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Abstract

Objective—To develop a method for determining the concentration of the third component of complement (C3) in canine serum, to establish a reference range for C3 in healthy dogs, and to evaluate dogs with protein-losing nephropathy (PLN) to determine whether PLN is associated with decreased serum C3 concentrations.

Animals—30 healthy dogs and 49 dogs with PLN.

Procedures—Serum samples were obtained from healthy dogs at the time of examination, whereas serum samples were obtained from dogs with PLN at the time of diagnosis. All samples were frozen at −70°C until analyzed. Serum C3 concentrations were determined by use of a sandwich ELISA. Concentrations were expressed as the number of dilutions in which C3 could be detected.

Results—C3 was detectable in healthy control dogs (range, 1,920,000 to 15,400,000 dilutions; median, 9,600,000 dilutions). This represented a range of four 2-fold serum dilutions. In addition, C3 was detectable in dogs with PLN (range, 1,460,000 to 30,070,000 dilutions; median, 7,680,000 dilutions), which represented a range of six 2-fold serum dilutions. There was no significant difference in C3 concentrations between the 2 groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—C3 is a critical part of the immune defense system that has not been extensively examined in veterinary medicine. An ELISA was developed for measuring C3 concentrations, and a reference range for healthy dogs was established. Significant decreases in C3 concentrations were not detected in any dog with PLN. Additional studies will be required to definitively determine the importance of serum C3 concentrations in PLN.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure concentrations of sucrose in the serum of captive dolphins after oral administration of a sucrose solution and determine the suitability of this method for use as a test to detect gastric ulcers.

Animals—8 adult captive bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

Procedures—Blood samples were collected from the ventral fluke vein of dolphins before and 45 minutes after oral administration of 500 mL of solution containing 25 or 50 g of sucrose; oral administration was achieved by use of gastric intubation. Serum was separated, diluted in a solution of 90% acetonitrile-to10% water that contained 10 ng of an internal standard (trichlormethiazide)/μL, mixed, and centrifuged. Supernatant was analyzed by use of liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry–mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS).

Results—Serum sucrose concentrations of dolphins were at or less than the limits of detection before oral administration. Values after administration of sucrose solution varied among dolphins and were higher and more variable after administration of 50 g, compared with concentrations after administration of 25 g.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Serum sucrose concentrations in samples collected during routine health evaluations of captive dolphins can be reliably measured by use of LC-MS-MS. Correlating serum sucrose concentrations with endoscopic observations of the gastric mucosa of dolphins will validate this approach for use in screening for the prevalence and severity of gastric ulcers and determining the efficacy of treatment regimens.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To validate a radioimmunoassay for measurement of procollagen type III amino terminal propeptide (PIIINP) concentrations in canine serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and investigate the effects of physiologic and pathologic conditions on PIIINP concentrations.

Sample Population—Sera from healthy adult (n = 70) and growing dogs (20) and dogs with chronic renal failure (CRF; 10), cardiomyopathy (CMP; 12), or degenerative valve disease (DVD; 26); and sera and BALF from dogs with chronic bronchopneumopathy (CBP; 15) and healthy control dogs (10 growing and 9 adult dogs).

Procedure—A radioimmunoassay was validated, and a reference range for serum PIIINP (S-PIIINP) concentration was established. Effects of growth, age, sex, weight, CRF, and heart failure on S-PIIINP concentration were analyzed. In CBP-affected dogs, S-PIIINP and BALF-PIIINP concentrations were evaluated.

Results—The radioimmunoassay had good sensitivity, linearity, precision, and reproducibility and reasonable accuracy for measurement of S-PIIINP and BALF-PIIINP concentrations. The S-PIIINP concentration reference range in adult dogs was 8.86 to 11.48 μg/L. Serum PIIINP concentration correlated with weight and age. Growing dogs had significantly higher S-PIIINP concentrations than adults, but concentrations in CRF-, CMP-, DVD-, or CBP-affected dogs were not significantly different from control values. Mean BALF-PIIINP concentration was significantly higher in CBP-affected dogs than in healthy adults.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs, renal or cardiac disease or CBP did not significantly affect S-PIIINP concentration; dogs with CBP had high BALF-PIIINP concentrations. Data suggest that the use of PIIINP as a marker of pathologic fibrosis might be limited in growing dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To examine the correlation between results for an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) that uses Ehrlichia canis antigen as a substrate (ie, E canis-IFA), 2 western blot (WB) analyses, and a commercially available ELISA in the detection of E canis antibody in dog sera.

Sample Population—54 canine serum samples that were reactive on E canis-IFA and 16 canine serum samples that were E canis-IFA nonreactive.

Procedure—Serum samples were evaluated by use of 2 WB analyses and a commercially available ELISA. Correlation between results of the 3 testing modalities (ie, IFA, WB analyses, and the ELISA) was examined by use of nonreactive (E canis-IFA reciprocal titer, < 20), low-titer (reciprocal titer, 80 to 160), medium-titer (reciprocal titer, 320 to 2,560), and high-titer (reciprocal titer, 5,120 to > 20,480) serum samples.

Results—For all serum samples in the nonreactive (n = 16), medium-titer (17), and high-titer (18) groups, correlation of results among IFA, WB analyses, and the commercially available ELISA was excellent. A poor correlation was found between IFA results and those of WB analyses and the ELISA for serum samples in the low-titer group (19), with only 4 of the 19 serum samples having positive results on both WB analyses and the commercially available ELISA.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The discrepancy between E canis-IFA, WB analyses, and the commercially available ELISA results for the low-titer serum samples may be related to a high IFA sensitivity or, more likely, a lack of specificity associated with cross-reactivity among Ehrlichia spp.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research