To determine severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) serum antibody titers in domestic goats after SC and IM administration of an experimental, veterinary SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.
31 healthy adult domestic goats from 4 zoological institutions.
On day 0, blood was collected for baseline serum titer before vaccination with 1 mL SARS-CoV-2 recombinant S protein vaccine SC (n = 22) or IM (n = 9). A booster vaccination was administered 21 (SC group) or 28 days (IM group) after the initial vaccine and blood samples were collected at days 21 (SC group) or 28 (IM group), 42, 90, and 180 postvaccinations. The study took place between September 27, 2021, and June 01, 2022. Seroconversion for SARS-CoV-2 was assessed by a SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization (VN) assay.
Before vaccination, no goats had detectable antibodies. On day 42, 100% of goats had detectable serum titers. Serum titers peaked at day 42 for 94% of goats vaccinated by either route of administration. There was a significant difference between SC and IM groups regarding the proportion of goats with detectable titers on day 21/28 (68% vs 0%, respectively) and day 180 (50% vs 89%, respectively), relative to day 0.
The 2 vaccination protocols (SC 21 days apart and IM 28 days apart) were similarly effective in mounting serum antibody response in goats. The SC route of administration appeared to have a more rapid onset of immunity, while the IM route may have produced a longer duration of immunity. These data may be useful in determining appropriate SARS-CoV-2 vaccination schedules in ruminants.
To assess the value of F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) positron emission tomography (PET) for imaging the tarsus and proximal metatarsus and compare it with CT and lameness evaluation.
25 horses with lameness localized to the tarsal and proximal metatarsal regions that underwent 18F-NaF PET/CT between 2016 and 2021.
18F-NaF PET and CT images were retrospectively independently evaluated by 3 observers. Standardized uptake values (SUV) were used to characterize 18F-NaF uptake. Correlation between PET and CT findings with subjective and objective maximum (Max-D) and minimum pelvic height lameness data was estimated.
The inter-observer Kappa-weighted value (κ) was higher for PET (κ = 0.66) than CT (κ = 0.6). CT and PET scores were fairly correlated (R = 0.49; P < 0.05). PET SUVratio (SUV of the main lesion/SUV talus) had the highest correlation with Max-D (R = 0.71; P < .05). PET and CT scores for the plantar region were significantly higher in Quarter Horses (P < .05) and showed consistently higher correlation with objective lameness data (CT plantar grade - Max-D [R = 0.6; P < .05], PET plantar grade - Max-D [R = 0.47; P = .04]) than other regions of the distal tarsal joints. Three Warmbloods presented marked uptake at the medial cochlea of the distal tibia.
PET had a moderate correlation with CT for assessment of tarsal lesions. The degree of PET uptake can help differentiate active versus inactive lesions. Specific location of the uptake is important in determining clinical relevance.
To describe clinical and imaging features and surgical treatment of equine mandibular aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) with β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP).
3 horses (cases 1, 2, and 3) and 1 pony (case 4) with histologically confirmed ABC.
All cases had mandibular swelling with intact adjacent skin. Cases 1 to 3 had a body condition score of 3/5 and case 4 had 2/5 and showed quidding during mastication and, at oral examination, large interdental spaces and loose elements adjacent to the swelling. Radiography or CT was performed in all cases. In cases 1, 3, and 4, an expansile septate cystic space-occupying lesion with mass effect on the adjacent cortices and teeth was seen without compact bone destruction. Case 2 showed a heterogeneous osteolytic mass with multifocal cortical lysis and interruption. Case 4 had severe dental abnormalities of deciduous and precursors of permanent teeth. ABCs were surgically treated and filled with only TCP (case 3) or in combination with autologous bone marrow (cases 1, 2, and 4).
Cases 1 through 3 showed an uneventful reduction in ABC size with increased opacity/attenuation. In case 4, a surgical site infection occurred. After removal of TCP remnants, the ABC healed satisfactorily, but remaining dental abnormalities necessitated dietary adjustments to maintain an acceptable body condition score.
Treatment of ABCs with TCP had a favorable outcome and good long-term prognosis. In young specimens, the expansile effect on the development and eruption of neighboring teeth can influence and determine final functionality of the diseased dental quadrant.
This article describes the core competencies recommended for inclusion in the veterinary curriculum for all veterinary graduates based on the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges Competency-Based Veterinary Education document. General practice companion animal veterinarians are frequently presented with patients having dental, oral, or maxillofacial pathology, and veterinary graduates will be relied upon for recommendations for the maintenance of oral health, including the prevention of periodontal disease, identification of endodontic disease, and knowledge of developmental defects. These recommendations should be made for all veterinary patients starting at a young age. These core competencies can apply to many companion species, but mainly are focused on the dog and cat.
Because periodontal disease is the most common abnormality observed in dogs and cats, the first key step is taking a few seconds during examination of every patient of any age presented for any reason to examine the oral cavity. Although dental, oral, and maxillofacial pathology is often diagnosed after imaging and evaluation under anesthesia, the first step is observation of dentition and gingivae during the conscious exam to assess periodontal health status. The physical exam of the oral cavity may reveal oral behavior (eg, observation of uncomplicated crown fractures due to chewing on hard objects), which will permit recommendations for enhanced prevention by daily oral hygiene or professional treatment.
There are now many involved dental and surgical treatments available, some of which require specialist-level instrumentation and expertise. General practitioners should be able to competently perform the following immediately upon graduation from veterinary school:
For patients for whom the owner’s reason for the veterinary visit is not dental, oral, or maxillofacial disease, obtain a brief (1 or 2 questions) history of the oral health of the patient.
On lifting the lip of every patient, recognize presence or absence of accumulated dental plaque or calculus on the crowns of the teeth, presence or absence of gingival inflammation or ulceration, and presence or absence of other dental, oral, and maxillofacial pathology.
On anesthetized patients that have dental, oral, and maxillofacial pathology for which professional treatment is indicated, be able to obtain and interpret appropriately positioned and exposed dental radiographs.
When the presence of dental, oral, and maxillofacial pathology is recognized, determine whether each tooth present in the mouth does or does not require professional treatment beyond dental subgingival and supragingival scaling and polishing.
List the indications for tooth extraction, know indications for potential oral/dental treatments beyond subgingival and supragingival scaling and polishing or extraction, and determine whether the professional treatment that may be indicated, such as root canal treatment or mass resection of oral tissues, requires referral for specialist-level expertise and instrumentation.
Complete a thorough periodontal evaluation and therapy with periodontal probing, including professional subgingival and supragingival ultrasonic scaling with polishing under anesthesia.
Demonstrate the ability to extract teeth indicated for extraction, using gentle and appropriate techniques that will risk minimal injury to the jaws and oral soft tissues and reduce postoperative patient pain.
Provide appropriate postoperative care, including recognition of when postoperative analgesia and possibly antibiotic administration are indicated.
West Nile virus (WNV) became notifiable in horses in 2003 in Canada and has been reported every year since. The objective of this study was to describe the spatiotemporal distribution of WNV in horses between 2003 and 2020 in Canada.
The 848 symptomatic and laboratory-confirmed WNV cases in horses reported to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency between 2003 and 2020.
Canada was divided into eastern and western regions for analysis. For each case, location and date of notification were captured. Triennial maps were made to describe the spatiotemporal distribution and expansion of reported cases. The association between year and latitude of cases was investigated with simple linear regressions, and space-time clusters were detected with a permutation scan test.
Most of the western region showed an extended distribution of WNV cases from 2003 to 2005 and a high recurrence of cases at the census division level. In the eastern region, the expansion of cases was gradual, with new infected census divisions mostly contiguous to previous ones. There was no association between year and latitude of cases. Six spatiotemporal clusters were detected.
This study confirmed the endemicity of WNV in parts of both regions with local peaks in risk varying in time. Prevention and control efforts should focus on previously infected areas based on the spatiotemporal regional distribution patterns. Incursions of WNV to new areas should also be anticipated. These findings could also contribute to enhancing monitoring and prevention of WNV infections in an integrated surveillance system.
To compare long-term outcomes of lower lid entropion surgery performed in juvenile dogs versus adult dogs and evaluate the success rate of temporary tacking procedures in dogs < 1 year of age.
116 client-owned dogs.
A retrospective study was performed evaluating dogs younger than 3 years old diagnosed with primary lower lid entropion between 2010 and 2020. Recurrence of entropion following temporary tacking sutures was evaluated. Surgical outcomes were evaluated of entropion surgery in dogs < and > 1 year of age.
44 dogs with entropion (71 eyes) had a temporary tacking procedure. The entropion resolved in 36.6% of eyes, requiring no further therapy. The median age of dogs successfully treated with a temporary tacking procedure was younger than those that failed. Forty-seven dogs (75 eyes) had entropion surgery at maturity, and 52 dogs (79 eyes) were juvenile. Twenty-seven dogs had temporary tacking procedure prior to surgery, accounting for the difference in number. There was no statistically significant difference in the recurrence rate of entropion between eyes of adult (6/75 [8%]) and juvenile dogs (10/79 [12.7%]) following surgery.
Entropion surgery in juvenile dogs is not associated with a higher risk of recurrence and need not be delayed until dogs are older than 1 year of age.
To assess (1) veterinarians’ knowledge and practices regarding disposal of euthanized animals, (2) the extent to which veterinarians communicate with their clients about potential risks of rendering pentobarbital-euthanized animals, and (3) the extent to which veterinarians communicate potential relay toxicosis and environmental risks of pentobarbital-euthanized animals to clients.
A stratified random sample of AVMA members.
Over a 3-week period in early 2021, 16,831 of the AVMA’s 99,500 members were surveyed, with 2,093 responses (a 12% response rate). Respondents were assigned to 1 of 3 categories on the basis of their answers: veterinarians euthanizing only food-producing species, veterinarians euthanizing only non–food-producing species, and veterinarians euthanizing both food-producing and non–food-producing species (ie, veterinarians euthanizing mixed species).
Veterinarians responding to this survey appeared to be aware of the major methods of animal disposal, and about 89% reported communicating the method of euthanasia with clients to help ensure appropriate animal disposal. However, the need for additional education on local, state, and federal laws and rendering, as well as on risks of relay toxicosis including wildlife predation and environmental impacts, was reported.
Survey results identified gaps in veterinarians’ knowledge regarding animal disposal following pentobarbital euthanasia. Further education on this topic may be beneficial, particularly for early- and midcareer veterinarians who euthanize non–food-producing species and for veterinarians who euthanize mixed species in urban and suburban communities.
To explore veterinarians’ use of virtual veterinarian-client-patient consultations before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and examine veterinarians’ attitudes toward virtual consultations.
135 companion animal veterinarians in Canada, the US, and Europe.
An anonymous online survey was distributed to gather participating veterinarians’ use of information and communication technologies and their perception of virtual consultations’ effect on patient care, client communication, and their own well-being. Willingness to recommend virtual consultations was evaluated using the Net Promoter Score. Multivariable logistic regression explored factors associated with willingness to recommend virtual consultations.
Percentage of participating veterinarians using the telephone and videoconferencing increased significantly (P < .001) from before (83.6% and 3.0%, respectively) to during the COVID-19 pandemic (97.0% and 22.4%, respectively). Participants were significantly less confident (P < .001) about their ability to reach a diagnosis using a virtual consultation as compared to a hands-on patient examination. Participants perceived client communication to be more challenging during virtual as compared to face-to-face consultations, particularly for building rapport and expressing empathy. Participants were extremely unwilling to recommend virtual consultations (Net Promoter Score = –41.4) with 21.6% (24/111) promoters and 63.1% (70/111) detractors. Confidence doing a virtual patient examination and comfort using videoconferencing technology were both positively associated (P < .05) with willingness to recommend virtual consultations.
Veterinary practices and organizations interested in encouraging virtual veterinarian-client-patient consultations likely need to prioritize veterinarians’ acceptance as an initial focus. The veterinary profession would benefit from further research and education to inform virtual veterinary care.