To determine incidence, trends in presentation, associated ocular lesions and other diseases, treatment modalities, and case outcomes of eyelid coloboma cases in snow leopards.
49 snow leopards with eyelid coloboma living under managed care in North America.
Medical records were retrospectively searched to identify snow leopards in which eyelid coloboma was diagnosed between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2020. Data recorded from each animal included signalment, ophthalmic examination information, clinical signs, concurrent health conditions, medical and/or surgical interventions, time to resolution of signs, recurrence of clinical signs, and direct relatives with a history of eyelid coloboma.
Ocular clinical signs were present at diagnosis in most cases but not seen in all cases. Corrective procedures were undertaken in 39 cases. Clinical signs were resolved by the total combination of interventions in 84.6% of individuals; however, signs resolved in only 33.3% of cases after a single surgical reconstruction or cryoablation procedure per eye.
Eyelid coloboma is widespread in the North American snow leopard population. A high percentage (73.5%) have an affected sibling, parent, or grandparent, suggesting a heritable component. Surgical correction resolves or improves clinical signs in most cases, but there is a high rate of postprocedural complications with all procedure types employed. Most complications are minor and manageable, but these can also impact case outcomes. Animals require long-term monitoring, as clinical signs may recur (in some cases, years after initial signs are reported to be resolved), and some animals may require long-term care to manage signs.
Compare erythropoiesis-related factors between different stages of canine chronic kidney disease (CKD).
8 healthy adult dogs (controls), and 24 dogs with CKD, equally divided into 3 groups based on International Renal Interest Society-CKD Guidelines (stage 2, 3, and 4) were recruited between December 2012 and December 2014.
The following were assessed in all dogs and then compared between groups: bone marrow cytology, CBC, reticulocyte count, urinalysis, serum biochemistry, blood pressure, occult gastrointestinal bleeding, and serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH), erythropoietin, interleukin-1β, interleukin-3, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and interferon-γ.
Erythropoiesis inducing and suppressing factors and the results of the bone marrow cytology of dogs in stage 2 CKD did not differ from the control group. The presence of reticulocytosis in CKD stage 2 suggests that blood loss or erythrocyte destruction might be contributing to developing anemia. Anemia in dogs with progressive CKD was associated with increasing PTH and TNFα and with elevation of the ratio of myeloid to erythroid precursor cells caused by hypoplasia of the erythroid series. The latter was represented mainly by a decrease in the population of polychromatophilic rubricytes and metarubricytes.
Increased PTH and TNFα seem to contribute to the reduced percentage of polychromatophilic rubricytes and erythroid population, thereby aggravating the anemia of dogs with advanced CKD. Gastrointestinal blood loss contributes to anemia in all canine CKD stages.
To evaluate behaviors associated with inflammatory pain induced by carrageenan injection in the cockatiel and determine interobserver agreement.
16 adult cockatiels.
Cockatiels were randomly assigned as either treatment (carrageenan injection) or control (sham injection) group. The treatment group received a subcutaneous injection of 0.05 mL of a 1% lambda carrageenan solution into the left footpad. Following treatment or control procedures, all cockatiels were video recorded individually for 9.5 hours. Ten minutes of video at each of 11 time points postinjection and/or handling were evaluated by 3 different observers. Twenty-five behaviors within 6 categories (resting, locomotion, maintenance, intake, interaction with environment, and limb and body posture) were assessed, in addition to crest position and mentation. Differences in individual behaviors tallies were assessed using serial Wilcoxon sum rank tests. Interobserver agreement was assessed using an intraclass correlation coefficient for a 2-way design for consistency among multiple observers.
Treatment cockatiels exhibited significantly increased focal preening (q = .023) and increased burst preening (q = .036), while control cockatiels spent significantly more time in an upright stance (q = .036). Although the remainder of behaviors observed were not statistically significant between groups, additional variables of interest seen more frequently in treatment cockatiels included non–weight-bearing stance, holding of the body low, and being nonvigilant. The level of agreement between observers was variable based on the specific behaviors; nevertheless, the dynamic behaviors were substantial to strong.
Carrageenan-induced inflammation-associated behaviors may be valuable in developing a pain scale and evaluating mild inflammatory pain in small psittacine species.
To investigate the feasibility of using shape memory alloy (SMA) implants for atlantoaxial joint stabilization using a rabbit model as a substitute for canines.
20 rabbit cadavers.
We prepared rabbit cadavers from the middle of the skull to the third cervical vertebra. The vertebral body and canal sizes of the atlas and axis were compared using CT data from rabbits, normal dogs, and dogs with atlantoaxial instability (AAI) to assess the feasibility of using rabbits as substitutes for toy-breed dogs. The shape memory alloy (SMA) implants were designed to stabilize the atlantoaxial joint without compromising the spinal canal passage for safety and were classified into SMA-1 and SMA-2 based on their design. To evaluate the strength, the ventrodorsal force was measured with atlantoaxial ligaments intact, after removing the ligaments, and after applying conventional wire or SMA implants to stabilize the atlantoaxial joint. The time taken for implant application was measured.
No significant difference in vertebral body size of the atlas and axis was observed. A significant difference in vertebral canal size was observed between the animals. In biomechanical testing, the SMA-2 implant provided more stabilization, while the SMA-1 implant had lower strength than the conventional method using wires. The application time of wire was the longest, while that of SMA-1 was the shortest.
SMA implants provide comparable strength and demonstrate superior efficacy compared to conventional dorsal wire fixation of atlantoaxial stabilization. Therefore, SMA implants can be an effective surgical option for AAI.
Broadening nonveterinarians’ scope of practice would compromise the quality of veterinary care, thus threatening animal and public health, according to the AVMA. The AVMA House of Delegates (HOD) approved a new policy July 14 that directs the Association to “vigorously defend” against such expansions.
As part of her address to the AVMA House of Delegates on July 14, AVMA President Dr. Rena Carlson encouraged her colleagues to think about the view of the profession veterinarians want the world to see and understand as well as what vision they want to manifest for themselves.
Dr. Michael Q. Bailey, a board-certified veterinary radiologist, launched his campaign for 2024-25 AVMA president-elect on July 14. And two members of the AVMA House of Delegates—Drs. Elizabeth Boggier and Gary Marshall—are vying to be the 2024-26 AVMA vice president.
The AVMA House of Delegates (HOD) has asked the Board of Directors (BOD) to consider having the AVMA develop resources for its members that promote environmental sustainability in the veterinary workplace.
The AVMA House of Delegates suggested effective client communication and documentation of discussions with clients were important aspects to the spectrum of care, as was ensuring that veterinary students are educated and equipped so this kind of practice can continue to the benefit of patients.
The AVMA House of Delegates adopted a handful of revised animal welfare policies, including one on “Canine Devocalization” that supersedes the previous policy, approved a new policy on “Canine Hybrids,” and referred two other policies back to the AVMA Board of Directors (BOD). The HOD held its regular annual session July 13-14 in Denver, in conjunction with AVMA Convention 2023.