blood from each subject was aliquoted into 3 samples: a baseline and 2 double syringes. The syringes were processed for platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Each double syringe was randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups, which varied in centrifugation settings between 580 and 1,304 X g and 5 and 10 minutes. CBC analysis was performed on each of the samples to determine cellular composition. A mixed-effect linear model was fit to the data.
60 PRP samples and 30 whole blood samples were analyzed. Manufacturer settings generated a platelet fold change > 1 but did not increase concentration to the extent expected. When comparing speed alone, increased centrifugation force was associated with lower platelet fold change. When comparing time alone, increased centrifugation time was also associated with lower platelet fold change and lower leukocyte concentration.
Autologous conditioned plasma double syringes require a low volume of initial whole blood, making them preferable for canine PRP in clinical settings. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the centrifugation protocol on the final product cellular composition in dogs and add to the available data on protocols to maximize platelet yield in PRP. Due to inherent individual variability, this study emphasized the importance of evaluating biological samples prior to administration to predict and improve patient outcomes.
The American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) recently published the 2023 AAHA Selected Endocrinopathies of Dogs and Cats Guidelines to help practitioners identify and treat common endocrine diseases while effectively communicating with clients and the care team.
Dr. Joseph Kinnarney is this year’s recipient of The AVMA Award, which he accepted during the keynote at AVMA Convention 2023 in Denver. Among his accomplishments, his service to both the American Veterinary Medical Foundation and the AVMA Trusts helped both entities evolve into the vital, relevant entities they are today.