Objective—To quantify the effects of trotting velocity on joint angular excursions, net joint moments, and powers across the hind limb joints in Greyhounds.
Animals—5 healthy Greyhounds with no history of lameness of the hind limbs.
Procedures—Small reflective markers were applied to the skin over the joints of the hind limbs, and a 4-camera kinematic system was used to record positional data at 200 Hz in tandem with force platform data while the dogs trotted on a runway at slow, medium, and fast velocities. Breed-specific morphometric data were combined with kinematic and force data in an inverse-dynamics solution for net joint moments and powers at the hip, stifle, tarsal, and metatarsophalangeal joints.
Results—Angle, moment, and power patterns at the various joints were conserved among the 3 velocities. With increasing velocity, moments and powers at the tarsal, stifle, and hip joints during the stance phase were increased in amplitude, whereas amplitudes during the swing phase were not. The main contributors to increased velocity were the hip extensors and stifle flexors during the early part of the stance phase and the tarsal extensors during the late part of the stance phase.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Increases in trotting velocity in Greyhounds do not alter the basic patterns of work and power for various joints of the hind limbs, but local burst amplitudes during the stance phase increase incrementally.
Objective—To develop a method of measuring 3-dimensional kinematics of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) in horses chewing sweet feed.
Animals—4 mature horses that had good dental health.
Procedure—Markers attached to the skin over the skull and mandible were tracked by an optical tracking system. Movements of the mandible relative to the skull were described in terms of 3 rotations and 3 translations. A virtual marker was created on the midline between the rami of the mandibles at the level of the rostral end of the facial crest to facilitate observation of mandibular movements.
Results—During the opening stroke, the virtual midline mandibular marker moved ventrally, laterally toward the chewing side, and slightly caudally. During the closing stroke, the marker moved dorsally, medially, and slightly rostrally. During the power stroke, the mandible slid medially and dorsally as the mandibular cheek teeth moved across the occlusal surface of the maxillary cheek teeth. The 4 horses had similar chewing patterns, but the amplitudes varied among horses.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The TMJ allows considerable mobility of the mandible relative to the skull during chewing. The method presented in this report can be used to compare the range of motion of the TMJ among horses with TMJ disease or dental irregularities or within an individual horse before and after dental procedures.
Objective—To characterize ground reaction forces (GRFs) and determine whether there were correlations between forces and passive coxofemoral joint laxity in puppies.
Animals—Fifty-one 16-week-old hound-breed dogs.
Procedure—Force-plate gait evaluation and distraction radiographic imaging were performed. Ground reaction forces evaluated included x (mediolateral), y (craniocaudal breaking and propulsion), and z (vertical) peak force and impulse. Z-plane limb loading and unloading rates, loading interval, and weight distribution and y-plane stance time breaking and propulsion percentages were calculated. One-way ANOVA with the Duncan multiple range test was used to evaluate differences in gait variables among limbs. The relationships of left, right, highest, and mean distraction index (DI) with individual limb data of each dog were evaluated with the Spearman rank correlation. Left and right DIs were compared by means of linear regression analysis.
Results—Mean ± SEM DI was 0.67 ± 0.02. Left and right DIs were strongly correlated, but there were no significant relationships between DIs and gait variables. Most fore- and hind limb gait variables differed significantly, whereas paired fore- and hind limb gait variables did not. Asymmetry was most pronounced in the x- and y-planes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—GRFs were consistent with those of clinically normal mature dogs, supporting an absence of association between GRF and DI in young dogs. The GRFs and elucidation of the relationship between GRFs and DI may be useful for future studies in immature dogs.
Objective—To determine the association between the 3-dimensional (3-D) motion pattern of the caudal lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the canine vertebral column and the morphology of vertebrae, facet joints, and intervertebral disks.
Sample Population—Vertebral columns of 9 German Shepherd Dogs and 16 dogs of other breeds with similar body weights and body conditions.
Procedure—Different morphometric parameters of the vertebral column were assessed by computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging. Anatomic conformation and the 3-D motion pattern were compared, and correlation coefficients were calculated.
Results—Total range of motion for flexion and extension was mainly associated with the facet joint angle, the facet joint angle difference between levels of the vertebral column in the transverse plane on CT images, disk height, and lever arm length.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Motion is a complex process that is influenced by the entire 3-D conformation of the lumbar portion of the vertebral column. In vivo dynamic measurements of the 3-D motion pattern of the lumbar and lumbosacral portions of the vertebral column will be necessary to further assess biomechanics that could lead to disk degeneration in dogs.