Browse

You are looking at 121 - 130 of 285 items for :

  • Special Report x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of disinfectant-filled foot mats at reducing tracking of Salmonella enterica and overall bacterial contamination on floors in a veterinary teaching hospital.

Design—Prospective study.

Samples—Bacteria collected from floors before and after placement of disinfectant-filled foot mats.

Procedures—Foot mats filled with a phenolic-based disinfectant were placed at key transition areas in common-use corridors between the large animal hospital (LAH) and small animal hospital in a veterinary medical teaching hospital. Microbiological samples were collected for total bacterial counts and for the presence of S enterica at 14 designated sample sites in the veterinary medical teaching hospital. Samples were collected at regular intervals for 7 months before mat placement and for 13 months after mat placement.

Results—Median numbers of aerobic bacteria isolated before and after disinfectant mat placement were not significantly different for most sites sampled. For 3 of the 4 transition areas between the LAH and connecting common-use corridor, there was a significant difference in median bacterial counts on either side of the threshold. This difference was significant regardless of whether a disinfectant mat was present or not. Salmonella enterica isolates were cultured from several sites in the LAH and sites outside the LAH, irrespective of the presence of a disinfectant mat.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Disinfectant-filled mats may not be uniformly effective in reducing the bacterial load on floors or in reducing mechanical tracking of S enterica from contaminated areas in a veterinary teaching hospital. Further studies are needed to determine effective measures to reduce mechanical transmission of bacteria on footwear in veterinary hospitals.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To gain a better understanding of the role of interpersonal trust in veterinarian-client interactions during routine health-care visits, develop a measure of trust uniquely suited to the context of veterinary medicine, and interpret the actions, beliefs, and perceptions that capture client trust toward veterinarians.

Design—Correlational study.

Sample—103 veterinary students and 19 standardized clients with pets from a college of veterinary medicine at a large public Midwestern university.

Procedures—A measure of trust specific to veterinarian-client interactions was constructed on the basis of preexisting conceptualizations of the construct and administered to veterinary students and standardized clients following interactions in 2 medical scenarios in a high-fidelity simulated animal health clinic. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic techniques were used to validate the measure of trust, and hierarchic linear modeling was used to explore indicators of standardized client trust perceptions in one of the scenarios.

Results—Factor analysis revealed that the measure captured 2 perceptions indicative of trust in veterinary contexts: professionalism and technical candor. Students who had behaviors reflecting these factors as well as those who were perceived as more technically competent were seen as more trustworthy by standardized clients.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The development of trustworthy relationships between clients and veterinarians is important to the continued growth and success of the profession. By identifying characteristics of veterinarian trustworthiness and developing related measurement tools, proactive approaches to monitoring veterinarian-client relations can be implemented and incorporated into veterinary training and practice programs to identify areas for improvement.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Quality assurance is an implied concept inherent in every consumer's purchase of a product or service. In laboratory testing, quality assurance encompasses preanalytic (sampling, transport, and handling prior to testing), analytic (measurement), and postanalytic (reporting and interpretation) factors. Quality-assurance programs require that procedures are in place to detect errors in all 3 components and that the procedures are characterized by both documentation and correction of errors. There are regulatory bodies that provide mandatory standards for and regulation of human medical laboratories. No such regulations exist for veterinary laboratory testing. The American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards Committee was formed in 1996 in response to concerns of ASVCP members about quality assurance and quality control in laboratories performing veterinary testing. Guidelines for veterinary laboratory testing have been developed by the ASVCP. The purpose of this report was to provide an overview of selected quality-assurance concepts and to provide recommendations for quality control for in-clinic biochemistry testing in general veterinary practice.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To review blinding terminology used in published reports of veterinary clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and to determine how practicing veterinarians interpret blinding terminology.

Design—Retrospective literature review and prospective veterinarian survey.

Sample—195 parallel-group clinical RCTs published from June 2004 to June 2010 in 11 peer-reviewed journals; 21 practicing veterinarians at a university-based small animal teaching hospital.

Procedures—Journals were hand searched to identify eligible reports. Details concerning trial methodology were recorded. Veterinarians provided information regarding position, experience, and personal interpretation of blinding terminology via an anonymous questionnaire.

Results—Blinding was reported or inferred in 131 reports of RCTs, yet complete descriptions of who was blinded were present in only 42 (32.1%) reports. Studies for which blinding was reported with the terms single or double blinded were less likely to contain clear descriptions of the role of blinded study personnel, compared with studies reported as blinded or in which blinding was inferred through trial methodology. Veterinarians did not agree on how to interpret the terms single, double, and triple blinded when reading the report of an RCT.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Blinding was commonly used as a means of reducing bias associated with collection and interpretation of data in reports of veterinary RCTs. However, most reports of blinding methodology were incomplete and there was no consistency in how blinding terminology was used by authors or interpreted by veterinarians. Ambiguous reporting hinders the ability of practitioners to assess the validity of trial results and make informed decisions about applying study findings to their patient populations.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

The concept of animal and human health experts working together toward a healthier world has been endorsed, but challenges remain in identifying concrete actions to move this one health concept from vision to action. In 2008, as a result of avian influenza outbreaks in West Africa, international donor support led to a unique opportunity to invest in Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) in the region that engaged the animal and human health sectors to strengthen the capacity for prevention and control of zoonotic diseases. The FELTPs mixed 25% to 35% classroom and 65% to 75% field-based training and service for cohorts of physicians, veterinarians, and laboratory scientists. They typically consisted of a 2-year course leading to a master's degree in field epidemiology and public health laboratory management for midlevel public health leaders and competency-based short courses for frontline public health surveillance workers. Trainees and graduates work in multidisciplinary teams to conduct surveillance, outbreak investigations, and epidemiological studies for disease control locally and across borders. Critical outcomes of these programs include development of a cadre of public health leaders with core skills in integrated disease surveillance, outbreak investigation, vaccination campaigns, laboratory diagnostic testing, and epidemiological studies that address priority public health problems. A key challenge exists in identifying ways to successfully scale up and transform this innovative donor-driven program into a sustainable multisectoral one health workforce capacity development model.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To identify a list of core surgical skills and determine the frequency of use and proficiency in performance of these skills expected of entry-level veterinarians by general practitioners.

Design—Mail-based survey.

Sample—750 general practitioners randomly chosen from the AVMA membership database.

Procedures—Survey respondents rated the proficiency and frequency of use expected of entry-level veterinarians in regard to 26 surgical skills. Demographic information (gender; graduation year; practice type, geographic location, and setting; number of veterinarians in practice; number of surgical procedures performed per week; and number of new graduates mentored in the past 5 years) of respondents was obtained.

Results—387 (52%) general practitioners responded to the survey. Greater than 60% of respondents expected new graduates to have high proficiency and require minimal supervision for 21 of 26 skills. Greater than 60% of respondents assigned 6 of the skills a low expected frequency of use rating. Orthopedic skills, creation of square knots by use of a 1-handed tie technique, and use of electrosurgical and laser instruments received some of the lowest ratings.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Core surgical skills were identified. Results indicated a broad consensus among general practitioners independent of demographic characteristics. Results may aid veterinary colleges in identification of the surgical skills that are most important to include in surgical curricula and for which new graduates should attain proficiency according to general practitioners.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To obtain information on educational programs offered in complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) among AVMA Council on Education (COE)-accredited colleges and schools of veterinary medicine.

Design—Survey.

Sample—41 COE-accredited colleges and schools of veterinary medicine.

Procedure—A questionnaire was e-mailed to academic deans at all COE-accredited colleges and schools of veterinary medicine.

Results—Responses were received from 34 of 41 schools: 26 in the United States, 2 in Canada, 3 in Australia and New Zealand, and 3 in Europe. Sixteen schools indicated that they offered a CAVM course. Nutritional therapy, acupuncture, and rehabilitation or physical therapy were topics most commonly included in the curriculum. One school required a course in CAVM; all other courses were elective, most of which were 1 to 2 credit hours. Courses were usually a combination of lecture and laboratory; 2 were lecture only, and 1 was laboratory only. Of the 18 schools that reported no courses in CAVM, many addressed some CAVM topics in other courses and 4 indicated plans to offer some type of CAVM course within the next 5 years.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The consensus among survey respondents was that CAVM is an important topic that should be addressed in veterinary medical education, but opinions varied as to the appropriate framework. The most common comment reflected strong opinions that inclusion of CAVM in veterinary medical curricula must be evidence-based. Respondents indicated that students should be aware of CAVM modalities because of strong public interest in CAVM and because practitioners should be able to address client questions from a position of knowledge.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association