To assess the clinical outcome of a ferret undergoing a ureteroneocystostomy for treatment of urolithiasis.
A 10-month-old spayed female ferret.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES
The ferret was evaluated for straining to urinate and defecate, hematochezia, and a rectal prolapse. Plain radiographs revealed large cystic and ureteral calculi. Clinicopathologic analyses indicated the ferret was anemic with an elevated creatinine concentration. Exploratory laparotomy defined bilateral ureteral calculi that were unable to be successfully moved into the bladder. A cystotomy was performed to remove a large cystic calculus. Serial abdominal ultrasonographic examinations showed progressive hydronephrosis of the left kidney and persistent pyelectasia of the right kidney secondary to bilateral ureteral calculi. This confirmed a left ureteral obstruction secondary to the distal calculus while the right ureter remained patent.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
A ureteroneocystostomy was performed to allow for left renal decompression. The ferret recovered well despite worsening hydronephrosis of the left kidney in the perioperative period. The ferret was discharged from the hospital 10 days after initial evaluation. At 3-week follow-up, abdominal ultrasonography confirmed resolution of hydronephrosis and ureteral dilation of the left kidney and ureter.
A ureteroneocystostomy successfully allowed renal decompression and ureteral patency in a ferret with urolithiasis. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time this procedure has been reported in a ferret for treatment of a ureteral calculus obstruction and may result in good long-term outcome.
β-Hemolytic Streptococcus (BHS) species are important pathogens with both human and veterinary significance. In human medicine, BHS are considered universally susceptible to β-lactams while BHS of veterinary origin have been reported with up to 8% β-lactam resistance. Recently, veterinary diagnostic laboratories were made aware of significant variability of test method performance for BHS among laboratories. This article explores potential sources of error in antimicrobial susceptibility test performance and result interpretation that may have contributed to the unusual rates of resistance to β-lactams observed in this bacterial species. In addition, potential impacts to research, clinical practice, surveillance, and public health will be discussed.
Current cystotomy methods often implement the use of off-label devices, resulting in urocystolith extraction difficulty and potentially leading to postoperative complications and discomfort for the patient. The objective of this study was to create 3 novel 3-D printed cystotomy spoons that offer a dedicated solution for removing urocystoliths from a patient's urinary bladder.
Clinical use of the 3 novel 3-D printed cystotomy spoons were ultimately evaluated in 4 dogs and 1 cat that presented for urocystotlith removal at 3 different veterinary hospitals in northwest Arkansas.
The novel cystotomy spoons were designed using SolidWorks, 3-D printed with a Dental Surgical Guide resin, and underwent prototype testing that included chlorhexidine soaking, autoclave sterilization, 3-point bend testing, and Finite Element Analysis. The efficiency of the spoons was then evaluated through a limited proof-of-concept study utilizing a postoperative questionnaire for the participating clinicians.
Practitioner feedback indicated positive experiences using 1 or more of the novel 3-D printed cystotomy spoons while performing a cystotomy surgery. However, successful use of the spoons was ultimately limited to dogs in the 23 to 34 kg weight range.
Novel 3-D printed cystotomy spoons have the potential to mediate urocystolith extraction difficulty and reduce postoperative complications. Additionally, this research demonstrates how veterinarians might develop custom 3-D models and prints to meet patient-specific needs. As such, further development could impact the standard of healthcare and the veterinary industry by promoting the use of additive manufacturing in veterinary medicine.
To investigate the incidence and patterns of gunshot wound trauma in patients that were presented to an urban level 1 veterinary trauma center before and after the start of the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
24 dogs and 1 cat.
Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for patients presenting with gunshot wound injuries between March 2018 and February 2020 (prepandemic) and March 2020 and February 2022 (pandemic). The total number of patients presented to the hospital during those same time periods was also obtained. Patient data were collected including species, breed, age, sex, location of injury, trauma score (if available), surgical procedures performed, length of hospitalization, and case outcome.
In the prepandemic period, 9 patients were presented for gunshot wound injuries, whereas there were 16 patients evaluated for gunshot wound injuries during the pandemic period. The total number of gunshot wound cases increased by 77.8% in the pandemic period. The total number of hospital patient visits, however, decreased by 12.2% in the pandemic period as compared to the prepandemic period: 65,168 versus 74,262 patients, respectively. Injuries were predominantly localized to the extremities (55%) in the prepandemic period versus maxillofacial (56%) in the pandemic period.
There was an increased number of gunshot wound injuries in companion animals presenting to an urban level 1 veterinary trauma center during the COVID-19 pandemic. A shift in the predominant location of injury was also identified during the pandemic period. This study highlights the ramifications that societal dynamics can have on animal health and welfare.
To determine the proximal diffusion distance of radiopaque contrast medium and mepivacaine/methylene blue solution and incidence of inadvertent intrasynovial and intravascular injections of modified sesamoid nerve block (MASB) when compared with traditional plantar nerve analgesia techniques of the equine distal hind limb.
Ex vivo model: 18 hind limbs; and in vivo model: 5 horses in a crossover study.
In the ex vivo model, a mepivacaine/methylene blue solution was used to compare the diffusion distance between MASB, basisesamoid block (BSB), and traditional low plantar block (TLPB). Ten minutes after injection, skin was dissected and proximal diffusion distance of the dye patch was measured. In the in vivo model, both hind limbs were injected with radiopaque contrast medium with either MASB or TLPB. Ten minutes after injection, a radiograph was acquired and the proximal diffusion of the contrast medium patch was measured.
In the ex vivo model, solution proximal diffusion distance for MASB was significantly longer than BSB (P < .050) and significantly shorter than TLPB (P < .050). Both techniques reached the proximal aspect of DFTS similarly (P = .289), and no difference in the incidence of intrasynovial or intravascular injections was observed (P = .292). In the in vivo model, contrast medium proximal diffusion of MASB was significantly shorter than TLPB (P < .050). The proportion of injections that diffused subcutaneously to the proximal aspect of the proximal pouch of the DFTS was not significantly different between techniques (P = .136). No difference in the incidence of DFTS intrasynovial or intravascular injections was observed (P = .305).
MASB presented significantly more proximal diffusion than BSB and less proximal diffusion than TLPB, consistently reached the proximal aspect of DFTS, and presented a very low risk of intrasynovial and intravascular injections.
To identify risk factors for intra- and postoperative ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) and in-hospital mortality in dogs undergoing splenectomy for splenic masses.
Records from 2010 through 2018 were reviewed for dogs undergoing splenectomy for a splenic mass. Clinical and laboratory findings on admission, diagnostic imaging, anesthesia, surgery and pathology reports, treatment records, and in-hospital mortality were evaluated with logistic regression.
VAs occurred in 138 (44.8%) dogs (126/308 [40.9%] postoperative, 51/308 [16.6%] intraoperative, 26/308 [8.4%] preoperative), with 50/308 (16.2%) dogs having more than one type of VA. Increasing heart rate and body weight, decreasing PCV and platelet count, hemoperitoneum, receipt of a transfusion, and diagnosis of hemangiosarcoma were associated with the presence of intra- and postoperative VAs on univariable analysis (all P < .001). On multivariable analysis, hemoperitoneum (P < .001 , < .001), increasing body weight (P = .026, < .001), and increasing heart rate (P = .028, < .001) were significant for intra- and postoperative VAs, respectively. Twenty dogs died (20/308 [6.5%]; 14/138 [10.1%] with VAs, 6/170 [3.5%] without VAs). Intra- and postoperative VAs were associated with in-hospital mortality (P = .009, .025, respectively).
Perioperative VAs were common and odds of VAs were increased with hemoperitoneum, increasing heart rate, and increasing body weight. Presence of VAs increased the odds of in-hospital mortality. Despite this, the overall in-hospital mortality rate was low (6.5%), indicating a good prognosis for survival of surgery in dogs with splenic masses, regardless of the presence of VAs or hemoperitoneum.
The purpose of this manuscript, which is part of the Currents in One Health series, is to take a comparative approach to stem cell treatment for tendon injury and consider how the horse might inform treatment in other veterinary species and humans. There is increasing experimental and clinical evidence for the use of bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells to treat tendon injuries in the horse. The same evidence does not currently exist for other species. This manuscript will review why the equine superficial digital flexor tendon core lesion might be considered optimal for stem cell delivery and stem cell interaction with the injury environment and will also introduce the concept of stem cell licensing for future evaluation. The companion Currents in One Health by Koch and Schnabel, AJVR, October 2023, addresses in detail what is known about stem cell licensing for the treatment of other diseases using rodent models and how this information can potentially be applied to tendon healing.
To use CT measurements to define the body surface area (BSA) formula in American bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) and calculate the species-specific shape constant (K) to suggest chemotherapeutic doses.
12 American bullfrogs owned by the North Carolina State College of Veterinary Medicine Department of Laboratory Animal Resources underwent CT scans without anesthesia or sedation in November 2022.
As part of this prospective study, each American bullfrog underwent a complete physical exam and CT scan. 3-D surface models were created using CT data, and the resulting measurements were used for BSA calculations. Animals were grouped by sex. Nonlinear regression analysis of BSA versus body weight was performed, and a species-specific formula was derived for calculating BSA in American bullfrogs.
The mean body weight of the bullfrogs was 354 grams. The mean CT-derived BSA was 414.92 cm2. The calculated K constant was 8.28 for the 12 American bullfrogs, and the CT-derived BSA formula was BSA in cm2 = 8.28 X (body weight in g)2/3. The K constant was 8.07 for females and 8.44 for males and was not significantly different between sexes (P = .5).
Results indicated that the species-specific K constant for American bullfrogs is 8.28. This is the first calculated K constant that exists for amphibians to our knowledge.